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Ischemic brain injury such as cerebral infarction is characterized by acute local inflammatory response mediated by cytokines. The mechanism of cytokines involved in cerebral infarction progression are uncompletely revealed yet. We investigated to find out the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of interleukin 4 receptor(IL4R) and Oriental Medicine therapy efficacy in patients with cerebral infarction for 2 weeks. Oriental Korean Medicine therapies (herbal medicine and acupuncture) were applied daily and motor functions of patients were assessed using the modified cerebral vascular accident (MCVA) scores. Genotyping for IL4R polymorphism was done by pyrosequencing analysis. In IL4R genotypes and the frequency of alleles, there was no significant difference between cerebral infarction patients (n=124) and controls group (n=175). And there was also no significant difference among good and bad responders in cerebral infarction patients. In this study the IL4R genotype might not be the risk factor or a good predictive genetic marker for good and bad responders in cerebral infarction patients in Korean. Further studies including different cytokine genes will be necessary for the exact genetic markers.
Platycodon grandiflorum is a long-lived herbaceous and one of the very important herbal medicine and foods. P. grandiflorum is called do-ra-ji in Korea. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were performed in order to analyse the phenetic relationships of four accessions of P. grandiflorum. Wild groups had higher expected diversity, 0.164 for Korean and 0.157 for Chinese accessions than those of cultivated groups, 0.079 for Korea and 0.059 for China. The total genetic diversity in P. grandiflorum was 0.268 across species and the value was lower than average values for species with similar life history traits. The patchy distribution and domestication are proposed as possible factors contributing to low genetic diversity. An assessment of the proportion of diversity within species, HAccession/HSpecies, indicated that about 57.1% the total genetic diversity was among species. Thus, the majority of genetic variation (42.9%) resided within accessions. The estimated Nm (the number of migrants per generation) was very low among four accessions (mean Nm = 0.376). The low estimate of Nm indicated that gene flow was not extensive among four accessions. ISSR01-02 locus can be recognized as an unique locus of Korean groups (wild and cultivated accessions). Thus the locus can be used to distinguish Korean accessions from Chinese accessions. ISSR04-06 locus was found specific to Chinese groups (wild and cultivated accessions) and was not shown in Korean accessions. Although the size of sampling was not large enough for P. grandiflorum, the analyses of ISSRs will certainly provide an enhanced view on the phylogeny of accessions.
Sasang Constitutional Medicine is a major branch of Korean Traditional Medicine. The differences of disease susceptibility to be shown in Sasang constitution may be due to genetic factors. Therefore, I examined interrelationship among cerebral infarction (CI), apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene polymorphism, and Sasang constitutional classification. Apo E is a key protein modulating the highly atherogenic apoB containing lipoproteins and is a candidate gene for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). The ε2 and/or ε4 alleles were the first to be implicated in premature CAD, which resulted in this polymorphism being extensively studied. I investigated the association between apo E genotype and CI by case-control study in a Korean population. I also classified CI patients and control group into groups according to Sasang Constitutional Medicine. 218 CI patients and 379 controls without CI were examined. Apo E genotype was determined by 8% polyacrylamide gel separation after DNA amplification. A frequency of apo E ε3/ε3 in the apo E genotype distribution was higher in the CI patients compared with that in controls. Also, it was widely known that Taeumin was easily attacked with CI, but there was no association between apo E polymorphim and Taeumin. However, the Taeumin constitution did not enhance the relative risk for CI in the subjects with apo E ε2 and/or ε4 alleles. No differences in the apo E genotypes frequencies were observed in the Taeumin compared with that in the other constitutions. In addition, I investigated whether the DD(deletion/deletion) or ID(insertion/deletion) genotype of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, a candidate gene for CI, was associated with CI, Taeumin constitution, and apo E polymorphism. As a result, the frequency of Taeumin constitution was significantly higher in CI patients with both apo E ε3/ε4 and ACE ID/DD genotypes than in the remaining Sasang constitutions. In summary, it was concluded that the apo E polymorphism is a major risk factor for CI in Koreans and the ACE ID/DD genotype enhanced the relative risk for CI in the subjects with apo E ε3/ε4 genotype and Taeumin constitution.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) personality type and academic achievement of Korean medical students. A total of 97 (57 men, 40 women; ages 24 to 36) fourth-year Korean medical students participated in this study. The MBTI questionnaire was administered to all the students for identification of their personality type and academic performance. The results are as follows. First, the proportions of Personality type of Korean medical students were Extroversion (E) 33.0% - Introversion (I) 67.0%, Sensing (S) 70.1%- Intuition (N) 29.9%, Thinking (T) 58.8%- Feeling (F) 41.2%, and Judging (J) 54.6% - Perceiving (P) 45.3%. Second, the most common personality type was ISTJ (22.7%), followed by ISTP (13.4%), ISFJ (12.3%). Third, according to the analysis of this study, academic achievement was significantly related with their personality type in the preference : Sensing (S) - Intuition (N) and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P). In analysis of Sensing (S) - Intuition (N) and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) index, Sensing (S) and Judging (J) type students had higher academic achievement than Intuition (N) and Perceiving (P) type students. This is the study to identify the characteristics of MBTI in Korean Medical students. The findings indicate that academic achievement was significantly related to their personality type in the preference. Using the results of MBTI in Korean medical students, is helpful in selection of appropriate teaching and learning strategies to provide better education.
The effects on memory and learning ability of the Korean herbal medicine, Xingyo-tang(XGT, 神交湯), which consists of Ginseng Radix(人蔘) 4 g, Liriopis Tuber(麥門冬) 40 g, Morindae Officinalis Radix(巴戟天) 40 g, Biotae Semen(柏子仁) 20 g, Dioscoreae Rhizoma(山藥) 40 g, Euryales Semen(?實) 20 g, Scrophulariae Radix(玄蔘) 40 g, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix(丹蔘) 12 g, Poria(茯神) 12 g, Cuscutae Semen(免絲子) 40 g, was investigated. The effects of XGT on learning and memory performance were examined in normal or memory impaired mice by using avoidance tests, Pentobarbital -induced sleep test, fear conditioning task, novel object recognition task, and water maze task. Hot water extract from XGT was used for the studies. Learning ability and memory are based on modifications of synaptic strength among neurons that are simultaneously active. Enhanced synaptic coincidence detection leads to better learning and memory. The XGT-treated (30 mg/100 g and 60 mg/100 g, p.o.) mice exhibit superior ability in learning and memorizing when performing various behavioral tasks. XGT did not affect the passive avoidance responses of normal mice in the step through and step down tests, the conditioned and unconditioned avoidance responses of normal mice in the shuttle box, lever press performance tests, and the ambulatory activity of normal mice in normal condition. In contrast, XGT produced ameliorating effects on the memory retrieval impairment induced by ethanol. XGT also improved the memory consolidation disability induced by electric convulsive shock (ECS). XGT extended the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital dose-dependently, suggesting its transquilizing or antianxiety action. These results suggest that XGT has an improving effect on the impaired learning through the effects on memory registration and retrieval.
The root and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis belonging to the family Valerianaceae has been used for medicinal therapy in Korean traditional medicine. The parts have been especially used to elicit stomachic and sedative effects. Our previous studies reported that the water extract of N. chinensis has induced granulocytic differentiation inhuman promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. The Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are serine/threonine kinases involved in the regulation of various cellular responses, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways on the HL-60 cell differentiation induced by N. chinensis. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) increased time-dependently in differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by N. chinersis. Activation of p38 increased slightly at 24 h after N. chinensis treatment, but activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was unaffected. Inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) significantly reduced NBT reduction activity induced by N. chinensis in HL-60 cells. In contrast, p38 inhibitor (SB203580) did not inhibit the cell differentiation. These results indicated that activaiton of ERK may De involved in HL-60 cell differentiation induced by N. chinensis.
Aqueous extracts of medicinal plants traditionally used in the East Asia such as China, Korea, and Japan were screened for inotropic activity using isolated rabbit atria. Among the twenty-one aqueous-extracts from medicinal plants, the aqueous extracts of Convallaria keiskei(ACK) and rhizome of Coptis chinesis (ACC) were found to exhibit distinctive positive inotropic activity. The aqueous extracts of C. keiskei and rhizome of C. chinensis significantly increased atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure in beating rabbit atria. These findings suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. keiskei and rhizome of C. chinensis enhance the cardiac muscle contractility and then could be useful for the treatment of cardiac failure.
Daejowhan-gamibang(DJG) is used to prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, dementia, hyperlipdemia circulatory disturbance. Korean traditional herbal prescriptions and herb medicines in neuronal cells, which have been used for the treatment of stroke and brain diseases in Korean traditional medicine were screened to study the antioxidant effects and its mechanism. Daejowhan-gamibang water extract(DJGWE) was tested on their antioxidant activity using radical scavenging effects against ABTS. It showed significant antioxidant capacities at 50㎍ concentration. The antioxidant activity of DJGWE was determined in the different concentration (10㎍, 50 ㎍, and 100㎍). At the same time, the antiperoxidation effects was determined. Lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates induced by NADPH and ADP-Fe/sup 2+/ was significantly inhibited by DJGWE in vitro. DJGWE showed a potent antioxidant and antiperoxidative activity, further investigation, in vitro and in vivo, will be needed for the confirm of possibility as an antioxidant therapeutic agents and their optimal treatment of brain diseases in human. In searching the mechanism of antioxidant effects of DJGWE, it showed the inhibition of activity of JNK, p38, ERK and caspase 3 induced by hypoxia. So, DJGWE should be surveyed for the use of the potential therapeutic prescription for stroke and brain degenerative diseases such as pakinson's disease, dementia.
Yeom,Gee,Bok,Lee,Hyung,Cheol,Ju,Sung,Min,Kim,Kun,Jung,Kim,Won,Sin,Lee,Chae,Ho,Jang,Ho,Yeon,Kang,Jeong,Ho,Park,Shin,Ki,Lee,Key,Sang,Jeon,Byung,Hun The Physiological Society of Korean Medicine 2003 동의생리병리학회지 Vol.17 No.6
To investigate the antioxidant capacity of traditional Korean medicines, water extracts from 57 species were tested on their antioxidant activity using radical scavenging effects against ABTSㆍ+. Of which, Rhus javanica, Caesalpinia sappan, Rosa rugosa, Spatholobus suberectus, and Magnolia obovata showed strong antioxidant capacities at 10㎍ concentration. Therefore, antioxidant capacities of 5 traditional medicine extracts in the different concentration (1㎍, 5㎍, and 10㎍) were determined. The 5 traditional medicine extracts was detected in antioxidant capacity dose dependently. R. javanica was showed the highest antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant activity at 1 ㎍ of herbal extract being 0.85 mM TE. At the same time, the antiperoxidation effects of these 5 medicines were determined. Lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates induced by NADPH and ADP-Fe/sup 2+/ was strong inhibited by S, suberectus, R. rugosa, and M. obovata. Extract of C. sappan was showed the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation compared with 4 herbal extracts in vitro. These traditional medicines are a potent antioxidant capacity and antiperoxidation activity, further investigation into the in vivo antioxidant therapeutic potential for treatment of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.
Many traditional herbal remedies exhibit several beneficial effects including anti-inflammation. Panax notoginseng Buck F.H. Chen. is used as a therapeutic agent to stop haemorrhages and a tonic to promote health in Korean and Chinese medicine. The pharrnacokinetic profiles of the main P. notoginseng are still not accurately investigated. The exact mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of P. notoginseng, however, has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effect of P. notoginseng on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that P. notoginseng concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, P. notoginseng inhibited the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins without an appreciable cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 cells. Berberine also inhibited LPS-induced iNOS protein as potently as P. notoginseng. This was consistent with the findings that P. notoginseng and also berberine inhibited prostaglandin E2 synthesis induced by LPS.