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According to Article 9.3 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants(Shenzhen Code), a lectotype may be selected as the nomenclatural type from the original material, if the name was published without a holotype. While reviewing the genus Scrophularia collected in Northeast Asia, we found that two species, S. alata A. Gray and S. kakudensis Franch., were still untypified. S. alata has three specimens considered as syntypes in two herbaria, Harvard University and the Smithsonian Institution. For S. kakudensis, two specimens considered as syntypes at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris were classified as normal specimens, not type specimens. Therefore, two species of Scrophularia L. namely, S. alata A. Gray and S. kakudensis Franch., are lectotypified. The lectotypes are kept in the Harvard University and the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, respectively. Furthermore, some nomenclatural issues related to these names are discussed, and the photographs of the selected lectotypes are provided.
The Euphorbiaceae family features some of the most economically important plants that are sources of foods, oils, waxes, and medicines. The accurate identification of Euphorbiaceae species is critical in sustainable utilization of plant resources. We examined 234 sequences of nrDNA ITS, cpDNA rbcL and matK loci from 20 species in Euphorbiaceae in Korea and three outgroup taxa to develop efficient DNA barcodes. The three barcode loci were successfully amplified and sequenced for all Euphorbiaceae species. nrDNA ITS locus showed the highest mean interspecific K2P distance (0.3034), followed by cpDNA matK (0.0830), and rbcL (0.0352) locus. The degree of species resolution for individual barcode loci ranged from 75% (rbcL and matK) to 80% (ITS). The degree of species resolution was not enhanced with the different combinations of three barcode loci. The combined data set of the three loci(ITS+rbcL+matK) provided 80% of species resolution. These results confirm that ITS locus, as a single barcode, is the best option for barcoding of the Euphorbiaceae in Korea.
We collected ciliate species from diverse habitats (brackish water, marine water, and terrestrial ecosystems) composed of estuarine, coast, and moss samples during 2017-2018 in Korea. The morphology and infraciliature of these species were examined and identified based on the observations of living cells and protargol impregnated specimens. Of the ciliates we identified, we described eight unrecorded species in Korea as followings: class Heterotrichea - Condylostoma vorax, Peritromus kahli; class Protocruziea - Protocruzia labiata; class Spirotrichea - Hemiamphisiella granulifera; class Litostomatea - Loxophyllum chinense; class Phyllopharyngea - Trochilioides recta; and class Oligohymenophorea -Cohnilembus verminus, Uronemella filificum. Among them, Protocruzia labiata is a poorly known species. In this paper, we provide the improved diagnoses and brief descriptions of the species with their microphotographs. The taxonomic classifications of the eight species are summarized as six classes, eight orders, five families, and eight genera. These voucher slides with protargol impregnated specimens have been deposited in the National Institutes.
A type specimen is the specimen originally used to name a new species; thus, it is one of the most significant materials for taxonomic study. In our study on the inventory and management of endemic species in Korea, we checked the type materials for Pseudolysimachion pusanensis (Y. Lee) Y. Lee, combination name Veronica pusanensis Y. Lee, recorded as deposited at the herbaria of the Ewha Womans University and the National Institute of Biological Resources, and failed to find any specimens. Thus, we concluded that all type specimens of V. pusanensis have since been misplaced. According to articles 9.11 and 9.13 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, it is necessary to select a neotype if the holotype is missing and no other original material exists. Therefore, we designate the neotype maintained in the herbarium of the National Institute of Biological Resources of the Republic of Korea.
The Earth contains billions of microbial species, although the vast majority cannot be cultured in laboratories and are thus considered unidentified and uncharacterized. Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in extreme conditions, including temperature, salinity, and pH. Extremophilic microorganisms have provided important insights for biological, metabolic, and evolutionary studies. Between 2017 and 2019, as part of a comprehensive investigation to identify bacterial species in Korea, eight bacterial strains were isolated from marine and non-marine environments in Jeju Island. These strains were cultured under extreme salinity or pH conditions. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S ribosomal RNA(rRNA) gene sequencing indicated that all eight strains belonged to the phyla Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Alphaproteobacteria. Based on their high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities(>98.7%) and the formation of strong monophyletic clades with their closest related species, all isolated strains were considered as an unrecorded strain, previously unidentified species. Gram stain reaction, culture conditions, colony and cell morphology, biochemical characteristics, isolation source, and National Institute of Biological Resources(NIBR) IDs are described in this article. The characterization of these unrecorded strains provides information on microorganisms living in Korea.
Research on Korean nematocerous flies (Diptera: Nematocera) was started by the National Institute of Biological Resources in 2012. This publication is a continuation of our previous work. During the season of 2019 insects were collected in Odaesan National Park by the researchers from Korea University. Among these samples, two specimens belonging to the family Hesperinidae, which was previously unrecorded from Korea, were noticed. This family is known from countries bordering Korea (East Siberia and Far East of Russia, Hokkaido Island of Japan), thus occurrence of hesperinid flies was expected on the Korean Peninsula. Only one genus Hesperinus Walker, 1848 with eight species belong to this family. They are developing in decaying wood of deciduous trees. Hesperinus rohdendorfi Krivosheina & Mamaev, 1967, which was known from East Siberia and Far East of Russia is recorded from South Korea. Redescription and photographs of the most important taxonomical details are presented.
Podenas, Sigitas,Park, Sun-Jae,Byun, Hye-Woo,Kim, A-Young,Klein, Terry A.,Kim, Heung-Chul,Aukstikalniene, Rasa The National Institute of Biological Resources 2020 Journal of species research Vol.9 No.4
This study is based on crane fly specimens collected from 1936-2019 and are in collections maintained at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA; the Snow Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Budapest, Hungary, and the National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea. The genus Dicranophragma Osten Sacken, 1860 with two species D. (Brachylimnophila) transitorium (Alexander, 1941) and D. (Dicranophragma) melaleucum melaleucum (Alexander, 1933), is a new record for the Korean Peninsula. New findings of Dicranomyia (Erostrata) submelas Kato et al., 2018, Dicranoptycha venosa Alexander, 1924a, Austrolimnophila (Archilimnophila) subunicoides(Alexander, 1950b), A. (A.) unica (Osten Sacken, 1869), A. (Austrolimnophila) asiatica (Alexander, 1925), Conosia irrorata (Wiedemann, 1828), Eloeophila persalsa (Alexander, 1940), E. serenensis (Alexander, 1940), E. subaprilina (Alexander, 1919), E. ussuriana ussuriana (Alexander, 1933), E. yezoensis (Alexander, 1924b), Paradelphomyia chosenica Alexander, 1950b, and P. macracantha Alexander, 1957 are discussed. General information on genera and subgenera morphological characters, redescriptions of species based on Korean specimens, illustrations of both sexes, elevation range, period of activity, habitat information, general distribution, and a distribution map for the Korean Peninsula (including North Korea) are presented for each species.
Extensive survey of invertebrates in Korea, led by the National Institute of Biological Resources in Incheon, continues to uncover many new and endemic species, but also elements of neighbouring faunas that were previously unknown here. Hemicyclops tanakai Itoh and Nishida, 2002 was originally described from estuarine mud-flats in Tokyo Bay, Japan. We report one male and two females from a sandy beach on Jeju Island, which represent its first record in Korea and second record ever. No morphological differences were observed between these two disjunct populations, so we expect more records of this species in Korea and Japan. Tisbe ensifer Fischer, 1860 was originally described from Madeira and later on reported from numerous other parts of the Northern Atlantic, as well as from the Indian Ocean. We report two females from a shallow littoral in Sokcho, which represents its first record in Korea and the first record in the entire Pacific Ocean. Because of morphological discrepancies reported in previous records we recognize that this species might be in reality a species complex, and we only tentatively identify our Korean specimens as T. cf. ensifer. We provide numerous light photographs of both species in addition to short descriptions, in hope that they might elucidate global problems of their zoogeography and dispersal of small marine invertebrates in general. Further samplings from Korea and other parts of the world will be necessary to test our identifications and phylogenetic relationships of Korean populations with molecular and other tools.
Kim, Hwa-Jung,Kim, Dong-Won,Hur, Wee-Haeng,Jang, Byoungsoon,Lee, Yun-Kyung,Kwon, In-Ki,Park, Jong-Hyun,Park, Jong-Gil,Kang, Chang-Wan,Kim, Eun-Mi,Choi, Soon-Kyoo,Kim, Han-Kyu The National Institute of Biological Resources 2020 Journal of species research Vol.9 No.4
A total of 527 species of birds have been recorded in Korea. We summarize the records of three genera and six species that have been newly reported in Korea, discovered through the avian monitoring programs carried out by The National Institute of Biological Resources from 2013 to 2016. These six newly recorded species are; Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris), Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus), Mongolian Lark (Melanocorypha mongolica) and Crested Myna (Acridotheres cristatellus). One Ring-necked Duck was observed on March 23, 2014 in Jungrangcheon Stream. One male Lesser Scaup was recorded on February 24, 2014 in Gyeongpoho Lagoon. A male bufflehead was first seen in Yeongrangho Lagoon on January 26, 2013. The Black-winged Kite was first observed on January 23, 2013 at the Gangseo Wetland Ecological Park. One Mongolian Lark was also recorded on May 11, 2016 and May 12, 2017 in Marado Island. The Crested Myna was first observed on April 20, 2016 in Seomando, Island.
Lee, Ki-Eun,Kim, Ju-Young,Jang, Jun Hwee,Maeng, Soohyun,Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj,Subramani, Gayathri,Kim, Myung Kyum,Kang, Myung-Suk The National Institute of Biological Resources 2019 Journal of species research Vol.8 No.2
In 2015 and 2017, the National Institute of Biological Resources has isolated four unrecorded prokaryotic species designated as R-1-5, R-2-13, R-2-1, and R-1-8 from the peatland soil of Yongneup. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity determined the four strains (R-1-5, R-2-13, R-2-1, R-1-8) were most closely related to Curvibacter lanceolatus (99.93%), Massilia brevitalea (98.7%), Pseudomonas lini (99.54%), and Pseudomonas vancouverensis (99.93%), respectively. The four unrecorded strains belong to the phylum Proteobacteria, in which the genera Curvibacter and Massilia are assigned to the class Betaproteobacteria, and the genus Pseudomonas to the class Gammaproteobacteria. Since there are no publications or official reports on these four strains, these four species are new records to Korea. The strains were further characterized by Gram reaction, colony and cell morphology, basic biochemical properties, and phylogenetic position. Descriptive information of the four unrecorded species is provided.