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      • Discrimination of Korean Tobacco's Aroma and Tastes using the Eloctronic Nose/Tongue and Their feasibility in Tobacco Sensory Evaluation

        Lee Whan-Woo,Lee Seung-Yong,Shon Hyun-Joo,Kim Young-Hoh The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2005 한국연초학회지 Vol.27 No.1

        The purpose of this study was the discrimination of different tobacco types by the E-Nose/tongue and the analysis of what human sensory attributes are correlated with e-instrument's sensors. Samples were made from five groups of Korean domestic tobacco leaves, aged burley and not aged, aged flue-cured and not aged and blending types of the four. Instrumental tests were conducted to discriminate characteristics among different tobacco samples by the E-Nose and the E-Tongue. Sensory attributes of tobacco tastes were impact, irritation, bitterness, hay-like, tobacco taste, smoke volume, smoke pungent and mouth cleanness. STATISTICA software was used to analyze correlation between the human sensory data and the raw data of e-instruments. Discrimination analysis can be achieved using principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant factorial analysis(DFA). As a result, impact, bitterness, irritation, smoke volume and smoke pungent of human sensory attributes were correlated with data from the several clustered E-Nose sensors(p < 0.10). And bitterness, irritation, and smoke pungent of human sensory attributes were correlated with data from the E-Tongue sensors(p < 0.10). PCA plot by the E-Nose shows that aged tobacco and not aged were discriminated and DFA plot shows that three groups(aged burley, not aged burley and flue-cured) were discriminated. PCA plot by the E- Tongue shows that flue-cured tobacco was separated from burley. Our results indicated that the e-instruments are sensitive enough to distinguish among tobacco types and their several sensors are reacted to the human sensory attributes.

      • Determination of agrochemical residues in tobacco using matrix solid-phase dispersion and GC/MS

        Lee, Jeong-Min,Min, Hye-Jeong,Park, Jin-Won,Lee, Moon-Young,Jang, Gi-Chul The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2014 한국연초학회지 Vol.36 No.1

        A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) method was developed for extracting and cleaning-up the selected agrochemicals in tobacco using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM). Different parameters of the method were investigated and optimized, such as the type of solid-phase (alumina, $C_{18}$ and Florisil) and eluent (acetone, acetonitrile, ethylacetate and n-hexane). The best results were obtained using 0.5 g of tobacco sample, 1.0 g of $C_{18}$ as dispersant sorbent, 1.0 g of Florisil as clean-up sorbent and acetonitile saturated with n-hexane as eluting solvent. The method was validated using tobacco samples fortified with agrochemicals at their different concentration levels. This method gave good linearity for the selected agrochemicals of ranging from $0.01{\mu}g/mL$ to $0.1{\mu}g/mL$. Recoveries of the selected agrochemicals in tobacco were more than 80 % and reproducibilities were found to be better than 10 % RSD. Those results suggested that the analytical procedure including MSPD method in combining with GC/MS could be applicable to the rapid determination often the selected agrochemicals in tobacco.

      • Analysis of Agrochemical Residues in Tobacco Using QuEChERS Method by GC-MS/MS

        Lee, Jeong-Min,Jang, Gi-Chul,Hwang, Keon-Joong The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2007 한국연초학회지 Vol.29 No.2

        This study was performed to apply the more rapid and accurate sample preparation, and the high selectivity and sensitivity of the analyte detection by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was validated for 49 agrochemicals in the CORESTA Agrochemical Advisory Committee guide and amenable to GC-MS/MS determination. In QuEChERS method, the effects of sorbents (PSA, $C_{18}$ and GCB) and matrix of the analytes in tobacco types (flue-cured, burley and oriental) were investigated. MS/MS acquisition provided high specificity and selectivity for agrochemicals and low limit of quantification. QuEChERS by using PSA alone and the matrix-matched standards gave good recoveries and RSD values in three types of tobaccos. QuEChERS method was no needed to be complex clean-up procedure and would be used as the fast and easy method for agrochemical residue analysis in tobacco.

      • Analysis of Agrochemical Residues in Tobacco Using Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography with Different Mass Spectrometric Techniques

        Lee, Jeong-Min,Jang, Gi-Chul,Kim, Hyo-Keun,Hwang, Geon-Joong The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2008 한국연초학회지 Vol.30 No.2

        A solid phase microextraction (SPME) method in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometric techniques was used for the extraction and quantification of 12 selected agrochemical residues in tobacco. The parameters such as the type of SPME fiber, adsorption/desorption time and the extraction temperature affecting the precision and accuracy of the SPME method were investigated and optimized. Among three types of fibers investigated, polyacrylate (PA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), PDMS fiber was selected for the extractions of the agrochemicals. The SPME device was automated and on-line coupled to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used and two different instruments, a quadrupole MS and triple quadrupole MS-MS mode, were compared. The performances of the two GC-MS instruments were comparable in terms of linearity (in the range of 0.01$\sim$0.5 $\mu$g/mL) and sensitivity (limits of detection were in the low ng/mL range). The triple quadrupole MS-MS instrument gave better precision than that of quadrupole MS system, but generally the relative standard deviations for replicates were acceptable for both instruments (< 15%). The LODs was fully satisfied the requirements of the CORESTA GRL. Recoveries of 12 selected agrochemicals in tobacco yielded more than 80% and reproducibility was found to be better than 10% RSD so that SPME procedure could be applied to the quantitative analysis of agrochemical residues in tobacco.

      • Stable Expression of TMV Resistance and Responses to Major Tobacco Diseases in the Fifth Generation of TMV CP Transgenic Tobacco

        Park, Seong-Weon,Lee, Ki-Won,Lee, Cheong-Ho,Kim, Sang-Seock,Park, Eun-Kyung,Choi, Soon-Yong The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 1998 한국연초학회지 Vol.20 No.1

        TMV resistant lines (TRLs) originated from the Blo plant of Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC82 transformed with TMV coat protein cDNA which initially showed delayed disease symptom were selected for increased resistance in each subsequent generation. The result of field experiment of the transgenic tobacco lines in the fifth generation for TMV resistance and their response to other tobacco diseases (black shank, bacterial wilt, and powdery mildew) is described in this report. When fifteen TRLs of the fifth generation were tested for TMV resistance by mechanically inoculating the individual plants, over 95 percent of the plants of 6 lines showed complete resistance even 8 weeks after the inoculation. Average frequency of the resistant plants in TRLs of the fifth generation 8 weeks after the inoculation was 87%. Stable insertion and expression of TMV coat protein cDNA in the fifth generation of the transgenic tobacco plant were confirmed by PCR and immunoblot hybridization, respectively. All TRLs were resistant to the black shank but were susceptible to the bacterial wilt disease and the powdery mildew to the same degree as non-transgenic NC82 was. Therefore, it was indicated that the phenotypes related at least to disease resistance were not changed in the transgenic tobacco. Key words : TMV CP cDNA, TMV resistant tobacco plant, transformation.

      • Evaluation of the Nitrate Anion in Recon Extract by Adsorbents

        Han, Young-Rim,Sung, Yang-Joo,Park, Jin-Won,Kim, Yang-Ok,Rhee, Moan-Soo The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2007 한국연초학회지 Vol.29 No.2

        The amount of nitrate in the tobacco leaf has been shown to be correlated with the levels of alkaloids and nitrosamines. Also the nitrate content of the tobacco correlated closely with the smoke delivery of nitric oxide and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). These are related with the effect of the reconstituted tobacco leaf(Recon) using the tobacco stems. Adsorption process is gaining interest as one of the effective processes of advanced liquid treatment for liquid containing unnecessary materials. This study is focused on the evaluation of four anion exchangers, a cation exchanger and an activated carbon, as adsorbents for reduction of nitrate anion from Recon extract. In order to analyze the nitrate anion, the IC method used in this work was carried out with a Dionex ICS-2000 system. The effects of dosages of adsorbents and concentration of extract on the removal of nitrate anion were examined. Experimental results showed that for nitrate-anion exchanger, nitrate-cation exchanger and nitrate-activated carbon adsorption system, approximately 70 %, 10 %, and 4 % removal efficiencies were achieved at the Brix 10 and the 20 % addition. Although the activated carbon was little efficient for removal of nitrate ion, the removal of nicotine was very efficient at given conditions.

      • Changes of Organic Acids, Polyphenols, Pigments and Fiber Concentration with a Different Stalk Position and Grade of Korean Flue-cured Leaf Tobacco

        Volgger Dietmar,Hwang Keon-Joong The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2004 한국연초학회지 Vol.26 No.2

        This study was carried out to analyze the organic acids, polyphenols, pigments and fiber materials concentration with a different stalk position and grade of korean leaf tobaccos. Eight kinds of flue-cured leaf tobaccos which were different stalk position and grade were used for this study. Three kinds of major organic acids(citric, malic and oxalic), 2 kinds of polyphenols(chlorogenic acid and rutin), 3 kinds of pigments($\beta$-carotene, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b), and 2 kinds of fiber components(pectin and lignin) were analyzed. All of these chemical components were changed with a different stalk position. When the citric acid, malic acid, $\beta-carotene$, chlorophyll-a, and lignin concentration were low in the middle stalk position and high in both bottom and upper position, oxalic acid and chlorogenic acid show the highest concentration in the middle stalk position. All of these chemical components also changed with a different grade of leaf tobaccos. As the citric acid, malic acid, $\beta-carotene$, chlorophyll-b, and lignin concentration decreased as the grade ascended, the oxalic acid and chlorogenic acid concentration increased as the grade ascended. This results assumed that the quality of korean leaf tobacco was directly proportional to oxalic acid and chlorogenic acid concentration but it was inversely proportional to citric acid, malic acid, $\beta-carotene$, chlorophyll-b and lignin concentration.

      • Statistical approach for development of objective evaluation method on tobacco smoke

        Hwang, Keon-Joong,Rhee, Moon-Soo,Ra, Do-Young The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2000 한국연초학회지 Vol.22 No.2

        This study was conducted to develop the objective evaluation method for tobacco smoke. The evaluation was carried out by using the data of cut or blended tobacco components, smoke components, electric nose system (ENS), and sensory test. By using the statistical methods, such as cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis, the relationship among the data of tobacco, smoke, ENS, and sensory evaluation was studied. By the results of cluster analysis, the data from smoke analysis by GC and ENS were able to select the difference of tobacco leaf characteristics. As the results of discriminant analysis, grouping by the components of tobacco leaves and smoke was possible and the results of GC analysis of smoke could be used for discrimination of tobacco leaves. In the results of factor analysis, nicotine, tar, CO, puff No and pH in the smoke were the factors effecting on the tobacco leaf characteristics. From the correlation analysis, aroma, taste, irritation, and smoke volume of sensory test had high relation to tar, p-cresol threonolatone, levoglucosane, and quinic acid- ${\gamma}$ -lactone of smoke. The ENS data showed high efficiency for discriminant analysis and cluster analysis, but it was not good for factor analysis, and correlation analysis. It was possible to estimate tobacco leaves and their blending characteristics by the analytical data of tobacco leaves, smoke, ENS, and sensory test results. By the multiple regression analysis, some correlation among selected chemical components and sensory evaluation were found. This study strongly indicated that the some chemical analysis data was available for the objective evaluation of tobacco sensory attributes.

      • The Trend of Cigarette Design and Tobacco Flavor System Development

        Wu, Jimmy Z. The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2002 한국연초학회지 Vol.24 No.1

        In light of addressing consumer health concern, coping with anti-tobacco movement, and promoting new product, tobacco industry is actively pursuing to make a new generation of cigarettes with low tar and nicotine deliveries, and less harmful substances. Low tar and low nicotine cigarettes increases their market shares dramatically world wide, especially in KT&G, multinational tobacco companies, EU countries, even in China regulated by CNTC to set up yearly target to lower tar and nicotine deliveries. On the other hand, to design a new cigarette with reduced harmful substances begins to gain speed. The "modified Hoffmann list" publishes thirty plus substances in tobacco leaf and main smoke stream, which is the prime suspect causing health problems. Various ways and means are developed to reduce such components including new tobacco breeds, new curing method, tobacco leaf treatment before processing, selected filtration system, innovated casing system to reduce free radicals, as well as some non conventional cigarette products. In TSRC held this year, the main topic is related to reduce tobacco specific nitrosamines in tobacco leaf. The new generation of cigarette is in the horizon. It still needs a lot help to produce commercial products with satisfied taste and aroma characters. The flavor industry is not regulated by many governments demanding which ingredients might or might not be for tobacco use. However, most of the cigarette companies self impose a list of ingredients to guide flavor suppliers to design flavors. Unfortunately, the number of ingredients in those lists is getting shorter every year. It is understandable that the health is not the only reason. Some cigarette companies are playing safe to protect the company from potential lawsuit, while others are just copying from their competitors. Moreover, it is obvious that it needs more assistance from casings and flavors to design new generation of cigarettes with missing certain flavor components in tobacco leaf and main smoke stream. These flavor components are either non-existed or at lower level at new form of cured tobacco leaf or filtered in the main smoke stream along with reduced harmful substances. The use of carbon filters and other selected filtration system poses another tough task for flavor system design. Specific flavor components are missing from the smoke analysis data, which brings a notion of "carbon taste" and "dryness" of mouth feel. It is ever more demanded by cigarette industry to flavor suppliers to produce flavors as body enhancer, tobacco notes, salivating agents, harshness reducer, and various of aromatic notes provided they are safe to use. Another trend is that water based flavor or flavor with reduced ethanol as solvent is gaining popularity. It is preferred by some cigarette companies that the flavor is compounded with all natural ingredients or all ingredients should he GMO free. The new generation of cigarettes demands many ways of new thinking process. It is also vital for tobacco industry. It reflects the real needs for the consumers that the cigarette product should be safe to use as well as bearing the taste and aroma characters smokers always enjoyed. An effective tobacco flavor system is definitely a part of the equation. The global trend of tobacco industry is like trends of any other industries lead by consumer needs, benefited with new technology availability, affected by the global economy, and subjected for various rules and regulations. Anti-tobacco organizations and media exceptionally scrutinize cigarette, as a legal commercial product. Cigarette is probably the most studied commercial product for its composition, structure, deliveries, effects, as well as its new developmental trend. Therefore, any new trend of cigarette development would be within these boundaries. This paper is trying to point out what it would be like for tobacco industry in the next few yews and what concerns the tobacco industry. It focuses mostly

      • Measurement of the Apparent Density of Shred and Void Fraction in a Tobacco Column

        Oh, In-Hyeog,Jeh, Byong-Kwon,Ra, Do-Young,Kwak, Dae-Keun,Kim, Byeoung-Ku,Jo, Si-Hyung,Rhee, Moon-Soo The Korean Society of Tobacco Science 2007 한국연초학회지 Vol.29 No.1

        The measurement of physical properties such as apparent density and void fraction of tobacco materials, which is so bulky, is a main theme with regard to tobacco process, quality control, cigarette combustion and smoke generation. Except Solution Impregnation Method, there was no alternative method for measuring those properties in the porous material so far. However, experimental processes of that method are so complicated as to cost much time and labor, the main solution such as mercury to apply to the method is usually very hazard. Therefore, we had developed a new method to determine them easily in our other paper by the mathematical equations derived from the Ergun equation for the purpose of it, and then already evaluated our method through applying some basic data from Muramatsu et at. (1979) with regard to our developed equations. Then, we found our method best fit to experimental one (Oh et al., 2001). In this study we tried to establish our method to conveniently determine those physical properties. Especially, we have focused on the development the easy way to measure surface area and the volume of single shred in a tobacco column. As a result of that, we found that the computer image analyzer was best fit for it. Then, we have finally determined apparent density and void fraction for our domestic tobacco shred.

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