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        Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism is not Associated with Myocardial Infarction in Koreans

        Chai, Seok,Sohn, Dong-Ryul The Korean Society of Pharmacology 1998 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.2 No.5

        To assess the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and myocardial infarction in Koreans, we recruited 112 healthy, unrelated subjects (mean age 53.4 years) and 104 myocardial infarction survivors (mean age 54.2 years) of both sexes. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was typed by polymerase chain reaction. The I allelic frequency of ACE gene in Korean subjects was irrelavant to myocardial infarction (patients, 65 control subjects 66%), as was true with the D allele. When compared with other populations, the frequency of D allele in Koreans (0.34) was lower than that in Caucasians, and was close to that of other Oriental populations. The data suggest that the ACE gene polymorphism is not an independent genetic risk factor for myocardial infarction in Koreans.


        Identification and Functional Characterization of Novel Genetic Variations in the OCTN1 Promoter

        Park, Hyo Jin,Choi, Ji Ha The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2014 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.18 No.2

        Human organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) plays an important role in the transport of drugs and endogenous substances. It is known that a missense variant of OCTN1 is significantly associated with Crohn's disease susceptibility. This study was performed to identify genetic variants of the OCTN1 promoter in Korean individuals and to determine their functional effects. First, the promoter region of OCTN1 was directly sequenced using genomic DNA samples from 48 healthy Koreans. OCTN1 promoter activity was then measured using a luciferase reporter assay in HCT-116 cells. Seven variants of the OCTN1 promoter were identified, two of which were novel. There were also four major OCTN1 promoter haplotypes. Three haplotypes (H1, H3, and H4) showed decreased transcriptional activity, which was reduced by 22.9%, 23.0%, and 44.6%, respectively (p<0.001), compared with the reference haplotype (H2). Transcription factor binding site analyses and gel shift assays revealed that NF-Y could bind to the region containing g.-1875T>A, a variant present in H3, and that the binding affinity of NF-Y was higher for the g.-1875T allele than for the g.-1875A allele. NF-Y could also repress OCTN1 transcription. These data suggest that three OCTN1 promoter haplotypes could regulate OCTN1 transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify functional variants of the OCTN1 promoter.


        Association study between OCTN1 functional haplotypes and Crohn's disease in a Korean population

        Jung, Eun Suk,Park, Hyo Jin,Kong, Kyoung Ae,Choi, Ji Ha,Cheon, Jae Hee The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2017 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.21 No.1

        Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with multifactorial causes including environmental and genetic factors. Several studies have demonstrated that the organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) non-synonymous variant L503F is associated with susceptibility to CD. However, it was reported that L503F is absent in Asian populations. Previously, we identified and functionally characterized genetic variants of the OCTN1 promoter region in Koreans. In that study, four variants demonstrated significant changes in promoter activity. In the present study, we determined whether four functional variants of the OCTN1 promoter play a role in the susceptibility to or clinical course of CD in Koreans. To examine it, the frequencies of the four variants of the OCTN1 promoter were determined by genotyping using DNA samples from 194 patients with CD and 287 healthy controls. Then, associations between genetic variants and the susceptibility to CD or clinical course of CD were evaluated. We found that susceptibility to CD was not associated with OCTN1 functional promoter variants or haplotypes showing altered promoter activities in in vitro assays. However, OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes showing decreased promoter activities were significantly associated with a penetrating behavior in CD patients (HR=2.428, p=0.009). Our results suggest that the OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes can influence the CD phenotype, although these might not be associated with susceptibility to this disease.


        Two Types of Voltage-activated Calcium Currents in Goldfish Horizontal Cells

        Paik, Sun-Sook,Bai, Sun-Ho,Jung, Chang-Sub The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2005 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.9 No.5

        In horizontal cells (HCs) that were freshly dissociated from goldfish retina, two types of voltagedependent calcium currents ($I_{Ca}$) were recorded using a patch-clamping configuration: a transient type current and a sustained type current. The cell was held at -40 mV, and the prepulse step of -90 mV was applied before command pulse between -65 and +55 mV. The transient $Ca^{2+}$ current was activated by depolarization to around -50 mV from a prepulse voltage of -90 mV lasting at least 400 ms and reached a maximal value near -25 mV. On the other hand, the sustained $Ca^{2+}$ current was induced by pre-inactivation for less than 10 ms duration. Its activation started near -10 mV and peaked at +20 mV. $Co^{2+}$ (2 mM) suppressed both of these two components, but nifedipine ($20{\mu}M$), L-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel antagonist, blocked only the sustained current. Based on the activation voltage and the pharmacolog$I_{Ca}$l specificity, the sustained current appears to be similar to L-type $I_{Ca}$ and the transient type to T-type $I_{Ca}$. This study is the first to confirm that transient type $I_{Ca}$ together with the sustained one is present in HCs dissociated from goldfish retina.


        Korean Red Ginseng Induced Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia in Guinea Pig

        Lim, Kyu Hee,Kang, Chang-Won,Choi, Jin-Yong,Kim, Jong-Hoon The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2013 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.17 No.4

        This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated guinea pig heart. KRG has been shown to possess various ginsenosides, which are the major components of Panax ginseng. These components are known naturally occurring compounds with beneficial effects and free radical scavenging activity. The heart was induced to ischemia for 60 min, followed by 120 min reperfusion. The hearts were randomly allocated into five groups (n=8 for each group): normal control (N/C), KRG control, I/R control, 250 mg/kg KRG group and 500 mg/kg KRG group. KRG significantly increased hemodynamics parameters such as aortic flow, coronary flow and cardiac output. Moreover, KRG significantly increased left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), the maximal rate of contraction (+dP/$dt_{max}$) and maximal rate of relaxation (-dP/$dt_{max}$). Also, treatment of KRG ameliorated electrocardiographic index such as the QRS, QT and RR intervals. Moreover, KRG significantly suppressed the lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase-MB fraction and cardiac troponin I and ameliorated the oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde and glutathione. KRG was standardized through ultra performance liquid chromatograph analysis for its major ginsenosides. Taken together, KRG has been shown to prevent cardiac injury by normalizing the biochemical and oxidative stress.


        Pharmacological evaluation of HM41322, a novel SGLT1/2 dual inhibitor, in vitro and in vivo

        Lee, Kyu Hang,Lee, Sang Don,Kim, Namdu,Suh, Kwee Hyun,Kim, Young Hoon,Sim, Sang Soo The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2019 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.23 No.1

        HM41322 is a novel oral sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1/2 dual inhibitor. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic profiles of HM41322 were compared to those of dapagliflozin. HM41322 showed a 10-fold selectivity for SGLT2 over SGLT1. HM41322 showed an inhibitory effect on SGLT2 similar to dapagliflozin, but showed a more potent inhibitory effect on SGLT1 than dapagliflozin. The maximum plasma HM41322 level after single oral doses at 0.1, 1, and 3 mg/kg were 142, 439, and 1830 ng/ml, respectively, and the $T_{1/2}$ was 3.1 h. HM41322 was rapidly absorbed and reached the circulation within 15 min. HM41322 maximized urinary glucose excretion by inhibiting both SGLT1 and SGLT2 in the kidney. HM41322 3 mg/kg caused the maximum urinary glucose excretion in normoglycemic mice ($19.32{\pm}1.16mg/g$) at 24 h. In normal and diabetic mice, HM41322 significantly reduced glucose excursion. Four-week administration of HM41322 in db/db mice reduced HbA1c in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, HM41322 showed a favorable preclinical profile of postprandial glucose control through dual inhibitory activities against SGLT1 and SGLT2.


        Pharmacological Characterization of Synthetic Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids, YS 51 and YS 55, on the Cardiovascular System

        Chang, Ki-Churl,Kang, Young-Jin,Lee, Young-Soo,Chong, Won-Seog,Choi-Yun, Hey-Sook,Lee, Duck-Hyong,Ryu, Jae-Chun The Korean Society of Pharmacology 1998 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.2 No.4

        Tetrahydroisoquinoline (THI) alkaloids can be considered as cyclized derivatives of simple phenylethy-lamines, and many of them, especially with 6,7-disubstitution, demonstrate relatively high affinity for catecholamines. Two -OH groups at 6 and 7 positions are supposed to be essential to exert ?${\beta}-receptor$ activities. However, it is not clear whether -OH at 6,7 substitution of THIs also shows ?${\alpha}-adrenoceptor$ activities. In the present study, we investigated whether -OH or $-OCH_3$ substitutions of 6,7 position of THIs differently affect the ?1-adrenoceptor affinity. We synthesized two 1-naphthylmethyl THI alkaloids, $1-{\beta}-naphthylmethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline$ HBr (YS 51) and $1-{\beta}-naphthylmethyl-6, 7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline$ HCl (YS 55), and their pharmacological actions on ?${\alpha}_1-adrenoceptor$ were compared. YS 51 and YS 55, concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta precontracted with phenylephrine (PE, 0.1 ${\mu}M$) in which $pEC_{50}$ were $5.89{\pm}0.21$ and $5.93{\pm}0.19$, respectively. Propranolol (30 nM) did not affect the relaxation-response curves to YS 51 and YS 55. Concentration-response curves to PE were shifted to right by the pretreatment with YS 51 or YS 55. The $pA_2$ values of YS 51 and YS 55 showed $6.05{\pm}0.24$ and $5.88{\pm}0.16$, respectively. Both probes relaxed KCl (65.4 mM)-contracted aorta and inhibited $CaCl_2-induced$ contraction of PE-stimulated endothelium- denuded rat thoracic aorta in $Ca^{2+}-free$ solutions. In isolated guinea pig papillary muscle, 1 and 10 ${\mu}M$ YS 51 increased contractile force about 4- and 8- fold over the control, respectively, along with the concentration-dependent increment of cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ ions. While, 10 ${\mu}M$ YS 55 reduced the contractile force about 50 % over the control and lowered the cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ level, in rat brain homogenates, YS 51 and YS 55 displaced $[^3H]prazosin$ binding competitively with Ki 0.15 and 0.12 ${\mu}M$, respectively. However, both probes were ineffective on $[^3H]nitrendipine$ binding. Therefore, it is concluded that two synthetic naphthylmethyl-THI alkaloids have considerable affinity to ?1-adrenenoceptors in rat aorta and brain.


        Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract Restores Impaired Endothelial Function by Inhibiting Arginase Activity in Aged Mice

        Choi, Kwanhoon,Yoon, Jeongyeon,Lim, Hyun Kyo,Ryoo, Sungwoo The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2014 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.18 No.2

        Cardiovascular disease is the prime cause of morbidity and mortality and the population ages that may contribute to increase in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Arginase upregulation is associated with impaired endothelial function in aged vascular system and thus may contribute to cardiovascular disease. According to recent research, Korean Red Ginseng water extract (KRGE) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular system health. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms contributing to age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and to determine whether KRGE improves these functions in aged mice. Young ($10{\pm}3$ weeks) and aged ($55{\pm}5$ weeks) male mice (C57BL/6J) were orally administered 0, 10, or 20 mg/mouse/day of KRGE for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and the aortas were removed. Endothelial arginase activity, nitric oxide (NO) generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling, vascular tension, and plasma peroxynitrite production were measured. KRGE attenuated arginase activity, restored nitric oxide (NO) generation, reduced ROS production, and enhanced eNOS coupling in aged mice. KRGE also improved vascular tension in aged vessels, as indicated by increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and improved phenylephrine-stimulated vasoconstriction. Furthermore, KRGE prevented plasma peroxynitrite formation in aged mice, indicating reduced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest KRGE exerts vasoprotective effects by inhibiting arginase activity and augmenting NO signaling and may be a useful treatment for age-dependent vascular diseases.


        Cytochrome P450 2E1 Activity in a Korean Population

        Muhn, Dou-Hyun,Chae, Ji-Min,Bahn, Jae-Yong,Song, Hae-Jung,Kim, Hyung-Kee,Kwon, Jun-Tack,Sohn, Dong-Ryul The Korean Society of Pharmacology 1997 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.1 No.5

        Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of a number of solvents and xenobiotics. Like the various types of oxidation pharmacogenetics, the activity of the enzyme shows a discernible interindividual and interethnic variation. However, no pharmacogenetic information on CYP2E1 polymorphism has been available from a Korean population. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmacogenetics of CYP2E1 polymorphism in a native Koreans after an oral 400 mg dose of chlorzoxazone administered to 128 subjects. Urine samples were collected during the subsequent 8-hour period and urinary concentrations of chlorzoxazone and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector. The limit of detection in the samples was found to be $0.5\;{\mu}g/ml$. The mean value of the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone excreted in 8 hr urine expressed as the percentage was 48.2 13.8%. The frequency distribution of percentage of the administered dose excreted as the 6-hydroxy metabolite was unimodally distributed in the subjects studied. However, the values showed wide (7-fold) interindividual difference, ranged from 11.6% to 79.8% of the dose of chlorzoxazone. Thus, it was considered that the pharmacogenetic characteristics of CYP2E1 in a Korean population did not represent multimodal distribution in the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone excreted in 8-hr urine expressed as the percentage. And the activity of the CYP2E1 in a Korean population seemed to be less compared with that of the Caucasian subjects.


        Long-Term Tropical Residency Diminishes Central Sudomotor Sensitivities in Male Subjects

        Lee, Jeong-Beom,Bae, Jun-Sang,Shin, Young-Oh,Kang, Jong-Chul,Matsumoto, Takaaki,Toktasynovna, Aliopva Aziza,Kaimovich, Alipov Gabit,Kim, Wan-Jong,Min, Young-Ki,Yang, Hun-Mo The Korean Society of Pharmacology 2007 The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology Vol.11 No.6

        Tropical natives (TROP) are capable of tolerating tropical heat because of their long-term adaptation to tropical environments. When exposed to heat stress, these natives tend to respond with lower sweat output, which is generally thought to be the result of heat acclimatization. The main objective of this study was to clarify central mechanisms inherent to suppressed thermal sweating in tropical natives (Malaysians) by comparing their sweating responses to those of temperate native (TEMP) (Koreans). This experiment was conducted in a thermoneutral climatic chamber ($24{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C,\;40{\pm}3%$ relative humidity). Heat loads were applied to each subject by the immersion of their lower legs in a hot water bath ($43^{\circ}C$ for 30 min). Sweat onset-time and sweat volume were compared between TROP and TEMP. The sweat onset-times on four selected points on the body ranged from 10.25 to 13.47 min in TEMP subjects, and from 16.24 to 17.83 min in TROP subjects (p<0.001). The local sweat volumes at the same sites ranged from 4.30 to $9.74 mg/cm^2$ in TEMP subjects, and from between 1.80 to $4.40mg/cm^2$ in TROP subjects (p<0.001). These results demonstrated a significant difference between TROP and TEMP subjects with regard to the manner in which they regulate their body temperatures when exposed to heat loads, and verified that long-term thermal adaptation blunts sweating sensitivities.

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