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          • Diagnosis of Freemartinism in Korean Native Cattle by Amplification of Two Different Male-Specific DNA Sequences

            Kim,So,Sub,Yoon,Ji,Young,Ahn,Kwang,Sung,Shim,Hosup The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2005 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.29 No.4

            The freemartinism is the most frequent form of intersexuality found in cattle, and females of heterosexual twins become sterile. With increase of twinning rates due to transfer of multiple embryos derived from in vitro fertilization, it is of great economic value to establish early diagnosis of freemartins to remove infertile individuals from breeding stock. In the present study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of two different Y-chromosome specific segments (BRY.l and AMX/Y) was performed to identify freemartins from twins and less common single born freemartins in Korean Native Cattle (KNC). Two male-specific sequences were amplified in all heterosexual twins tested (n=5). In addition, Y-specific PCR products were detectable in one of the single born females (n=4) with visible genital abnormalities. These results suggest that the sensitivity of PCR-based assay may be sufficient to detect freemartinism in single born females as well as female partners of heterosexual twins in KNC.

          • KCI등재

            Identification of Sperm mRNA Biomarkers Associated with Sex-Determination in Korean Native Cows

            Min,,Kwan-Sik,Byambaragchaa,,Munkhzaya,Kim,,Hyun,Park,,Myung-Hum The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction and Biot 2019 한국동물생명공학회지 Vol.34 No.2

            This study was conducted to analyze the specific genes associated with sex-determination in Korean native cow. The highly organized spermatogenesis requires accurate spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression, which is governed by transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic processes. Recently, farmers have been interested in determining the sexual identity of the calves in their farm. We analyzed the sperm of Korean native and Holstein cows, which were supplied from Hanwoo Improvement Center. We evaluated sperm motility and expression of sperm-specific genes after treating semen with both male- and female reagents. Sperm motility in Korean native cows decreased by approximately 10% in the first 30 minutes after treatment with sex-determination reagent. However, sperm motility of Holstein cows decreased to 60-70% after 15 minutes and to 20-30% after 30 minutes. We selected six specific genes expressing in the spermatozoa to analysis the gene expression level. The Real-time PCR results suggest that the selected genes (Gimap4, Tmeff1, Rac2, Abi2, Rac1, and Clu) were highly expressed in the group treated with the male reagent compared to the group treated the female reagent and to the untreated-group (control). In the present study, we suggest that the selected genes play a pivotal role in sex-determination.

          • Pregnancy Rate of In Vitro Produced Korean Cattle Embryos according to Transport Time Course

            Park,,Hyo-Young,Kim,,Eun-Young,Kim,,Young-Hun,Mun,,Seong-Ho,Oh,,Chang-Eon,Han,,Young-Joon,Kim,,Nam-Hyung,Lee,,Sung-Soo,Ko,,Moon-Suck,Riu,,Key,Zung,Park,,Se-Pill The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2009 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.33 No.4

            This study was to investigate pregnancy rate of IVM/IVF/IVC Korean cattle (registered in government) embryos according to transport time course. For the production of embryos, oocytes recovered from slaughtered excellent grade cow and highly motile frozen-thawed bull semen (purchased from LIMC, KPN#497) was used. In vitro produced embryos were cultured in CR1aa medium for 8 days and some of them were frozen. The rate of average cleavage (>2-cell) was 83.0% (308/371) and blastocyst rate at day 8 was 34.7% (107/308). Among in vitro produced blastocyst embryos at day 8, most healthy embryos were freshly transferred on production day and some frozen embryos were direct transferred on appropriate day. These embryos were produced in a laboratory, embryo transfer (ET) was planned in 10 areas of the remote island (Jeju) from the laboratory by airplane. Thus, we examined the pregnancy rate in recipient cow according to embryo of transport time course before ET. From embryo transferred 44 recipient cows, overall pregnancy was 40.9% (18/44), these 18 cows were all calved [single, 94% (17/18); twin, 6% (1/18)] and total embryo implantation rate was 26% (19/66). Comparing transport time in the base of 6 hr, pregnancy rate in ET group required less 4 hr (60%, 9/15) was significantly higher than that required more 6 hr (26.3%, 5/19). In direct ET of freezing embryos, the pregnancy rate was 40% (4/10). However, it was difficult to find the meaning of temperature, pH and corpus luteum quality of recipients on comparison of pregnancy rate. When the cell death level of embryos according to storage time in thermos (straw container) before ET was measured by TUNEL staining, apoptotic index was increased with storage time-dependent. These results demonstrated that long distance transfer of IVM/IVF/IVC embryos is possible and the time of embryo transport is very important for the pregnancy rate on field trial.

          • The Laying Hen: An Animal Model for Human Ovarian Cancer

            Lee,,Jin-Young,Song,,Gwonhwa The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2013 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.37 No.1

            Ovarian cancer is the most lethal world-wide gynecological disease among women due to the lack of molecular biomarkers to diagnose the disease at an early stage. In addition, there are few well established relevant animal models for research on human ovarian cancer. For instance, rodent models have been established through highly specialized genetic manipulations, but they are not an excellent model for human ovarian cancer because histological features are not comparable to those of women, mice have a low incidence of tumorigenesis, and they experience a protracted period of tumor development. However, the laying hen is a unique and highly relevant animal model for research on human ovarian cancer because they spontaneously develop epithelial cell-derived ovarian cancer (EOC) as occurs in women. Our research group has identified common histological and physiological aspects of ovarian tumors from women and laying hens, and we have provided evidence for several potential biomarkers to detect, monitor and target for treatment of human ovarian cancers based on the use of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Therefore, this review focuses on ovarian cancer of laying hens and relevant regulatory mechanisms, based on genetic and epigenetic aspects of the disease in order to provide new information and to highlight the advantages of the laying hen model for research in ovarian carcinogenesis.

          • Optimization of Electrofusion Condition for the Production of Korean Cattle Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

            Kim,,Se-Woong,Kim,,Dae-Hwan,Jung,,Yeon-Gil,Roh,,Sang-Ho The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2011 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.35 No.1

            This study was designed to determine the effect of electric field strength, duration and fusion buffer in fusion parameters on the rate of membrane fusion between the somatic cell and cytoplast for Korean cattle (HanWoo) somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedure. Following electrofusion, effect of 5 or $10\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore of activation treatment on subsequent development was also evaluated. Cell fusion rates were significantly increased from 23.1% at 20 V/mm to 59.7% at 26 V/mm and 52.9% at 27 V/mm (p<0.05). Due to higher cytoplasmic membrane rupture or cellular lysis, overall efficiency was decreased when the strength was increased to 30 V/mm (18.5%) and 40 V/mm (6.3%) and the fusion rate was also decreased when the strength was at 25 V/mm or below. The optimal duration of electric stimulation was significantly higher in $25\;{\mu}s$ than 20 and $30\;{\mu}s$ (18.5% versus 9.3% and 6.3%, respectively, p<0.05). Two nonelectrolyte fusion buffers, Zimmermann's (0.28 M sucrose) and 0.28 M mannitol solution for cell fusion, were used for donor cell and ooplast fusion and the fusion rate was significantly higher in Zimmermann's cell fusion buffer than in 0.28 M mannitol (91.1% versus 48.4%, respectively, p<0.05). The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of SCNT bovine embryos activated by $5\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore was significantly higher than the rates of the embryos activated with $10\;{\mu}M$ of $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore (70.0% versus 42.9% and 22.5% versus 14.3%, respectively; p<0.05). This result is the reverse to that of parthenotes which shows significantly higher cleavage and blastocyst rates in $10\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore than $5\;{\mu}M$ counterpart (65.6% versus 40.3% and 19.5% versus 9.7%, respectively; p<0.05). In conclusion, SCNT couplet fusion by single pulse of 26 V/mm for $25\;{\mu}s$ in Zimmermann's fusion buffer followed by artificial activation with $5\;{\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$-ionophore are suggested as optimal fusion and activation methods in Korean cattle SCNT protocol.

          • Effects of Recipient Oocyte and Embryo Culture System on Production of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Somatic Cell Nuclear Transferred Embryos

            Kim,,Dong-Hoon,Kim,,Se-Woong,Lee,,Min-Jung,Bae,,Seong-Hoon,Im,,Gi-Sun,Lim,,Hyun-Joo,Yang,,Byoung-Chul,Seong,,Hwan-Hoo The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2008 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.32 No.3

            This study was conducted to investigate an effective recipient oocyte and culture system for producing of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Hanwoo ear skin fibroblasts were used as donor cells. In vitro matured Hanwoo or Holstein oocytes were enucleated, and single donor cells were transferred into the perivitelline space of the enucleated oocytes. The couplets were subsequently fused and activated. The reconstructed embryos were cultured in a conventional or sequential culture system. In the former, embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium for eight days; in the latter, embryos were cultured in modified CR2aa-A (mCR2-A) for three days and then further cultured in modified CR2aa-B (mCR2-B) for five days. In the experiment with the recipient oocyte, the rate of embryo development to the blastocyst stage was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Hanwoo recipient oocytes than in Holstein ones (48.8% vs 38.9%). BIastocysts derived from Hanwoo recipient oocytes contained significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers of total cells than those derived from Holstein recipient oocytes ($156.0{\pm}68.2$ vs $134.7{\pm}54.8$). There was no difference in the mean proportion of apoptotic cells in blastocysts between the sources of recipient oocytes. In the experiment with the embryo culture system, the blastocyst rate was somewhat higher in sequential system than in conventional system (50.0% vs 43.5%), though there was no significant difference. The numbers of total ($160.0{\pm}69.0$ vs $156.7{\pm}68.4$) and apoptotic cells ($14.0{\pm}10.4$ vs $11.8{\pm}6.4$) were not different between the culture systems. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Hanwoo recipient oocytes and the sequential culture system were more effective in supporting the production of Hanwoo SCNT embryos.

          • Application of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Mammals

            Li,,Xiao,Xia,Lee,,Kyung,Bon,Lee,,Ji,Hye,Kim,,Keun,Jung,Park,,Kang,Sun,Kim,,Min,Kyu The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2013 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.37 No.2

            For more than two decades, the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique has been used as a valuable tool to provide opportunities for studying fertilization, treating human infertility, and producing transgenic animals. Not only in facilitating fertilization but also in propagating mammalian species, ICSI has enhanced the potential of assisted reproductive technologies in human. Polyspermic fertilization has been one of major problems in pig reproduction, but the ICSI helped to solve the problem, and used widely to generate transgenic piglets. Although the ICSI technique is considered to be a very useful tool in assisted reproductive technologies, including generation of transgenic animals, there are some disadvantages using the technique. In this review, we describe the ICSI technique and its application in animal production and human infertility, and discuss advantage and disadvantage of the technique in mammals.

          • Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Growth using Genome Scanning in Korean Native Pig

            Lee,,H.K.,Choi,,I.S.,Choi,,B.H.,Kim,,T.H.,Jung,,I.J. The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2004 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.28 No.2

            Molecular genetic markers were genotyped used to detect chromosomal regions which contain economically important traits such as growth traits in pigs. Three generation resource population was constructed from a cross between the Korean native boars and Landrace sows. A total of 193 F2 animals from intercross of F1 were produced. Phenotypic data on 7 traits, birth weight, body weight at 3, 5, 12, 30 weeks of age, live empty weight were collected for F2 animals. Animals including grandparents (F0), parents (F1), offspring (F2) were genotyped for 194 microsatellite markers covering from chromosome 1 to 18. Quantitative trait locus analyses were performed using interval mapping by regression under line-cross model. To characterize presence of imprinting, genetic full model in which dominance, additive and imprinting effect were included was fitted in this analysis. Significance thresholds were determined by permutation test. Using imprinting full model, four QTL with expression of imprinted effect were detected at 5% chromosome-wide significance level for growth traits on chromosome 1, 5, 7, 13, 14, and 16.

          • Minipigs as Laboratory Animals: Facility Management and Husbandry

            Koo,,Ok-Jae,Jang,,Goo,Lee,,Byeong-Chun The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2012 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.36 No.1

            Minipigs are regarded as one of the most important laboratory animal in that anatomical and physiological properties are similar to human and their reproduction efficiency is relatively higher compared to other large animal species. Particularly, several diseases that cannot be mimicked in rodent models are successfully occurred or induced in pig models therefore it has been interested in a valuable model for human diseases. Pigs are also 'standard' species in xenotransplantation research. To maximize experimental outcome using minipigs, establishment and management of proper animal facility, right animal husbandry and control of pathogens are very important. In this review, we summarized several international guidelines related with minipigs published by several companies or governments and discuss optimal conditions for providing informative ideas to the researchers who want to use minipigs in their future studies.

          • A Role of Unsaturated Fatty Acid in Animal Reproductive Cells and Biology

            Hwangbo,,Yong,Kim,,Hwa-Young,Lee,,Yu-Rim,Lee,,Seung,Tae,Lee,,EunSong,Cheong,,Hee-Tae,Yang,,Boo-Keun,Park,,Choon-Keun The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2016 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.40 No.2

            As a one of unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have multiple actions: as precursor of prostaglandins (PGs), steroid hormone synthesis and energy production in animal reproduction. PUFAs, which include omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6), are derived from the diet and changed by diet, species, breed and season. The plasma membrane of spermatozoa in mammals contain various PUFAs. These composition of PUFAs regulate the membrane fluidity and cause lipid peroxidation via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Induced lipid peroxidation by ROS decreased viability and motility of spermatozoa, and it is reduced by addition of antioxidant and low concentration of PUFAs. Because oocytes of animal have a high lipid components, process of oocyte maturation and embryo development are influenced by PUFAs. In in vitro study, oocyte maturation, embryo development, intracellular cAMP and MAPK activity were increased by treatment of n-3 ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (ALA) during maturation, whereas n-6 linoleic acid (LA) negatively influenced. Also, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism in oocyte influenced blastocyst formation of cattle. PGs are synthesized from PUFAs and various PUFAs influence PGs via regulation of PG-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS). Steroid hormone synthesis from cholesterol is regulated by expression of steroid acute regulator (StAR) protein and mRNA. Exogenous n-3 and n-6 PUFAs altered sex hormone in animal through stimulate or inhibit StAR activity. Because PUFAs altered PG and steroid hormone synthesis, follicular development was influenced by PUFAs. This effect of unsaturated fatty acid could provide information for improvement of reproductive ability in animals.

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