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      • Application of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in Mammals

        Li, Xiao Xia,Lee, Kyung Bon,Lee, Ji Hye,Kim, Keun Jung,Park, Kang Sun,Kim, Min Kyu The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2013 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.37 No.2

        For more than two decades, the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique has been used as a valuable tool to provide opportunities for studying fertilization, treating human infertility, and producing transgenic animals. Not only in facilitating fertilization but also in propagating mammalian species, ICSI has enhanced the potential of assisted reproductive technologies in human. Polyspermic fertilization has been one of major problems in pig reproduction, but the ICSI helped to solve the problem, and used widely to generate transgenic piglets. Although the ICSI technique is considered to be a very useful tool in assisted reproductive technologies, including generation of transgenic animals, there are some disadvantages using the technique. In this review, we describe the ICSI technique and its application in animal production and human infertility, and discuss advantage and disadvantage of the technique in mammals.

      • Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Bovine Genome

        Lim, Dajeong,Cho, Yong-Min,Lee, Seung-Hwan,Chai, Han-Ha,Kim, Tae-Hun The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2013 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.37 No.4

        Many countries have implemented genetic evaluation for fertility traits in recent years. In particular, reproductive trait is a complex trait and need to require a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with reproductive trait, we applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis from expression value of bovine genes. We identified three co-expressed modules associated with reproductive trait from bovine microarray data. Hub genes (ZP4, FHL2 and EGR4) were determined in each module; they were topologically centered with statistically significant value in the gene co-expression network. We were able to find the highly co-expressed gene pairs with a correlation coefficient. Finally, the crucial functions of co-expressed modules were reported from functional enrichment analysis. We suggest that the network-based approach in livestock may an important method for analyzing the complex effects of candidate genes associated with economic traits like reproduction.

      • Minipigs as Laboratory Animals: Facility Management and Husbandry

        Koo, Ok-Jae,Jang, Goo,Lee, Byeong-Chun The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2012 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.36 No.1

        Minipigs are regarded as one of the most important laboratory animal in that anatomical and physiological properties are similar to human and their reproduction efficiency is relatively higher compared to other large animal species. Particularly, several diseases that cannot be mimicked in rodent models are successfully occurred or induced in pig models therefore it has been interested in a valuable model for human diseases. Pigs are also 'standard' species in xenotransplantation research. To maximize experimental outcome using minipigs, establishment and management of proper animal facility, right animal husbandry and control of pathogens are very important. In this review, we summarized several international guidelines related with minipigs published by several companies or governments and discuss optimal conditions for providing informative ideas to the researchers who want to use minipigs in their future studies.

      • Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Growth using Genome Scanning in Korean Native Pig

        Lee, H.K.,Choi, I.S.,Choi, B.H.,Kim, T.H.,Jung, I.J. The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2004 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.28 No.2

        Molecular genetic markers were genotyped used to detect chromosomal regions which contain economically important traits such as growth traits in pigs. Three generation resource population was constructed from a cross between the Korean native boars and Landrace sows. A total of 193 F2 animals from intercross of F1 were produced. Phenotypic data on 7 traits, birth weight, body weight at 3, 5, 12, 30 weeks of age, live empty weight were collected for F2 animals. Animals including grandparents (F0), parents (F1), offspring (F2) were genotyped for 194 microsatellite markers covering from chromosome 1 to 18. Quantitative trait locus analyses were performed using interval mapping by regression under line-cross model. To characterize presence of imprinting, genetic full model in which dominance, additive and imprinting effect were included was fitted in this analysis. Significance thresholds were determined by permutation test. Using imprinting full model, four QTL with expression of imprinted effect were detected at 5% chromosome-wide significance level for growth traits on chromosome 1, 5, 7, 13, 14, and 16.

      • A Role of Unsaturated Fatty Acid in Animal Reproductive Cells and Biology

        Hwangbo, Yong,Kim, Hwa-Young,Lee, Yu-Rim,Lee, Seung Tae,Lee, EunSong,Cheong, Hee-Tae,Yang, Boo-Keun,Park, Choon-Keun The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2016 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.40 No.2

        As a one of unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have multiple actions: as precursor of prostaglandins (PGs), steroid hormone synthesis and energy production in animal reproduction. PUFAs, which include omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6), are derived from the diet and changed by diet, species, breed and season. The plasma membrane of spermatozoa in mammals contain various PUFAs. These composition of PUFAs regulate the membrane fluidity and cause lipid peroxidation via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Induced lipid peroxidation by ROS decreased viability and motility of spermatozoa, and it is reduced by addition of antioxidant and low concentration of PUFAs. Because oocytes of animal have a high lipid components, process of oocyte maturation and embryo development are influenced by PUFAs. In in vitro study, oocyte maturation, embryo development, intracellular cAMP and MAPK activity were increased by treatment of n-3 ${\alpha}$-linolenic acid (ALA) during maturation, whereas n-6 linoleic acid (LA) negatively influenced. Also, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism in oocyte influenced blastocyst formation of cattle. PGs are synthesized from PUFAs and various PUFAs influence PGs via regulation of PG-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS). Steroid hormone synthesis from cholesterol is regulated by expression of steroid acute regulator (StAR) protein and mRNA. Exogenous n-3 and n-6 PUFAs altered sex hormone in animal through stimulate or inhibit StAR activity. Because PUFAs altered PG and steroid hormone synthesis, follicular development was influenced by PUFAs. This effect of unsaturated fatty acid could provide information for improvement of reproductive ability in animals.

      • Long-Term Exposure of Sildenafil Citrate on Sperm Parameters in Rat

        Suresh, Sekar,Prithiviraj, Elumali,Venkatalakshmi, Nagella,Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik,Ganesh, Lakshmanan,Lee, Hyun-Jeong,Prakash, Seppan The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2011 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.35 No.4

        Sildenafil citrate (SIL) a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5I) has been used for long time as a first line oral drug for erectile dysfunction. Though it has beneficial effects on erectile organ it also has some adverse effects in other cells and/or tissues related to reproductive system when exposed to longer duration. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the long term effect of SIL on sperm parameters in Wistar albino rat. The animals are divided into two groups, for group I - rats were treated with saline (vehicle alone) and group - II oral administration of 5 mg/kg b.w. of SIL was administrated orally once in a day for 120 days. At the end of the trial period animals were sacrificed and epididymal sperm were subjected to various analysis. Results showed significant reduction in sperm count, motility, viability and morphologically intact sperm in long term PDE5I exposed animals when compared to control. Acrosomal status and fertility test also showed significant reduction in long term PDE5I exposed animals. The present study clearly indicated that long term SIL has shown to induce alteration in sperm quality and quantity, leading to decline in fertility rate. Indicate that SIL impinge on spermatogenesis as well as epididymal function. Understanding the molecular down-stream events involved in long-term exposure to PDE5 inhibitor can be valuable to supervise on related infertility issues and to suggest corrective measures.

      • Paternity Diagnosis using The Multiplex PCR with Microsatellite Markers in Dogs

        Kim, Seung-Chang,Jang, Hong-Chul,Kim, Lee-Kyung,Lim, Da-Jeong,Lee, Seung-Hwan,Cho, Yong-Min,Kim, Tae-Hun,Seong, Hwan-Hoo,Oh, Sung-Jong,Choi, Bong-Hwan The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2011 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.35 No.4

        The number of abandoned dogs is increasing with the worsening of the economy and the rising of feed value. It was becoming a serious social problem because of the disease transmission and destruction of natural ecosystems by abandoned dogs been wild animal. In order to solve these problems, companion dogs necessary to secure its own genetic information and to establish the systematic tracking system. Using multiplex-PCR method with 27 microsatellite marker (MS marker) divided 3 set, various alleles occurring to 6 dog breed (Labrador Retriever, German Shepherd, English Springer Spaniel, Belgian Malinois, Jindo Dog, PoongSan Dog) make use of markers to determine allele frequency and heterozygosity. MS marker FH2834 and FH2790 have only two allele and most were found in 13 alleles at FH3381 and FH3399. Average heterozygosity of MS marker is 0.534 and especially, heterozygosity represented the highest value of 0.765 at FH3381. So, it was recognized appropriate allele frequency for individual identification and paternity diagnosis in companion dogs. Using multiplex-PCR method with MS marker, various alleles occurring to dog breed make use of markers to deter mine individual identification and paternity diagnosis, traits associated biomarkers and breed-specific marker for faster, more accurate and ways to reduce the analysis cost. Based on this result, a scientific basis was established to the existing pedigree data by applying genetics additionally. Animal registration system is expected to be conducted nationwide in future. The method expects to very useful this system.

      • Characterizations of Cell Lineage Markers in the Bone Marrow Cells of Recloned GFP Pigs for Possible Use of Stem Cell Population

        Park, Kwang-Wook,Choi, Sung-Sik,Lee, Dong-Ho,Lee, Hwang,Choi, Seung-Kyu,Park, Chang-Sik,Lee, Sang-Ho The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2011 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.35 No.1

        Two piglets and one juvenile pig were used to investigate closely what types of cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and if any, whether the GFP-tagged cells could be used for stem cell transplantation research as a middle-sized animal model in bone marrow cells of recloned GFP pigs. Bone marrow cells were recovered from the tibia, and further analyzed with various cell lineage markers to determine which cell lineage is concurrently expressing visible GFP in each individual animal. In the three animals, visible GFP were observed only in proportions of the plated cells immediately after collection, showing 41, 2 and 91% of bone marrow cells in clones #1, 2 and 3, respectively. The intensity of the visible GFP expression was variable even in an individual clone depending on cell sizes and types. The overall intensities of GFP expression were also different among the individual clones from very weak, weak to strong. Upon culture for 14 days in vitro (14DIV), some cell types showed intensive GFP expression throughout the cells; in particular, in cytoskeletons and the nucleus, on the other hand. Others are shown to be diffused GFP expression patterns only in the cytoplasm. Finally, characterization of stem cell lineage markers was carried out only in the clone #3 who showed intensive GFP expression. SSEA-1, SSEA-3, CD34, nestin and GFAP were expressed in proportions of the GFP expressing cells, but not all of them, suggesting that GFP expression occur in various cell lineages. These results indicate that targeted insertion of GFP gene should be pursued as in mouse approach to be useful for stem cell research. Furthermore, cell- or tissue-specific promoter should also be used if GFP pig is going to be meaningful for a model for stem cell transplantation.

      • Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity Diminishes Pressure Overloaded Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

        Hong, Yun-Kyung,Song, Jong-Wook,Lee, Sang-Kil,Lee, Young-Jeon,Rho, Gyu-Jin,Kim, Joo-Heon,Hong, Yong-Geun The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2011 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.35 No.2

        To explore the role of histone deactylase (HDAC) activation in an in vivo model of hypertrophy, we studied the effects of Trichostatin A (TSA). TSA subjected to thoracic aortic banding (TAB)-induced pressure stress in mice. In histological observations, TAB in treated mice showed a significant hypertrophic response, whereas the sham operation remained nearly normal structure with partially blunted hypertrophy. TSA treatment had no effect (measured as HW/BW) on sham-operated animals. TAB animals treated with vehicle manifested a robust ~50% hypertrophic response (p<0.05 vs sham). TAB mice treated with 2 mg/kg/day TSA manifested a blunted growth responses, which was significantly diminished (p<0.05) compared with vehicle-treated TAB mice. TAB mice treated with a lower dose of TSA (0.5 mg/kg/day) manifested a similar blunting of hypertrophic growth (~25% increase in heart mass). Furthermore, to determine activity duration of TSA in vitro, 1 nM TSA was added to H9c2 cells. Histone acetylation was initiated at 4 hr after treatment, and it was peak up to 18 hr, then followed by significantly reduced to 30 hr. We also analyzed the expression of p53 following TSA treatment, wherein p53 expression was elevated at 4 hr, and it was maintained to 24 hr after treatment. ERK was activated at 8 hr, and maintained till 30 hr after treatment suggesting an intracellular signaling interaction between TSA and p53 expression Taken together, it is suggested that HDAC activation is required for pressure-overload growth of the heart. Eventually, these data suggest that histone acetylation may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in pressure-overloaded cardiac hypertrophy.

      • Polyclonal Antibody to a 37-kDa Recombinant Protein Derived from Bovine $20{\alpha}$-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

        Naidansuren, Purevjargal,Min, Kwan-Sik The Korean Society of Animal Reproduction 2012 Reproductive & developmental biology Vol.36 No.2

        We prepared the polyclonal antibody anti-$20{\alpha}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (anti-$20{\alpha}$-HSD) against the recombinant full-length protein bovine $20{\alpha}$-HSD in Escherichia coli. The specificity of anti-$20{\alpha}$-HSD was demonstrated using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with recombinant bovine $20{\alpha}$-HSD and bovine placental tissues. According to western blot analysis, anti-$20{\alpha}$-HSD specifically recognizes the 37-kDa protein bovine $20{\alpha}$-HSD. The protein is not present in untransfected CHO cells. Anti-$20{\alpha}$-HSD also recognizes a specific protein in the ovaries and placenta of other animals. Immunostaining was used to detect expression of bovine $20{\alpha}$-HSD protein in the cultured luteal cells during the estrous cycle later.

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