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        • Molecular DNA Systematic Analyses of East Asian Mammals: Sequence Variation of Cytochrome b Gene and Control Region of Mitochondrial DNA of Common Otter, Lutra lutra lutra L. (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Korea

          Koh,,Hung-Sun,Yoo,,Mi-Hyeon,Lee,,Bae-Geun,Park,,Jeong-Gyu The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 2004 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.8 No.3

          Sequences of cytochrome b gene and control region of mitochondrial DNA from Korean common otters (Lutra lutra lutra L.) were examined to provide the genetic information for the conservation of this subspecies. Two haplotypes and one haplotype were revealed in cytochrome b gene and control region, respectively. The available sequences of European common otter (L. l. lutra) from GenBank were compared together with those of Korean common otter in order to determine the degree of sequence variation between them. In cytochrome b gene sequences, two haplotypes from Korea and two haplotypes of Europe showed differences in 12 of 1,045 sites. The Tamura-Nei nucleotide distances between two European haplotypes was 0.10% and those between two Korean haplotypes was also 0.10%, but those between Korean haplotypes and European ones ranged from 0.96% to 1.16%. In the control region, one Korean haplotype and seven European ones showed differences in seven of 300 sites; the Tamura-Nei distances among seven European haplotypes were 0.34% to 1.01%, but those between Korean haplotype and European ones ranged from 1.01% to 1.69%. Although further molecular and morphological studies with specimens from eastern Asia including Amur region and northeast China are needed, it is possible that the Korean common otter might be closer or identical to the far-eastern Asian common otter, L. l. amurensis Dybowski.

        • Genetic Relationship Between Korean and Mongolian Populations Based on the Y Chromosome DNA Variation

          Jin,,Han-Jun,Kim,,Wook The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 2003 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.7 No.2

          We analyzed seven Y chromosome binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y_711,\;M9,\;M175,\;LINE1,\;SRY_+465$ and 47z) in samples from a total of 254 males from Koreans and tow Mongolian ethnic groups (Buryat and Khalkh) to study the genetic relationship among these populations. We found eight distinct Y haplogroups constructed from the seven binary markers. Haplogroup DE-YAP was present at extremely low frequencies (∼2%) in the Korean and Mongolian populations. This result is consistent with earlier reports that showed the YAP+ chromosomes to be highly polymorphic only in populations from Japan and Tibet in east Asia. The observed high frequency of haplogroup $C-RPS4Y_711$ in the Mongolian populations (∼40%) is concordant with recent findings, showing that the $RPS4Y_711$-T chromosomes were distributed at high frequencies in Siberian and Mongolian populations compared with most other populations from east Asia. Thus, the relatively moderate frequency of haplogroup $C-RPS4Y_711$ in Korean (∼15%) can be seen as genetic evidence for probable interaction with Mongolian and/or Siberian populations. In contrast, the majority (∼75%) of modern Koreans studied here had high frequencies of Y chromosome lineages of haplogroup O-M175 and additional haplogroupts that define sublineage of O-M175, which are most likely related with modern populations in China. In conclusion, our data on the Y chromosome haplogroup distribution may provide evidence for interaction between Korean and Mongolian populations, but Korean tend to be much more related with those from southern-to-northern populations of China than to Mongolians in east Asia.

        • Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Kaloula borealis (Anura, Microhylidae) in Korea

          Yang,,Suh-Yung,Kim,,Jong-Bum,Min,,Mi-Sook,Suh,,Jae-Hwa,Kang,,Young-Jin The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 2000 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.4 No.1

          To assess the genetic diversity and population structure of Korean K. borealis, allozyme analysis was performed. The average genetic variability of Korean K. borealis populations was %P=13.2, Ho=0.048, and He=0.045. This value was the lowest in comparison with other Korean amphibian species studied. Also, the value was much lower than that of a reference population from Chinese K. borealis (%P=50, Ho=0.125, He=0.172). Wright's F-statistics showed that Korean K. borealis has distinctly low level of gene flow among regional populations (F$_{ST}$=0.339, Nm=0.487) in comparison with other Korean amphibian species studied. However, the average level of genetic divergence among Korean K. borealis populations was moderate (Nei's D=0.020). Therefore, it appeared that low levels of genetic diversity (He=0.045) and gene flow (Nm=0.487) among regional populations ave probably due to the results of decreasing population size and patchy distribution of this species in Korea.

        • Diversity of Subcortical Arthropod Communities in Tropical and Temperate Forests

          조재천,Choe,,Jae-Chun The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 1997 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.1 No.4

          Species diversity of subcortical arthropod communities were assessed in two tropical regions and two temperate regions. In the tropics, communities of subcortical arthropods were more diverse in La Selva, Costa Rica, than on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Costa Rican communties yielses higher values of both Shannon and Simpson diversity indices than Panamanian communities. Compared to Panamanian communities, Costa Rican ones supported higher measures of both species richness and evenness. Between the two temperate regions, communities of subcortical arthropods in Korea scored consistently higher values of both Shannon and Simpson indices than the ones in eastern Massachusetts, U.S.A. When individual diversity components were compared, however, Korean communities yielded exceptionally high evenness measures but lower species richness than the communities in the U.S.A. Unusually high evenness values of Korean subcortical arthropods were due to extremely low population densities of all component species.

        • Distribution of the 9-bp Deletion in Coll/$tRNA^{Lys}$ Intergenic Region of Mitochondrial DNA is Relatively Homogeneous in East Asian Populations

          홍성수,이충추,Hong,,Seong-Su,Horai,,Satoshi,Lee,,Chung-Choo The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 1998 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.2 No.2

          A deletion of one out of the two copies of 9-bp repeat sequence (CCCCCTCTA), between the cytochrome oxidase II and Iysine tranfer RNA (COII/$tRNA^{Lys}$) genes in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used as a polymorphic anthropological marker for people of east Asian origin, and to lesser extent, Pacific and African populations. We searched for the 9-bp deletion of the intergenic COII/$tRNA^{Lys}$ Lys region in two Korean populations (175 from Seoul and 38 from Cheju) and examine the distibution of this deletion in world populations. The 9-bp deletion was detected directly by electrophoresis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified nucleotide(nt) 8211-8310 mtDNA fragment. The frequencies of the 9-bp deletion were significantly different between the Seoul (16%) and Cheju (8%) populations. Examination of data from the world populations suggests a geographic gradient. The frequency reaches its highest values in some Pacific island populations and decreases along the southeast Asia-Siberia transect. In spite of this geographic gradient, Mongoloid populations including Korean, Chinese, Japanese, and Mongolian populations were relatively homo-geneous with regard to the 9-bp deletion type of the intergenic COII/$tRNA^{Lys}$ region. These results indicate Koreans are genetically related to northeast Asian populations, and have a maternal mongoloid ancestry. Therefore, the 9-bp deletion of the intergenic COII/$tRNA^{Lys}$ region will provide significant information to elucidate the historical patterns of migration of the Mongoloids.

        • A Taxonomy of Korean Isopyroideae (Ranunculaceae)

          Lee,,Nam-Sook,Yeau,,Sung-Hee The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 1998 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.2 No.4

          To discuss the taxonomic dispositions of Korean Isopyroideae (Ranunculaceae) taxa, principal components analysis and cluster analysis were performed using quantitative and qualitative morphological characters. The principal components analysis revealed that the size and number of ovule, ovary width, ratio of style length/ovary length, filament length, sepal size, style length, leaf size, and ovary length are important characters to distinguish Korean Isopyroideae taxa. The cluster and principal components analyses based on both quantitative and quantitative characters demonstrate that lsopyrum mandshuricum is more closely related to Enemion raddeanum than to Semiaquilegia adoxoides. Even though Enemion s not separated from Isopyrum by uantitative characters, they are distinguished by qualitative characters, suggesting that our taxa, Enemion, Semiaquilegia, Isopyrum and Aquilegia, should be recognized in Korean Isopyroideae. In addition, cluster analyses suggest that S. adoxoides could be separated from Aquilegia buergeriana var, oxysepala.

        • PCR-Based Polymorphic Analysis for the Y Chromosomal Loci DYS19 and DXYS5Y (47z) in the Korean Population

          신동직,김영진,김욱,Shin,,Dong-Jik,Kim,,Yung-Jin,Kim,,Wook The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 1998 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.2 No.2

          We examined Y chromosomal DNA polymorphisms at the DYS19 and DXYS5Y loci in a total of 480 unrelated male samples from the Korean population. All five common alleles were identified at the tetranucleotide microsatellite locus DYS19 in this study. The C allele was the most frequent (212/480), followed by D (136/480), B (75/480), E (36/480) and A (21/480) allele. The frequency of Y2 allele at the DXYS5Y locus was found to be 4.6% (22/480). Combining the allelic variation at these two loci resulted in a total of 9 combination haplotypes. The mean combination haplotype diversity wIns 0.72. Based on the results of these two loci, Korean and Japanese populations may share some common genetic structure that is rare or absent in the other ethnic groups. The genetic similarity between Korean and Japanese populations may be due to the large infusion of Y chromosomes through the Yayoi migration starting 2,300 years ago from Korea to Japan.

        • A taxonomic Reinvestigation of the Collared Many-toothed Snake Sibynophis collaris Gray (Reptiles: Serpentes: Colubridae) from Jeju Island, Korea

          Kim,,Byoung-Soo,Oh,,Hong-Shik The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 2006 Integrative biosciences Vol.10 No.3

          In this study we reinvestigated the taxonomy of the collared many-toothed snake (Korean name: Bibaribem) of Jeju Island, Korea. The Bibari-bem is a colubrid indigenous to Jeju Island and was first assigned to S. collaris Gray. However, the geographic distribution of S. collaris is not continuous with the Korean peninsula, making it doubtful that Bibari-bem should be assigned to it. Some herpetologists have suggested that Bibari-bem may instead belong to the closely related S. chinensis G?nther. To resolve this conflict, we compared the diagnostic characteristics of S. collaris and S. chinensis as described in the literature with the characteristics of individuals collected on Jeju Island. We collected six individuals with one preocular, two postocular, two anterior temporal, and no lower ocular scales. Five individuals had nine (3-3-3 form) supralabials, among which fourth to sixth are touching the orbit and the ninth is the largest. One individual had eight (2-3-3 form) supralabials, third to fifth touching the orbit, with the eighth being the largest. These data suggest that Bibari-bem is not S. collaris, but S. chinensis.

        • Genetic Polymorphisms of t-PA and PAI-1 Genes in the Korean Population

          Kang,,Byung-Yong,Lee,,Kang-Oh The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 2003 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.7 No.3

          Abnormalities in fibrinolysis system is associated with risk of hypertension. In this report, the Alu repeat insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and the Hind III RFLP of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genes were investigated in 115 normotensives and 83 patients with hypertension, and their association with anthropometrical data and plasma biochemical parameters were analyzed. There were no significant differences in the gene frequencies of the two candidate genes between normotensives and hypertensives, respectively. Our results indicate lack of associations between the two polymorph isms in t-PA and PAI-1 genes and risk of hypertension in the population under study. However, the Hind III RFLP of PAI-1 gene was significantly associated with plasma glucose level, suggesting its role in glucose metabolism. It needs to be tested whether this RFLP of PAI-1 gene is associated with insulin resistance syndrome or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in the Korean population.

        • Molecular Systematics of Korean Cobitids Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Sequence

          Kim,,So-Young,Kim,,Chang-Bae,Kim,,Ik-Soo,Park,,Jong-Young,Park,,Ho-Yong The Korean Society for Integrative Biology 2002 Korean journal of biological sciences Vol.6 No.1

          We compared the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of Korean and European cobitids to provide independent evidence for assessment of systematic and biogeographic relationships of species in the genus Cobitis. The data suggested monophyly of the genus Cobitis and the inclusion of Korean Cobitis species within the group having one lamina circularis, a primitive condition. Also, all the phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor joining methods showed a monophyletic relationship among Cobitis. The basal position of the Caspian C. cf. sibirica reported here reflects the eastern Asiatic origin cf. the European Cobitis and establishes C. cf. sibirica as an independent lineage. The Korean C. pacifica diverged next to C. cf. sibirica in basal group from the genus Cobitis. This result is in agreement with the hypothesized Asiatic origin of some European freshwater fish lineages. The phylogenetic relationships in this study showed a close affinity between C. zanadreai and C. sinensis. Two new species, C. tetralineata and C. pacifica in Korea also are closely related to monophyletic group clustering the type species of the Acanestrinia subgenus (C. elongata) with all the endemic Italian species (C. bilineata and C. zanandreai). This may suggest that the affinity between the Korean and Danubian-Italian imply genetic convergence or genetic plesiomorphic state between allopatric species that are separated for the Miocene. The mtDNA-based phylogeny for the species of the genus Cobitis from Kores and Europe permits phylogenetic assessment of the morphological transitions of Iamina circularis.

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