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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Pain Passport as a tool to improve analgesic use in children with suspected fractures in emergency departments

        Hwang, Soyun,Choi, Yoo Jin,Jung, Jae Yun,Choi, Yeongho,Ham, Eun Mi,Park, Joong Wan,Kwon, Hyuksool,Kim, Do Kyun,Kwak, Young Ho The Korean Pain Society 2020 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.33 No.4

        Background: In the emergency department (ED), adequate pain control is essential for managing patients; however, children with pain are known to receive less analgesia than adults with pain. We introduce the Pain Passport to improve pain management in paediatric patients with suspected fractures in the ED. Methods: This was a before-and-after study. We reviewed the medical records of paediatric patients who were primarily diagnosed with fractures from May to August 2015. After the introduction of the Pain Passport, eligible children were enrolled from May to August 2016. Demographics, analgesic administration rates, time intervals between ED arrival and analgesic administration, and satisfaction scores were obtained. We compared the analgesic prescription rate between the two periods using multiple logistic regression. Results: A total of 58 patients were analysed. The baseline characteristics of subjects during the two periods were not significantly different. Before the introduction of the Pain Passport, 9 children (31.0%) were given analgesics, while after the introduction of the Pain Passport, a significantly higher percentage of patients (24/29, 82.8%) were treated with analgesics (P < 0.001). The median administration times were 112 (interquartile range [IQR], 64-150) minutes in the pre-intervention period and 24 (IQR, 20-74) minutes in the post-intervention period. The median satisfaction score for the post-intervention period was 4 (IQR, 3-5). The adjusted odds ratio for providing analgesics in the post-intervention period was 25.91 (95% confidence interval, 4.36-154.02). Conclusions: Patient-centred pain scoring with the Pain Passport improved pain management in patients with suspected fractures in the paediatric ED.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        A novel excisional wound pain model for evaluation of analgesics in rats

        Parra, Sergio,Thanawala, Vaidehi J.,Rege, Ajay,Giles, Heather The Korean Pain Society 2021 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.34 No.2

        Background: Management of pain from open wounds is a growing unmet healthcare need. However, the models available to study pain from wounds or to develop analgesics for the patients suffering from them have primarily relied on incisional models. Here, we present the first characterized and validated model of open wound pain. Methods: Unilateral full-skin excisional punch biopsy wounds on rat hind paws were evaluated for evoked pain using withdrawal responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation, and spontaneous pain was measured using hind paw weight distribution and guarding behavior. Evaluations were done before wounding (baseline) and 2-96 hours post-wounding. The model was validated by testing the effects of buprenorphine and carprofen. Results: Pain responses to all tests increased within 2 hours post-wounding and were sustained for at least 4 days. Buprenorphine caused a reversal of all four pain responses at 1 and 4 hours post-treatment compared to 0.9% saline (P < 0.001). Carprofen decreased the pain response to thermal stimulation at 1 (P ≤ 0.049) and 4 hours (P < 0.011) post-treatment compared to 0.9% saline, but not to mechanical stimulation. Conclusions: This is the first well-characterized and validated model of pain from open wounds and will allow study of the pathophysiology of pain in open wounds and the development of wound-specific analgesics.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Opioid Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Noncancer Pain: The American Experience

        Chapman, C. Richard The Korean Pain Society 2013 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.26 No.1

        Chronic noncancer pain is a significant and growing public health challenge in the United States. Lacking effective alternative interventions for effective chronic noncancer pain management, many physicians have turned to opioid pharmacotherapy. Increased opioid prescribing brings not only gains in therapeutic benefit but also a higher incidence of adverse drug events including increased medication misuse and opioid related mortality. Currently the United States must confront the dual problems of widespread undertreated chronic noncancer pain and a prescription opioid abuse crisis. Withholding pain relieving drugs from patients in need is unjustifiable, yet drug diversion, abuse and adverse drug events have become major social as well as medical problems. At the heart of this crisis is the lack of definitive evidence about the risk to benefit ratio of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain both on an individual case and on a population basis. This article describes the extent and severity of the American chronic noncancer pain problem and the history of opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain in the United States. It then discusses the concept of evidence based practice and reviews current evidence supporting opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic noncancer pain as well as adverse drug events related to opioid pharmacotherapy including misuse and abuse. Finally, it considers the conflict of providing pain relief versus protecting society and reviews steps that governmental agencies, industry and others are taking to contain and ultimately resolve the problems of excessive prescribing and conflicting priorities.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Evaluation of Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life and Functioning in Men with Spinal Cord Injury

        Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh,Khak, Mohammad,Afshari-Mirak, Sohrab,Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh,Saadat, Soheil,Taheri, Taher,Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa The Korean Pain Society 2015 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.28 No.2

        Background: Pain is one of the most important consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI). It may affect several aspects of life, especially the quality of life (QoL). Hence, this study was conducted to establish an understanding of pain and its correlates and effects on patients with SCI in our community. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 58 male veterans suffering from SCI were admitted to our center for a regular follow-up. Demographic and SCI-related descriptive information were gathered using a self-reported questionnaire. To evaluate the patients' pain quality and the effect of pain on daily life, a questionnaire in 3 parts of lumbar, cervical and shoulder pain was administered. EuroQoL questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 were also used to assess the patients' QoL. Results: The mean age of the participants was $45.91{\pm}6.69$ with mean injury time of $25.54{\pm}5.91$. forty-four patients (75.9%) reported pain, including lumbar pain (63%), cervical pain (39%) and shoulder pain (51%). The presence of pain was associated with lower QoL. Patients with lumbar pain reported a significant amount of pain affecting their daily life and this effect was higher in patients with lower GHQ score or anxiety/depressive disorder. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal pain, is a common complaint in veterans with SCI and is inversely associated with functioning and general health status. Lumbar and shoulder pain affects patient's daily living more than cervical pain.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Acceptance versus catastrophizing in predicting quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain

        Semeru, Gracia Mayuni,Halim, Magdalena S. The Korean Pain Society 2019 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.32 No.1

        Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain catastrophizing, acceptance, and quality of life in relation to chronic low back pain in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. We also analyze the effect of personality in catastrophizing and acceptance. Methods: A total of 52 chronic low back pain patients were enrolled as participants from 2 hospitals in Jakarta (43 females, 9 males, mean age 54.38 years). Participants completed a set of self-reported questionnaires: the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire-Revised (CPAQ-R), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Pain Discomfort Module (PDM). Results: This study showed that acceptance increased the patient's quality of life by giving physical relief from pain. In contrast, pain catastrophizing decreased the quality of life, and increased the patients' tendency to get frustrated, irritated, and anxious about the pain. From a personality perspective, the trait neuroticism may lead to a higher level of pain catastrophizing. Conclusions: This study showed that catastrophizing, compared with acceptance, had a greater impact on the patient's life by reducing its quality.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Neuroticism and pain catastrophizing aggravate response to pain in healthy adults: an experimental study

        Banozic, Adriana,Miljkovic, Ana,Bras, Marijana,Puljak, Livia,Kolcic, Ivana,Hayward, Caroline,Polasek, Ozren The Korean Pain Society 2018 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.31 No.1

        Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between neuroticism, pain catastrophizing, and experimentally induced pain threshold and pain tolerance in a healthy adult sample from two regions of the country of Croatia: the island of Korcula and city of Split. Methods: A total of 1,322 participants were enrolled from the Island of Korcula (n = 824) and the city of Split (n = 498). Participants completed a self-reported personality measure Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and pain catastrophizing questionnaire Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), followed by a mechanical pain pressure threshold and tolerance test. We have explored the mediating role of catastrophizing in the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity. Results: The results showed that pain catastrophizing partially mediated the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity, suggesting the importance of pain catastrophizing in increasing vulnerability to pain. The results also indicated gender-related differences, marked by the higher pain threshold and tolerance in men. Conclusions: This study adds to the understanding of the complex interplay between personality and pain, by providing a better understanding of such mechanisms in healthy adults.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Nicotine dependence and the International Association for the Study of Pain neuropathic pain grade in patients with chronic low back pain and radicular pain: is there an association?

        Schembri, Emanuel,Massalha, Victoria,Spiteri, Karl,Camilleri, Liberato,Lungaro-Mifsud, Stephen The Korean Pain Society 2020 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.33 No.4

        Background: This study investigated whether current smoking and a higher nicotine dependency were associated with chronic low back pain (LBP), lumbar related leg pain (sciatica) and/or radicular neuropathic pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients (mean age, 60.1 ± 13.1 yr). Demographic data, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) neuropathic pain grade, STarT Back tool, and the Fagerström test were completed. A control group (n = 50) was recruited. Results: There was a significant difference between current smokers and nonsmokers in the chronic LBP group in the mean pain score (P = 0.025), total STarT Back score (P = 0.015), worst pain location (P = 0.020), most distal pain radiation (P = 0.042), and in the IASP neuropathic pain grade (P = 0.026). There was a significant difference in the mean Fagerström score between the four IASP neuropathic pain grades (P = 0.005). Current smoking yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.071 (P = 0.011) for developing chronic LBP and sciatica, and an OR of 4.028 (P = 0.002) for obtaining an IASP "definite/probable" neuropathic pain grade, for both cohorts. The likelihood for chronic LBP and sciatica increased by 40.9% (P = 0.007), while the likelihood for an IASP neuropathic grade of "definite/probable" increased by 50.8% (P = 0.002), for both cohorts, for every one unit increase in the Fagerström score. Conclusions: A current smoking status and higher nicotine dependence increase the odds for chronic LBP, sciatica and radicular neuropathic pain.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Bone scintigraphy in patients with pain

        Shin, Seung Hyeon,Kim, Seong Jang The Korean Pain Society 2017 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.30 No.3

        Nuclear medicine imaging is widely used in pain medicine. Low back pain is commonly encountered by physicians, with its prevalence from 49% to 70%. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually used to evaluate the cause of low back pain, however, these findings from these scans could also be observed in asymptomatic patients. Bone scintigraphy has an additional value in patients with low back pain. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is defined as a painful disorder of the extremities, which is characterized by sensory, autonomic, vasomotor, and trophic disturbances. To assist the diagnosis of CRPS, three-phase bone scintigraphy is thought to be superior compared to other modalities, and could be used to rule out CRPS due to its high specificity. Studies regarding the effect of bone scintigraphy in patients with extremity pain have not been widely conducted. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are widely used imaging modalities for evaluating extremity pain. However, SPECT/CT has an additional role in assessing pain in the extremities.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        The phenomenology of pain in Parkinson's disease

        Camacho-Conde, Jose Antonio,Campos-Arillo, Victor Manuel The Korean Pain Society 2020 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.33 No.1

        Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is the second most common disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD includes both "motor" and "non-motor" symptoms, one of which is pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of pain in patients with PD. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 250 patients diagnosed with PD, 70% of which had mild to moderate PD (stages 2/3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale). The average age was 67.4 years, and the average duration since PD diagnosis was 7.1 years. Relevant data collected from PD patients were obtained from their personal medical history. Results: The prevalence of pain was found to be high (82%), with most patients (79.2%) relating their pain to PD. Disease duration was correlated with the frequency of intense pain (R: 0.393; P < 0.05). PD pain is most frequently perceived as an electrical current (64%), and two pain varieties were most prevalent (2.60 ± 0.63). Our findings confirm links between pain, its evolution over time, its multi-modal character, the wide variety of symptoms of PD, and the female sex. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the pain felt by PD patients is mainly felt as an electrical current, which contrasts with other studies where the pain is described as burning and itching. Our classification is innovative because it is based on anatomy, whereas those of other authors were based on syndromes.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Prevalence and trends of pain associated with chronic diseases and personal out-of-pocket medical expenditures in Korea

        Shin, Sun Mi The Korean Pain Society 2017 The Korean Journal of Pain Vol.30 No.2

        Background: There have been few studies about pain using a big data. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of pain, and trends of pain associated with chronic diseases and personal out-of-pocket medical expenditures over time. Methods: Subjects were 58,151 individuals, using the Korea Health Panel from 2009 to 2013. Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to identify the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of pain. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to find the trend over these 5 years. Results: Prevalence of mild and severe pain was 28.1% and 1.7% respectively. The ORs of mild and severe pain were 1.6 and 1.4 in females compared with males. From 2009 to 2013, numbers of chronic diseases producing mild pain were 2.1, 2.4, 2.8, 2.9, and 3.1 and those producing severe pain were 3.0, 3.4, 3.9, 4.2, and 4.4, respectively. After applying the average South Korean inflation rate by year over 5 years, the annual, personal out-of-pocket medical expenditures (unit: ₩1,000) for mild pain were 322, 349, 379, 420, and 461, and those for severe pain were 331, 399, 504, 546, and 569, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The pain prevalence was 29.8%. The numbers of chronic diseases and the personal out-of-pocket medical expenditures revealed increasing trends annually, especially in those with pain. Therefore, to eliminate and alleviate the pain, there needs to be further study for developing a systemic approach.

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