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A comparison of the antenna parameters for R-band (1.7-2.6 GHz) and S-band (2.6-3.95 GHz) standard gain horn antennas has been performed by the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), together with seven domestic participants from private companies and public institutions. Its purpose, as a proficiency test program of the 'Antenna Measurement Club' of KRISS, was to check equivalences in antenna parameter measurements between KRISS and the participants, particularly in the R-/S-band, to support antenna manufacturers and end users in Korea. The measurement parameters of this comparison are the power gain, radiation pattern, and reflection coefficient of the traveling standards for R-/S-band pyramidal standard gain horn antennas. The comparison used a gain comparison method and an extrapolation method to measure the power gain of the two traveling standards; the radiation patterns were measured in the far-field region of the transmitting and receiving antennas.
A medical environment in which patient information can be accessed anytime / anywhere is called a "ubiquitous environment". To realize such an environment, the installation of wireless LAN is quite effective. Because the maximum radio wave output (antenna power) is set low in Japan, it has been easy to safely introduce wireless LAN into hospitals, to date mainly into large hospitals. However, if the placement of access points is not done properly, problems will occur, such as signals not reaching the desired area. A solution to these types of problems is to do an electromagnetic-field propagation simulation, which should be performed before construction of the hospital. It is also necessary to protect against security problems, such as signal interception or illegal access. We herein show our procedures for the safe introduction of wireless LAN.
The DC power-bus for the PCB is loaded with metal walls on its selected sides and is characterized electromagnetically. This is a novel concept of approach to mitigate the spurious resonance and finally signal integrity problems. In particular, the peak at DC, which is always in the way to secure parallel-plates' EMC, can be completely removed by the proposed method. Through the findings of this study, the effect of metal-loading of the power-bus will be presented along with the impression that the suggested technique can tackle the headaches of signal integrity, ground bounce, EMIs.
We predict the electromagnetic wave propagation in space environments using geometrical optics. The effective indices of the troposphere, stratosphere, and ionosphere are computed, and the reflection, refraction, and attenuation of electromagnetic waves in space environments are calculated based on the ray tracing technique and geometrical optics. The influence of the refractive index and loss of atmosphere and the incident angle of the antenna on electromagnetic wave propagation is discussed.
An equivalent model has been developed to estimate the electromagnetic immunity for integrated circuits under a complex electromagnetic environment. The complete model is based on the characteristics of the equipment and physical configuration of the device under test (DUT) and describes the measurement setup as well as the target integrated circuits under test, the corresponding package, and a specially designed printed circuit board. The advantage of the proposed model is that it can be applied to a SPICE-like simulator and the immunity of the integrated circuits can be easily achieved without costly and time-consuming measurements. After simulation, measurements were performed to verify the accuracy of the equivalent model for immunity prediction. The improvement of measurement accuracy due to the added effect of a bi-directional coupler in the test setup is also addressed.
Electromagnetic penetration into an annular aperture in a thick conducting plane is investigated with the integral transform and eigen-function expansion method. The solution is analytic and is represented in rapidly-convergent series which is amenable to numerical analysis. Numerical computations shows that apertures with narrow annular gap have sharp transmit power peaks in frequency response.
We compared electromagnetic(EM) wave absorption properties between Alnico magnet (A) and (B) with different magnetic properties. Also, we investigated the effect of carbon, thickness of absorbers, and Alnico contents on EM wave absorption, and clarified the relation between Alnico content and central frequency.
This paper reports on a study of LiNiZn-ferrite composite as a radiation absorbent material (RAM). The electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers are composed of an EM wave absorbing material and a polymeric binder. The surface morphology, chemical composition, weight percent of the ferrite composite of the toroid sample, magnetic properties, and return loss are investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and network analyzer. For preparing the absorbing sheet, chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) is used as a polymeric binder. The EM wave absorption properties of the prepared samples were studied at 4 - 8 GHz. We can confirm the effects of the thickness of the samples for absorption properties. An absorption bandwidth of more than a 10-dB return loss shifts toward a lower frequency range along with an increase in the thickness of the absorber.
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model was developed to analyze electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an inhomogeneous ionosphere. The EM analysis of ionosphere is complicated, owing to various propagation environments that are significantly influenced by plasma frequency, cyclotron frequency, and collision frequency. Based on the simple auxiliary differential equation (ADE) technique, we present an accurate FDTD algorithm suitable for the EM analysis of complex phenomena in the ionosphere under arbitrary-direction geomagnetic field. Numerical examples are used to validate our FDTD model in terms of the reflection coefficient of a single magnetized plasma slab. Based on the FDTD formulation developed here, we investigate EM wave propagation characteristics in the ionosphere using realistic ionospheric data for South Korea.
Electromagnetic fields, radiated from an intestine-ingested source and propagated through an inhomogeneous human body model, are computed with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The calculated results obtained at some receiving points vertically placed according to the abdomen of the human body model show unusual dip patterns in the frequency domain. The frequency of this unusual dip varies according to the location of the receiving points. Thus, the relationship between the frequency of the unusual dip and the incident angle of the line-of-sight is analyzed. The effect of the location of an ingested source on the above relationship is also investigated. The slope of the approximately linear relationship is affected by the location of the ingested source.