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<P>The aim of this study was to investigate whether the results of segmental hair analysis can be used to estimate patterns of methamphetamine (MA) use. Segmental hair analysis for MA and amphetamine (AP) was performed. Hair was cut into the hair root, consecutive 1?cm length segments and 1-4?cm length segments. Whole hair was also analyzed. The hair samples were incubated for 20?h in 1?mL methanol containing 1?% hydrochloric acid after washing the hair samples. Hair extracts were evaporated and derivatization was performed using trifluoroacetic anhydride in ethylacetate at 65?C for 30?min. Derivatized extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 15 subjects consisted of 13 males and two females and their ages ranged from 25 to 42 (mean, 32). MA and AP concentrations in the whole hair ranged from 3.00 to 105.10?ng/mg (mean, 34.53) and from 0.05 to 4.76?ng/mg (mean, 2.42), respectively. Based on the analysis of the 1?cm length segmental hair, the results were interpreted in a way to distinguish between continuous use of MA (n?=?10), no recent but previous use of MA (n?=?3), and recent but no previous use of MA (n?=?2). Furthermore, the individuals were interpreted as light, moderate, and heavy users based on concentration ranges previously published.</P>
Chang,,Ziwei,Lu,,Ming,Ma,,Yunqi,Kwag,,Dong-Geon,Kim,,Seo-Hyun,Park,,Ji-Min,Nam,,Bo-Hye,Kim,,Young-Ok,An,,Cheul-Min,Li,,Huayue,Jung,,Jee,H,Park,,Jang-Su Springer-Verlag ; Springer 2015 Amino acids Vol.47 No.3
<P>Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli allows the simple, economical, and effective production of bioactive peptides. On the other hand, the production of native peptides, particularly those rich in disulfide bonds, is a major problem. Previous studies have reported that the use of carrier proteins for fusion expression can result in good peptide yields, but few are folded correctly. In this study, two transmembrane small proteins in E. coli, YoaJ and YkgR, which both orientate with their N-termini in cytoplasm and their C-termini in periplasm, were used for fusion expression. The recombinant production of two peptides, asteropsin A (ASPA) and 관-defensin (BD), was induced in the periplasm of E. coli using a selected carrier protein. Both peptides were expressed at high levels, at yields of approximately 5-10 mg/L of culture. Mass spectrometry showed that the resulting peptide had the same molecular weight as their natural forms. After purification, single peaks were observed by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), demonstrating the absence of isoforms. Furthermore, cytoplasmically expressed fusion proteins with a carrier at their C-termini did not contain disulfide bonds. This study provides new carrier proteins for fusion expression of disulfide bond-rich peptides in E. coli.</P>
Although use of carbon dioxide (CO<SUB>2</SUB>) blower has been regarded safe during off-pump coronary bypass surgery (OPCAB), we experienced a case of right coronary artery ischaemia induced by retrograde CO<SUB>2</SUB> embolism originating from the opened obtuse marginalis artery during OPCAB. The spray pressure can exceed the diastolic pressure, especially during grafting at the lateral or posterior wall when haemodynamic compromise due to mechanical heart displacement is most severe. In this situation, CO<SUB>2</SUB> blowing at an incompletely slinged coronary arteriotomy site can result in retrograde migration of CO<SUB>2</SUB> into the ascending aorta causing coronary embolism of the right coronary artery. When signs of ischaemia on the right coronary artery are encountered during grafting of other coronary artery, although CO<SUB>2</SUB> blower has been used, gas embolism should also be considered as the cause and identified at the mid-oesophageal aortic valve long-axis view. When confirmed, the use of gas blower should immediately be discontinued and coronary perfusion pressure increased while allowing time for the CO<SUB>2</SUB> to be absorbed. In case of massive embolism, needle aspiration of the gas should also be considered.
Kim,,Kyung-Yong,Kwon,,Younghyuk,Bazarragchaa,,Munkhtsetseg,Park,,Ae-Ja,Bang,,Hyowon,Lee,,Won-Bok,Lee,,Junyoung,Lee,,Kwang-Ho,Kim,,Bum-Joon,Kim,,Kijeong Springer International ; Springer 2013 International journal of legal medicine Vol.127 No.1
<P>Allelic dropout due to stochastic variation in degraded small quantity DNA appears to be one of the most serious genotyping errors. Most methods require PCR replication to address this problem. The small amounts of valuable samples are often a limitation for such replications. We report a real-time PCR-based amelogonin Y (AMELY) allele dropout estimation model in an AMEL-based gender typing. We examined 915 replicates of AMELY-positive modern male DNA with varying amounts of DNA and humic acid. A male-specific AMEL fragment (AMELy) dropped out in 143 genuine male replicates, leading to gender typing errors. By graphing a scatter plot of the crossing point versus the end cycle fluorescence of the male replicates, a standard graph model for the estimation of the AMELy allele dropout was constructed with the dropout-prone and dropout-free zones. This model was then applied to ancient DNA (aDNA) samples. Nine samples identified as female were found in the dropout-prone zone; with higher DNA concentrations, six were shifted to the dropout-free zone. Among them, two female identifications were converted to male. All the aDNA gender was confirmed by sex-determination region Y marker amplification. Our data suggest that this model could be a basic approach for securing AMELy allele dropout-safe data from the stochastic variation of degraded inhibitory DNA samples.</P>
<P>This study was conducted in order to determine whether a gap exists between cancer patients with disabilities and those without disabilities with regard to short-term and long-term all-cause mortality in Korea.</P>
Lee,,Kyoung,Jin,Lee,,Jae,Hee,Chung,,Hye,Kyung,Choi,,Jinhyang,Park,,Jaesook,Park,,Seok,Soon,Ju,,Eun,Jin,Park,,Jin,Shin,,Seol,Hwa,Park,,Hye,Ji,Ko,,Eun,Jung,Suh,,Nayoung,Kim,,InKi,Hwang,,Jung,Jin,Song,,S Springer-Verlag ; Springer 2015 Amino acids Vol.47 No.2
<P>Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 ?? 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics.</P>
<P>The purpose of this study was to construct a clinical instrument to measure functioning in breast cancer survivors using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories for body functions, activity and participation, and environmental factors, based on a Rasch analysis.</P>
Pack,,Seung-Chul,Kim,,Hye-Ran,Lim,,Sang-Woo,Kim,,Hwan-Young,Ko,,Jung-Yun,Lee,,Ki-Sang,Hwang,,David,Park,,Seong-Il,Kang,,Hoon,Park,,Sang-Wook,Hong,,Gun-Young,Hwang,,Se-Min,Shin,,Myung-Geun,Lee,,Soong Springer International ; Springer-Verlag, distribu 2013 International journal of colorectal disease Vol.28 No.1
<P>The purpose of present study was to investigate the methylation status of the promoter region in five genes (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, fragile histidine triad protein, death-associated protein kinase 1, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and E-cadherin), which are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its clinicopathological significance.</P>
Jung,,Hee-Won,Kim,,Jin,Won,Kim,,Ji-Yeon,Kim,,Sun-Wook,Yang,,Hyun,Kyung,Lee,,Joon,Woo,Lee,,Keun-Wook,Kim,,Duck-Woo,Kang,,Sung-Bum,Kim,,Kwang-Il,Kim,,Cheol-Ho,Kim,,Jee,Hyun Springer International ; Springer 2015 SUPPORTIVE CARE IN CANCER Vol.23 No.3
<P>The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of decreased muscle mass on the toxicity and survival of patients with colon cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery.</P>
<P>There is scant research concerning the prediction of imminent death, and current studies simply list events 'that have already occurred' around 48 h of the death. We sought to determine what events herald the onset of dying process using the length of time from 'any change' to death.</P>