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      • SCISCIESCOPUS
      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian and swine influenza A viruses

        Kang, Hyun-Mi,Lee, Eun-Kyoung,Song, Byung-Min,Jeong, Jipseol,Kim, Hye-Ryoung,Choi, Eun-Jin,Shin, Yeun-Kyung,Lee, Hee-Soo,Lee, Youn-Jeong Society for General Microbiology 2014 The Journal of general virology Vol.95 No.10

        <P>This study examined the potential for cross-species transmission of influenza viruses by comparing the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of H1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) with different host origins in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses of H1 AIVs circulating in Korea provided evidence of genetic similarity between viruses that infect domestic ducks and those that infect wild birds, although there was no relationship between avian and swine viruses. However, there were some relationships between swine and human viral genes. The replication and pathogenicity of the H1 viruses was assessed in chickens, domestic ducks and mice. Viral shedding in chickens was relatively high. Virus was recovered from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs up to 5–10 days post-inoculation. The titres of domestic duck viruses in chickens were much higher than those of wild-bird viruses. Both domestic duck and wild-bird viruses replicated poorly in domestic ducks. None of the swine viruses replicated in chickens or domestic ducks; however, six viruses showed relatively high titres in mice, regardless of host origin, and induced clinical signs such as ruffled fur, squatting and weight loss. Thus, although the phylogenetic and antigenic analyses showed no evidence of interspecies transmission between birds and swine, the results suggest that Korean H1 viruses have the potential to cause disease in mammals. Therefore, we should intensify continuous monitoring of avian H1 viruses in mammals and seek to prevent interspecies transmission.</P>

      • Hymenobacter ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

        Hoang, Van-An,Kim, Yeon-Ju,Nguyen, Ngoc Lan,Yang, Deok-Chun Society for General Microbiology 2013 International journal of systematic and evolutiona Vol.63 No.2

        <P>A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, red bacterium, designated DCY57(T), was isolated from soil of a ginseng field in a mountainous region of Chungnam province in South Korea. Strain DCY57(T) grew with 0-1?% (w/v) NaCl and the optimum temperature for growth was 30 C. Strain DCY57(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The major fatty acids were C(16:1)ω5c, iso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (containing C(16:1)ω7c and/or C(16:1)ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminophospholipids, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 58.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DCY57(T) was most closely related to members of the genus Hymenobacter. The isolate exhibited 91.7?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with H. soli PB17(T), 94.5?% with H. flocculans A2-50A(T) and 95.8?% with H. metalli A2-91(T). On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain DCY57(T) represents a novel species within the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY57(T) (?=?KCTC 23674(T)?=?JCM 17841(T)).</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Porcine sapovirus replication is restricted by the type I interferon response in cell culture

        Hosmillo, Myra,Sorgeloos, Fré,,ric,Hiraide, Rintaro,Lu, Jia,Goodfellow, Ian,Cho, Kyoung-Oh Society for General Microbiology 2015 The Journal of general virology Vol.96 No.1

        <P><I>Porcine sapovirus</I> (PSaV) of the family <I>Caliciviridae</I>, is the only member of the genus <I>Sapovirus</I> with cell culture and reverse genetics systems. When combined with the piglet model, these approaches provide a system to understand the molecular basis of sapovirus pathogenesis. The replication of PSaV in cell culture is, however, restricted, displaying an absolute requirement for bile acids and producing lower levels of infectious virus than other caliciviruses. The effect of bile acids has previously been linked to a reduction in the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)-mediated signalling pathway. In the current study, we observed that even in the presence of bile acids, PSaV replication in cell culture was restricted by soluble factors produced from infected cells. This effect was at least partially due to secreted IFN because treatment of cells with recombinant porcine IFN-β resulted in significantly reduced viral replication. Moreover, IFN-mediated signalling pathways (IFN, STAT1 and the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase) were activated during PSaV infection. Characterization of PSaV growth in cell lines deficient in their ability to induce or respond to IFN showed a 100–150-fold increase in infectious virus production, indicating that the primary role of bile acids was not the inactivation of the innate immune response. Furthermore, the use of IFN-deficient cell lines enabled more efficient recovery of PSaV from cDNA constructs. Overall, the highly efficient cell culture and reverse genetics system established here for PSaV highlighted the key role of the innate immune response in the restriction of PSaV infection and should greatly facilitate further molecular studies on sapovirus host–cell interactions.</P>

      • Marivita geojedonensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

        Yoon, Jung-Hoon,Kang, So-Jung,Lee, Jung-Sook Society for General Microbiology 2013 International journal of systematic and evolutiona Vol.63 No.2

        <P>A Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic and rod-shaped bacterial strain, DPG-138(T), was isolated from seawater on the southern coast in Korea. Strain DPG-138(T) grew optimally at 30 C and in the presence of 2-3?% (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DPG-138(T) fell within the cluster comprising the type strains of four species of the genus Marivita (sequence similarity values of 97.8-98.2?%). The DNA G+C content was 59.9 mol%. The predominant ubiquinone of strain DPG-138(T) was Q-10, typical for the genus Marivita. The cellular fatty acid profiles of strain DPG-138(T) and type strains of four species of the genus Marivita were similar with C(18?:?1)ω7c as the most common fatty acid. The major polar lipids in strain DPG-138(T) were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. Differential phenotypic properties and genetic distinctiveness of strain DPG-138(T) demonstrated that this strain is distinguishable from all four recognized species of the genus Marivita. On the basis of the data presented, strain DPG-138(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Marivita, for which the name Marivita geojedonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DPG-138(T) (?=?KCTC 23882(T)?=?CCUG 62112(T)).</P>

      • Aliiroseovarius pelagivivens gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from seawater, and reclassification of three species of the genus Roseovarius as Aliiroseovarius crassostreae comb. nov., Aliiroseovarius halocynthiae comb. nov. and Aliiroseovarius sediminilitor

        Park, Sooyeon,Park, Ji-Min,Kang, Chul-Hyung,Yoon, Jung-Hoon Society for General Microbiology 2015 International journal of systematic and evolutiona Vol.65 No.8

        <P>A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and ovoid or rod-shaped bacterium, designated GYSW-22T, was isolated from seawater off Geoje Island in the South Sea, South Korea. Strain GYSW-22T grew optimally at 25?C, at pH?7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 1.0-2.0?% (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain GYSW-22T and the type strains of Roseovarius crassostreae, Roseovarius halocynthiae and Roseovarius sediminilitoris form a coherent cluster, independent of phylogenetic lineages or clusters comprising the type strains of other species of the genus Roseovarius. Strain GYSW-22T exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.2, 96.6 and 96.3?% to R. halocynthiae MA1-10T, R. crassostreae CV919-312T and R. sediminilitoris M-M10T, respectively, and of 92.6-94.7?% to the type strains of other species of the genus Roseovarius. Strain GYSW-22T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18?:?1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain GYSW-22T was 59.0?mol% and its mean DNA-DNA relatedness value with R. halocynthiae MA1-10T was 15?%. On the basis of the data presented, we propose strain GYSW-22T represents a novel species of a new genus, Aliiroseovarius pelagivivens gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of the type species is GYSW-22T (?=?KCTC 42459T?=?CECT 8811T). In this study, it is also proposed that Roseovarius crassostreae, Roseovarius halocynthiae and Roseovarius sediminilitoris be reclassified into the new genus as Aliiroseovarius crassostreae comb. nov. (type strain CV919-312T?=?ATCC BAA-1102T?=?DSM 16950T), Aliiroseovarius halocynthiae comb. nov. (type strain MA1-10T?=?KCTC 23462T?=?CCUG 60745T) and Aliiroseovarius sediminilitoris comb. nov. (type strain M-M10T?=?KCTC 23959T?=?CCUG 62413T), respectively.</P>

      • Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., isolated from a hot spring sediment sample.

        Yu, Tian-Tian,Ming, Hong,Yao, Ji-Cheng,Zhou, En-Min,Park, Dong-Jin,Hozzein, Wael N,Kim, Chang-Jin,Wadaan, Mohammed A M,Li, Wen-Jun Society for General Microbiology 2015 International journal of systematic and evolutiona Vol.65 No.8

        <P>A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIM 77409T, was isolated from the Niujie hot spring in the Eryuan county of Dali, Yunnan province, south-west China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped and colonies were yellow and circular. The strain grew at pH?6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH?7.0) and 50-70C (optimum, 60-65C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-8 and the DNA G+C content was 66.4?mol%. Major fatty acids (>10?%) were iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0.The polar lipids consisted of one aminophospholipid, one phospholipid and two glycolipids. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 77409T formed a cluster with Thermus scotoductus DSM 8553T, Thermus antranikianii DSM 12462T, Thermus caliditerrae YIM 77925T and Thermus tengchongensis YIM 77924T, with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to T. scotoductus DSM 8553T (97.57?%). However, DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain YIM 77409T should be viewed as a representative of a novel species, as there was only 30.6??1.6?% reassociation with T. scotoductus DSM 8553T. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as the genotypic data, it is proposed that strain YIM 77409T represents a novel species of the genus Thermus, with the name Thermus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. The type strain is YIM 77409T (?=?DSM 25898T?=?KCTC 32024T).</P>

      • Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from Daucus carota.

        Liu, Min-Jiao,Zhu, Wen-Yong,Li, Jie,Zhao, Guo-Zhen,Xiong, Zhi,Park, Dong-Jin,Hozzein, Wael N,Kim, Chang-Jin,Li, Wen-Jun Society for General Microbiology 2015 International journal of systematic and evolutiona Vol.65 No.8

        <P>An actinomycete strain, designated YIM 690008T, was isolated from Daucus carota collected from South Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The strain grew well on most media tested and no diffusible pigment was produced. The aerial mycelium formed wrinkled single spores and short spore chains, some of which were branched. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose, ribose, galactose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H4), MK-10(H6), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, some unknown phospholipids, glycolipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids were i-C16?:?0, ai-C17?:?0 and C18?:?1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.1?mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. However, based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, it was concluded that strain YIM 690008T represents a novel genus and novel species of the family Nocardiopsaceae, for which the name Actinorugispora endophytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain YIM 690008T?=?DSM 46770T?=?JCM 30099T?=?KCTC 29480T) is proposed.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Hepatitis C virus core protein overcomes H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced apoptosis by downregulating p14 expression via DNA methylation

        Seo, Young Lan,Heo, Shinhee,Jang, Kyung Lib Society for General Microbiology 2015 The Journal of general virology Vol.96 No.4

        <P>Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is characterized by systemic oxidative stress that is caused by either viral core protein or chronic inflammation. It is well recognized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> can induce apoptotic cell death and can therefore function as anti-tumorigenic species. However, the detailed mechanisms by which ROS induce apoptotic cell death and HCV copes with the oxidative conditions are largely unknown. In the present study, we found that H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> induced apoptotic cell death in p53-positive human hepatocytes, but not in p53-negative human hepatocytes. For this effect, H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> upregulated levels of p14, increased ubiquitin-dependent degradation of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), and reduced the interaction between MDM2 and p53 to prevent p53 degradation, resulting in accumulation of p53 and subsequent activation of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways. Interestingly, HCV core repressed p14 expression via promoter hypermethylation to abolish the potential of H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB> to activate the p14–MDM2–p53 pathway. As a consequence, HCV core-expressing cells could overcome p53-mediated apoptosis provoked by H<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>2</SUB>. Taken together, HCV core could contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma formation by removing deleterious roles of ROS inducing cell death.</P>

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