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<P>Outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have been reported in many countries worldwide. The possibility of pandemics caused by H5N1 influenza viruses is high since human infections by H5N1 viruses continually occur. In this study we determined the immune response and efficacy of inactivated H5N1 vaccine developed by reverse genetics in ferrets. Ferrets intramuscularly inoculated with two doses of H5N1 vaccine survived the lethal challenge with homologous or heterologous H5N1 influenza viruses, while 75% and 25% of ferrets immunized with one dose of H5N1 vaccine survived the lethal challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 influenza viruses, respectively. When we determined antibody subtypes specific for H5N1 influenza viruses in tissues and sera of vaccinated ferrets, IgG antibodies were detected mainly in the trachea, nostril, lung, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, spleen, and serum. Our results suggest that IgG antibodies may play a major role in protecting ferrets immunized with the inactivated H5N1 vaccine from lethal challenge with H5N1 influenza viruses.</P>
<P>Abstract Swine-origin pandemic 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses are still infecting humans, and humans are currently being vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus. We wanted to determine the efficacy of 2009 A (H1N1) inactivated vaccine in ferrets. Ferrets immunized with one dose (7.5 mug) of 2009 A (H1N1) inactivated vaccine were not protected from infections of either pandemic H1N1 or seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses, while ferrets immunized with two doses of 2009 A (H1N1) inactivated vaccine were protected from infections of pandemic H1N1, but not seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses. IgG subtype of antibody was dominantly detected in tissues of immunized ferrets. Our study suggests that pandemic H1N1 vaccine may not elicit the antibody cross-reactive to the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus.</P>
<P>To investigate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation on silicone hydrogel contact lens in various artificial tears.</P>
<P>Metabolic syndrome has been suggested to have an association with C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of cardiovascular disease risk. Given that genetic factors influence both metabolic syndrome and CRP, it seems necessary to examine the association with consideration of genetic influence.</P>
Kalueff, Allan V.,Gebhardt, Michael,Stewart, Adam Michael,Cachat, Jonathan M.,Brimmer, Mallorie,Chawla, Jonathan S.,Craddock, Cassandra,Kyzar, Evan J.,Roth, Andrew,Landsman, Samuel,Gaikwad, Siddharth Mary Ann Liebert 2013 Zebrafish Vol.10 No.1
<P>Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression is critical for the presentation of antigens in the immune response to viral infection. Consequently, some viruses regulate the MHC class II-mediated presentation of viral antigens as a mechanism of immune escape. In this study, we found that Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection transiently increased IK expression, which reduced the expression of MHC class II (I-A/I-E) on splenic B cells. Interestingly, CVB3-induced IK elevated cAMP, a downstream molecule of the G protein-coupled receptors, which inhibited MHC class II presentation on B cells. Transgenic mice expressing truncated IK showed lower expression of MHC class II on B cells than did wild-type mice after CVB3 infection. Taken together, these results imply that IK plays a role in downregulating MHC class II expression on B cells during CVB3 infection through the induction of cAMP.</P>
<P>In the present study, we compared the roles of gracile neurons in mechanically-induced neuropathic pain caused by spinal injury and L5 spinal nerve ligation in rats. Behavioral and electrophysiological methods were used to measure mechanical allodynia in the hindpaws, and excitability of the gracile neurons in the medulla, respectively. In the spinal hemisection and spinal contusion models, mechanical allodynia developed in both hindpaws and lasted over a month. Three weeks following the hemisection, gracile neurons identified as wide-dynamic-range (WDR) and low-threshold (LT) neurons, showed increased neuronal activity to non-noxious mechanical stimuli compared to control groups, whereas the spinal contusion groups did not show evoked activity (*p<0.05). A lesion of the gracile nucleus partially reversed the existing mechanical allodynia in both hindpaws compared to prior to the injury in the hemisection group, whereas the spinal contusion groups did not show significant changes (*p<0.05). In the spinal nerve ligation model, mechanical allodynia developed at the ipsilateral (injured) side of the hindpaw. In addition, WDR neuronal activity at the ipsilateral gracile neurons showed a significant increase with non-noxious mechanical stimuli, whereas the LT neurons did not show significant changes (*p<0.05). Similarly to the hemisection model, a lesion of the gracile nucleus attenuated the mechanical allodynia in spinal nerve ligation models. The present data suggest that gracile neurons contribute to the maintenance of non-noxious mechanically-induced neuropathic pain in both hemisection- and ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats.</P>