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This paper proposes an intelligent system performing an application with assistance of an Internet of Things (IoT) platform to control a traffic lights system. In our proposed systems, the traffic lights can be remotely controlled through the Internet. Based on IoT platform, the traffic conditions at different intersections of roads are collected and the traffic lights are controlled in a central manner. For the software part, the algorithm is designed based on the green wave theory to maximize the green bandwidth of arterial roads while addressing a challenging issue: the rapid changes of parameters including cycle time, splits, offset, non-fixed vehicles' velocities and traffic flow along arterial roads. The issue typically happens at some areas where the transportation system is not well organized like in Vietnam. For the hardware part, PLC S7-1200 are placed at the intersections for two purposes: to control traffic lights and to collect the parameters and transmit to a host machine at the operation center. For the communication part, the TCP/IP protocol can be done using a Profinet port embedded in the PLC. Some graphical user interface captures are also presented to illustrate the operation of our proposed system.
Designing efficient routing protocols for a wireless sensor network with mobile sinks (mWSN) is a challenging task since the network topology and data paths change frequently as sink nodes move. In this paper, we design a novel lightweight reactive ring based routing protocol called R3, which removes the need of proactively maintaining data paths to mobile sinks as they move in the network. To achieve high packet delivery ratio and low transmission cost, R3 combines ring based forwarding and trail based forwarding together. To support efficient ring based forwarding, we build a ring based structure for a network in a way such that each node in the network can easily obtain its ring ID and virtual angle information. For this purpose, we artificially create a virtual hole in the central area of the network and accordingly find a shortest cycled path enclosing the hole, which serves as base ring and is used for generating the remaining ring based structure. We accordingly present the detailed design description for R3, which only requires each node to keep very limited routing information. We derive the communication overhead by ring based forwarding. Extensive simulation results show that R3 can achieve high routing performance as compared with existing work.
Recently, CCTV has been combined with areas such as big data, artificial intelligence, and image analysis to detect various abnormal behaviors and to detect and analyze the overall situation of objects such as people. Image analysis research for this intelligent video surveillance function is progressing actively. However, CCTV images using 2D information generally have limitations such as object misrecognition due to lack of topological information. This problem can be solved by adding the depth information of the object created by using two cameras to the image. In this paper, we perform background modeling using Mixture of Gaussian technique and detect whether there are moving objects by segmenting the foreground from the modeled background. In order to perform the depth information-based segmentation using the RGB information-based segmentation results, stereo-based depth maps are generated using two cameras. Next, the RGB-based segmented region is set as a domain for extracting depth information, and depth-based segmentation is performed within the domain. In order to detect the center point of a robustly segmented object and to track the direction, the movement of the object is tracked by applying the CAMShift technique, which is the most basic object tracking method. From the experiments, we prove the efficiency of the proposed object detection and tracking method using the RGB-D model. 최근 지능형 CCTV는 빅 데이터, 인공지능 및 영상 분석과 같은 분야와 결합하여 다양한 이상 행위들을 탐지하고 보행자와 같은 객체의 전반적인 상황을 분석할 수 있으며, 이러한 지능형 영상 감시 기능에 대한 영상 분석 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있는 추세이다. 그러나 일반적으로 2차원 정보를 이용하는 CCTV 영상은 위상학적 정보 부족으로 인해 객체 오 인식과 같은 한계가 존재한다. 이러한 문제는 두 대의 카메라를 사용하여 생성된 객체의 깊이 정보를 영상에 추가함으로써 해결 할 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 가우시안 혼합기법을 사용하여 배경 모델링을 수행하고, 모델링 된 배경에서 전경을 분할하여 움직이는 객체의 존재 여부를 탐지한다. RGB 정보 기반 분할 결과를 이용하여 깊이 정보 기반 분할을 수행하기 위해 두 대의 카메라를 사용하여 스테레오 기반 깊이 지도를 생성한다. RGB 기반으로 분할된 영역을 깊이 정보를 추출하기 위한 도메인으로 설정하고, 도메인 내부에서 깊이 기반 분할을 수행한다. 강건하게 분할된 객체의 중심점을 탐지하고 방향을 추적하기 위해 가장 기본적인 객체 추적 방법인 CAMShift 기법을 적용하여 객체의 움직임을 추적한다. 실험을 통하여 제안된 RGB-D 모델을 이용한 객체 탐지 및 추적 방법의 우수성을 입증하였다.
The continuous evolution and proliferation of computer technology and our increasing dependence on computer technology have created a new class of threats: "cyber threats." These threats can be defined as activities that can undermine a society's ability to maintain internal or external order while using information technology. Cyber threats can be mainly divided into two categories, namely cyber-terrorism and cyber-warfare. A variety of malware programs are often used as a primary weapon in these cyber threats. A significant amount of research work has been published covering different aspects of cyber threats, their countermeasures, and the policy-making for cyber laws. This article aims to review the research conducted in various important aspects of cyber threats and provides synthesized information regarding the fundamentals of cyber threats; discusses the countermeasures for such threats; provides relevant details of high-profile cyber-attacks; discusses the developments in global policy-making for cyber laws, and lastly presents promising future directions in this area.
For advanced healthcare services, a variety of agents should maintain reliable connections with the manager and communicate personal health and medical information. The ISO/IEEE 11073 standards provide convenient interoperability and the optimized exchange protocol (OEP) supports efficient communication for devices. However, the standard does not specify secure communication, and sensitive personal information is easily exposed through attacks. Malicious attacks may lead to the worst results owing to service errors, service suspension, and deliberate delays. All possible attacks on the communication are analyzed in detail, and the damage is specifically identified. In this study, novel secure communication schemes over the 20601 OEP are proposed by introducing an authentication process while maintaining compatibility with existing devices. The agent performs a secure association with the manager for mutual authentication. However, communication with mutual authentication is not completely free from attacks. Message encryption schemes are proposed for concrete security. The authentication process and secure communication schemes between the secure registered agent (SRA) and the secure registered manager (SRM) are implemented and verified. The experimental analysis shows that the complexities of the SRA and SRM are not significantly different from those of the existing agent and manager.
Despite various types of online social networks having different topological and functional characteristics, the kinds of online social networks considered in social recommendations are highly restricted. The pervasiveness of social networks has brought scholarly attention to expanding the scope of social recommendations into more diverse and less explored types of online social networks. As a preliminary attempt, this study examined the information-sharing patterns of a new type of online social network - unilateral (directed) network - and assessed the feasibility of the network as a useful information source. Specifically, this study mainly focused on the presence of shared interests in unilateral networks, because the shared information is the inevitable condition for utilizing the networks as a feasible source of personalized recommendations. As the results, we discovered that user pairs with direct and distant links shared significantly more similar information than the other non-connected pairs. Individual users' social properties were also significantly correlated with the degree of their information similarity with social connections. We also found the substitutability of online social networks for the top cohorts anonymously chosen by the collaborative filtering algorithm.
Compared to the significant approach of project-based learning research, a data-driven design project-based learning has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing design creativity. This article proposes an advanced information data-interactive learning system for creative design using a service design process that combines a design thinking. We propose a service framework to improve the convergence design process between students and advanced information data analysis, allowing students to participate actively in the data visualization and research using patent data. Solving a design problem by discovery and interpretation process, the Advanced information-interactive learning framework allows the students to verify the creative idea values or to ideate new factors and the associated various feasible solutions. The student can perform the patent data according to a business intelligence platform. Most of the new ideas for solving design projects are evaluated through complete patent data analysis and visualization in the beginning of the service design process. In this article, we propose to adapt advanced information data to educate the service design process, allowing the students to evaluate their own idea and define the problems iteratively until satisfaction. Quantitative evaluation results have shown that the advanced information data-driven learning system approach can improve the design project - based learning results in terms of design creativity. Our findings can contribute to data-driven project-based learning for advanced information data that play a crucial role in convergence design in related standards and other smart educational fields that are linked.
Visual servoing (VS) based on the Kalman filter (KF) algorithm, as in the case of KF-based image-based visual servoing (IBVS) systems, suffers from three problems in uncalibrated environments: the perturbation noises of the robot system, error of noise statistics, and slow convergence. To solve these three problems, we use an IBVS based on KF, African vultures optimization algorithm enhanced extreme learning machine (AVOA-ELM), and fuzzy logic (FL) in this paper. Firstly, KF online estimation of the Jacobian matrix. We propose an AVOA-ELM error compensation model to compensate for the sub-optimal estimation of the KF to solve the problems of disturbance noises and noise statistics error. Next, an FL controller is designed for gain adaptation. This approach addresses the problem of the slow convergence of the IBVS system with the KF. Then, we propose a visual servoing scheme combining FL and KF-AVOA-ELM (FL-KF-AVOA-ELM). Finally, we verify the algorithm on the 6-DOF robotic manipulator PUMA 560. Compared with the existing methods, our algorithm can solve the three problems mentioned above without camera parameters, robot kinematics model, and target depth information. We also compared the proposed method with other KF-based IBVS methods under different disturbance noise environments. And the proposed method achieves the best results under the three evaluation metrics.
본 연구는 새로운 뉴스 콘텐츠로서 카드뉴스를 분석하고 디지털시대에 뉴스가치의 변화에 대해 살펴보았다. 본 연구는 지난 2015년 하반기에 국내 언론사를 통해 보도된 1020개의 카드뉴스에 대한 내용분석을 통해, 뉴스가치에 대한 전통적인 개념들이 변화되고 있음을 확인하였다. 카드뉴스는 새롭게 취재하여 기사화하기보다는 저장된 기존 뉴스들을 재활용하면서, 뉴스가치로서 시의성 보다는 정보제공과 사회적 가치, 오락적 요소를 강조하고 있다. 이는 새로운 뉴스전달방식으로써 카드뉴스는 기존 뉴스에 대한 대체재가 아니라 보완재임을 보여준다. 또한 역피라밋 형태의 글쓰기보다는 리스트 나열형의 기사 작성 방식이 선호되고, 취재원으로서 길거리 일반인(Man-on-the streets)이 자주 인용됨이 발견되었다. This paper explores the characteristics of curated news content. With content analysis of 1020 news clips, the study found that news values immersed in card news differed from those of traditional news. Specifically, timeliness was not regarded as a key factor in newsworthiness. Rather, information and social impacts were highly emphasized. Considering news consumers depend on traditional news for timely news, curated news content was not a replacement for traditional news but a supplement. By refurbishing photos from previous news reports and googling the web for related information, curated news reiterates social meaning and provides relevant information. Furthermore, salience of human interest can be explained by entertaining characteristics of curated news. In story forms, the list technique has several important points to stress, and was more frequently used than inverted pyramids. Another key finding of this study is man-on-the street as the most quoted main sources in the curatorial context.
In this paper, we investigate a buffer-aided wireless powered cooperative communication network (WPCCN), in which the source and relay harvest the energy from a dedicated power beacon via wireless energy transfer, then the source transmits the data to the destination through the relay. Both the source and relay are equipped with an energy buffer to store the harvested energy in the energy transfer stage. In addition, the relay is equipped with a data buffer and can temporarily store the received information. Considering the buffer-aided WPCCN, we propose two buffer-aided relaying protocols, which named as the buffer-aided harvest-then-transmit (HtT) protocol and the buffer-aided joint mode selection and power allocation (JMSPA) protocol, respectively. For the buffer-aided HtT protocol, the time-averaged achievable rate is obtained in closed form. For the buffer-aided JMSPA protocol, the optimal adaptive mode selection scheme and power allocation scheme, which jointly maximize the time-averaged throughput of system, are obtained by employing the Lyapunov optimization theory. Furthermore, we drive the theoretical bounds on the time-averaged achievable rate and time-averaged delay, then present the throughput-delay tradeoff achieved by the joint JMSPA protocol. Simulation results validate the throughput performance gain of the proposed buffer-aided relaying protocols and verify the theoretical analysis.