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      • KCI등재

        Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals in Korean Foods and Livestock Foodstuffs

        권영민,이경희,이행신,박선오,박정민,김진만,강경모,노기미,김동술,이종옥,홍무기,최달웅,Kwon, Young-Min,Lee, Kyoung-Hee,Lee, Haeng-Shin,Park, Seon-Oh,Park, Jung-Min,Kim, Jin-Man,Kang, Kyung-Mo,No, Ki-Mi,Kim, Dong-Sul,Lee, Jong-Ok,Hong, Moo- Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2008 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.28 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study was conducted to evaluate exposure level and risk of heavy metals in livestock foodstuffs and Korean foods. Based on the "Food Intake Data," a part of the 2005 National Health & Nutrition Survey and the "2005 Seasonal Nutrition Survey", 113 Korean foods items were selected. 3 samples from different manufacturers of each 113 items of Korean foods were purchased on summer and fall, so total 678 samples were used. The food groups were classified into 15 categories. For the livestock foodstuffs category, meats and poultry (chicken, pork, pork belly, beef, beef feet soup), milks and dairy products (milk, ice cream, liquid yoghourt, sherbet), eggs (egg) were selected. It was found that the daily amount of heavy metals intake (mg/person/day) from livestock foodstuffs is 0.00020 arsenic, 0.00000 cadmium, 0.00020 lead, and 0.00006 mercury, and the daily amount of heavy metals intake (mg/person/day) from Korean foods is 0.0265 arsenic, 0.0083 cadmium, 0.0067 lead, and 0.0028 mercury. Daily amount of heavy metals intake from livestock foodstuffs was low among the food groups. For risk assessment, PDI (Probable Daily Intake) was calculated and compared with PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) of JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive). Relative hazard of these livestock foodstuffs was 0.006% in arsenic, 0.000% in cadmium, 0.085% in lead, and 0.149% in mercury. Relative hazard of Korean foods was 0.941% in arsenic, 14.676% in cadmium, 3.319% in lead, and 6.860% in mercury. Thus, livestock foodstuffs and Korean foods were as safe as satisfied with the recommended standards of JECFA.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Response Surface Methodology Using a Fullest Balanced Model: A Re-Analysis of a Dataset in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources

        Rheem, Sungsue,Rheem, Insoo,Oh, Sejong Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2017 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.37 No.1

        Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. In the analysis of response surface data, a second-order polynomial regression model is usually used. However, sometimes we encounter situations where the fit of the second-order model is poor. If the model fitted to the data has a poor fit including a lack of fit, the modeling and optimization results might not be accurate. In such a case, using a fullest balanced model, which has no lack of fit, can fix such problem, enhancing the accuracy of the response surface modeling and optimization. This article presents how to develop and use such a model for the better modeling and optimizing of the response through an illustrative re-analysis of a dataset in Park et al. (2014) published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Meat Value Chain Losses in Iran

        Ranaei, Vahid,Pilevar, Zahra,Esfandiari, Changiz,Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi,Dhakal, Rajan,Vargas-Bello-Perez, Einar,Hosseini, Hedayat Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2021 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.41 No.1

        To stop hunger, reducing food losses is a potential movement towards saving food. A large portion of these losses could be avoided and reduced through the improved food chain in many countries. Raising awareness on how and where food losses occur will help recovering foods such as meat by identifying solutions and convincing people to implement those solutions. This, in turn, will lead to private and public efforts to recover meat that might be otherwise wasted. After highlighting the importance of food saving benefits and relevant statistics, this paper explains the possible ways to reduce meat loss and waste in abattoirs and presents a framework for prevention according to the estimates of meat losses in Iran meat supply. The current article answers the questions of where do we have the meat loss in Iran and what approaches are most successful in reducing losses in the meat industry. The national average loss and waste in meat production are about 300,000 metric tonnes (about 15%). Many segments and players are involved with this huge amount of losses in the meat value chain, a large portion of these losses could be avoided and reduced by about 25% through using by-products with the mechanization of design and manufacturing. The production amount of mechanically deboned meat (MDM) is 105,091,000 kg, concluding the major waste (88.33%) of total poultry losses. Ensuring appropriate actions by exploiting the full potential of engaged Iranian associations and institutes is considered to reduce the losses.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Application of Edible Insects as Novel Protein Sources and Strategies for Improving Their Processing

        Kim, Tae-Kyung,Cha, Ji Yoon,Yong, Hae In,Jang, Hae Won,Jung, Samooel,Choi, Yun-Sang Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2022 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.42 No.3

        Insects have long been consumed by humans as a supplemental protein source, and interest in entomophagy has rapidly increased in recent years as a potential sustainable resource in the face of environmental challenges and global food shortages. However, food neophobia inhibits the widespread consumption of edible insects, despite their high nutritional and functional value. The own characteristics of edible insect protein such as foaming properties, emulsifying properties, gelling properties and essential amino acid ratio can be improved by drying, defatting, and extraction. Although nutritional value of some protein-enriched bread, pasta, and meat products, especially essential amino acid components was increased, replacement of conventional food with edible insects as a novel food source has been hindered owing to the poor cross-linking properties of edible insect protein. This deterioration in physicochemical properties may further limit the applicability of edible insects as food. Therefore, strategies must be developed to improve the quality of edible insect enriched food with physical, chemical, and biological methods. It was presented that an overview of the recent advancements in these approaches and highlight the challenges and prospects for this field. Applying these strategies to develop insect food in a more familiar form can help to make insect-enriched foods more appealing to consumers, facilitating their widespread consumption as a sustainable and nutritious protein source.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Improving the Quality of Response Surface Analysis of an Experiment for Coffee-Supplemented Milk Beverage: I. Data Screening at the Center Point and Maximum Possible R-Square

        Rheem, Sungsue,Oh, Sejong Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2019 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.39 No.1

        Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. As a design for a response surface experiment, a central composite design (CCD) with multiple runs at the center point is frequently used. However, sometimes there exist situations where some among the responses at the center point are outliers and these outliers are overlooked. Since the responses from center runs are those from the same experimental conditions, there should be no outliers at the center point. Outliers at the center point ruin statistical analysis. Thus, the responses at the center point need to be looked at, and if outliers are observed, they have to be examined. If the reasons for the outliers are not errors in measuring or typing, such outliers need to be deleted. If the outliers are due to such errors, they have to be corrected. Through a re-analysis of a dataset published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, we have shown that outlier elimination resulted in the increase of the maximum possible R-square that the modeling of the data can obtain, which enables us to improve the quality of response surface analysis.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Growth Profile and Toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus in Ready-to-eat Food Products of Animal Origin

        Oh, Mi-Hwa,Ham, Jun-Sang,Seol, Kuk-Hwan,Jang, Ae-Ra,Lee, Seung-Gyu,Lee, Jong-Moon,Park, Beom-Young,Kang, Eun-Sil,Kwon, Ki-Sung,Hwang, In-Gyun Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2011 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.31 No.1

        The growth profile of Bacillus cereus in ready-to-eat (RTE) food products of animal origin was examined under different temperature and incubation conditions. In sandwiches and Kimbab, B. cereus did not grow or exhibited only minimal growth at 4 and $10^{\circ}C$, but it grew rapidly at ambient temperature. In sandwiches, B. cereus did not grow efficiently at $25^{\circ}C$, however, in ham, the main ingredient of sandwiches, B. cereus growth was observed at the same temperature, with bacterial levels reaching 7.94 Log CFU/g after incubation for 24 h at $25^{\circ}C$. Toxigenicity of B. cereus was observed only at temperatures above $25^{\circ}C$. In Kimbab, B. cereus produced toxin after 9 h at $30^{\circ}C$ and after 12 h at $25^{\circ}C$. Ingredients of sandwiches and Kimbab were collected from 3 different Korean food-processing companies to investigate the source of contamination by B. cereus. Among the 13 tested food items, 6 items including ham were found to be contaminated with B. cereus. Of these ingredients, B. cereus isolates from 3 items produced enterotoxins. None of these isolates harbored the emetic toxin-producing gene. The findings of the present study can be used for risk assessments of food products, including ham and cheese, contaminated with B. cereus.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Emerging Pathogenic Bacteria: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Foods

        Kim, Jung-Hoan,Griffiths, Mansel W. Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2011 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.31 No.2

        Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of Johne's disease in animals, may be a causative agent of Crohn's disease (CD) in humans, but the evidence supporting this claim is controversial. Milk, meat, and water could be potential sources of MAP transmission to humans. Thus, if the link between MAP and Crohn's disease is substantiated, the fact that MAP has been detected in retail foods could be a public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to review the link between MAP and CD, the prevalence of MAP in foods, heat inactivation, control of MAP during food processing, and detection methods for MAP. Although MAP positive rates in retail milk in nine countries ranged from 0 to 2.9% by the culture method and from 4.5 to 15.5% by PCR, high temperature short time pasteurization can effectively control MAP. The effectiveness of pasteurization to inactivate MAP depends on the initial concentration of the MAP in raw milk. Development of highly sensitive and specific rapid detection methods for MAP may enhance investigation into the relationship between MAP and CD, the prevention of the spread of MAP, and problem-solving related to food safety. Collaboration and efforts by government agencies, the dairy industry, farmers, veterinarians, and scientists will be required to reduce and prevent MAP in food.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Etiological Agents Implicated in Foodborne Illness World Wide

        Lee, Heeyoung,Yoon, Yohan Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2021 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.41 No.1

        This mini review focuses on foodborne illnesses and outbreaks caused by food-producing animals because statistical information of the foodborne illnesses is important in human health and food industry. Contaminated food results in 600 million cases of foodborne diseases and 420,000 deaths worldwide every year. The world population is currently 7.8 billion, and 56 million people die every year; of these, every year, 7.69% of people experience foodborne diseases, and 7.5% of annual deaths (56 million deaths) was died by foodborne illness in the world. A majority of such patients are affected by norovirus and Campylobacter. Listeria monocytogenes is the most fatal. In the United States, except for those caused by Campylobacter, the number of foodborne diseases did not decrease between 1997 and 2017, and cases caused by Toxoplasma gondii are still being reported (9 cases in 2017). The percentage of foodborne illnesses caused by food-producing animals was 10.4%-14.1% between 1999 and 2017 in the United States. In Europe, foodborne illnesses affect 23 million people every year and cause approximately 5,000 deaths. Europe has more Campylobacter- and Salmonella-related cases than in other countries. In Australia, the highest number of cases are due to Campylobacter, followed by Salmonella. In Korea, Escherichia coli followed by norovirus. Campylobacter- and Clostridium perfringens-related cases have been reported in Japan as well. This review suggests that Campylobacter, Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and E. coli, which are usually isolated from animal-source food products are associated with a high risk of foodborne illnesses.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Raw Animal Meats as Potential Sources of Clostridium difficile in Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia

        Taha, Ahmed E. Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2021 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.41 No.5

        Clostridium difficile present in feces of food animals may contaminate their meats and act as a potential source of C. difficile infection (CDI) to humans. C. difficile resistance to antibiotics, its production of toxins and spores play major roles in the pathogenesis of CDI. This is the first study to evaluate C. difficile prevalence in retail raw animal meats, its antibiotics susceptibilities and toxigenic activities in Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia. Totally, 240 meat samples were tested. C. difficile was identified by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Vitek-2 compact system confirmed C. difficile isolates were 15/240 (6.3%). Toxins A/B were not detected by Xpect C. difficile toxin A/B tests. Although all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, variable degrees of reduced susceptibilities to moxifloxacin, clindamycin or tetracycline antibiotics were detected by Epsilon tests. C. difficile strains with reduced susceptibility to antibiotics should be investigated. Variability between the worldwide reported C. difficile contamination levels could be due to absence of a gold standard procedure for its isolation. Establishment of a unified testing algorithm for C. difficile detection in food products is definitely essential to evaluate the inter-regional variation in its prevalence on national and international levels. Proper use of antimicrobials during animal husbandry is crucial to control the selective drug pressure on C. difficile strains associated with food animals. Investigating the protective or pathogenic potential of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains and the possibility of gene transfer from certain toxigenic/ antibiotics-resistant to non-toxigenic/antibiotics-sensitive strains, respectively, should be worthy of attention.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems

        Lee, Na-Kyoung,Paik, Hyun-Dong Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2016 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.36 No.4

        This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

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