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        • KCI등재

          Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals in Korean Foods and Livestock Foodstuffs

          권영민,이경희,이행신,박선오,박정민,김진만,강경모,노기미,김동술,이종옥,홍무기,최달웅,Kwon, Young-Min,Lee, Kyoung-Hee,Lee, Haeng-Shin,Park, Seon-Oh,Park, Jung-Min,Kim, Jin-Man,Kang, Kyung-Mo,No, Ki-Mi,Kim, Dong-Sul,Lee, Jong-Ok,Hong, Moo- Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2008 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.28 No.3

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          This study was conducted to evaluate exposure level and risk of heavy metals in livestock foodstuffs and Korean foods. Based on the "Food Intake Data," a part of the 2005 National Health & Nutrition Survey and the "2005 Seasonal Nutrition Survey", 113 Korean foods items were selected. 3 samples from different manufacturers of each 113 items of Korean foods were purchased on summer and fall, so total 678 samples were used. The food groups were classified into 15 categories. For the livestock foodstuffs category, meats and poultry (chicken, pork, pork belly, beef, beef feet soup), milks and dairy products (milk, ice cream, liquid yoghourt, sherbet), eggs (egg) were selected. It was found that the daily amount of heavy metals intake (mg/person/day) from livestock foodstuffs is 0.00020 arsenic, 0.00000 cadmium, 0.00020 lead, and 0.00006 mercury, and the daily amount of heavy metals intake (mg/person/day) from Korean foods is 0.0265 arsenic, 0.0083 cadmium, 0.0067 lead, and 0.0028 mercury. Daily amount of heavy metals intake from livestock foodstuffs was low among the food groups. For risk assessment, PDI (Probable Daily Intake) was calculated and compared with PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake) of JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive). Relative hazard of these livestock foodstuffs was 0.006% in arsenic, 0.000% in cadmium, 0.085% in lead, and 0.149% in mercury. Relative hazard of Korean foods was 0.941% in arsenic, 14.676% in cadmium, 3.319% in lead, and 6.860% in mercury. Thus, livestock foodstuffs and Korean foods were as safe as satisfied with the recommended standards of JECFA.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Growth Profile and Toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus in Ready-to-eat Food Products of Animal Origin

          Oh, Mi-Hwa,Ham, Jun-Sang,Seol, Kuk-Hwan,Jang, Ae-Ra,Lee, Seung-Gyu,Lee, Jong-Moon,Park, Beom-Young,Kang, Eun-Sil,Kwon, Ki-Sung,Hwang, In-Gyun Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2011 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.31 No.1

          The growth profile of Bacillus cereus in ready-to-eat (RTE) food products of animal origin was examined under different temperature and incubation conditions. In sandwiches and Kimbab, B. cereus did not grow or exhibited only minimal growth at 4 and $10^{\circ}C$, but it grew rapidly at ambient temperature. In sandwiches, B. cereus did not grow efficiently at $25^{\circ}C$, however, in ham, the main ingredient of sandwiches, B. cereus growth was observed at the same temperature, with bacterial levels reaching 7.94 Log CFU/g after incubation for 24 h at $25^{\circ}C$. Toxigenicity of B. cereus was observed only at temperatures above $25^{\circ}C$. In Kimbab, B. cereus produced toxin after 9 h at $30^{\circ}C$ and after 12 h at $25^{\circ}C$. Ingredients of sandwiches and Kimbab were collected from 3 different Korean food-processing companies to investigate the source of contamination by B. cereus. Among the 13 tested food items, 6 items including ham were found to be contaminated with B. cereus. Of these ingredients, B. cereus isolates from 3 items produced enterotoxins. None of these isolates harbored the emetic toxin-producing gene. The findings of the present study can be used for risk assessments of food products, including ham and cheese, contaminated with B. cereus.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Etiological Agents Implicated in Foodborne Illness World Wide

          Lee, Heeyoung,Yoon, Yohan Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2021 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.41 No.1

          This mini review focuses on foodborne illnesses and outbreaks caused by food-producing animals because statistical information of the foodborne illnesses is important in human health and food industry. Contaminated food results in 600 million cases of foodborne diseases and 420,000 deaths worldwide every year. The world population is currently 7.8 billion, and 56 million people die every year; of these, every year, 7.69% of people experience foodborne diseases, and 7.5% of annual deaths (56 million deaths) was died by foodborne illness in the world. A majority of such patients are affected by norovirus and Campylobacter. Listeria monocytogenes is the most fatal. In the United States, except for those caused by Campylobacter, the number of foodborne diseases did not decrease between 1997 and 2017, and cases caused by Toxoplasma gondii are still being reported (9 cases in 2017). The percentage of foodborne illnesses caused by food-producing animals was 10.4%-14.1% between 1999 and 2017 in the United States. In Europe, foodborne illnesses affect 23 million people every year and cause approximately 5,000 deaths. Europe has more Campylobacter- and Salmonella-related cases than in other countries. In Australia, the highest number of cases are due to Campylobacter, followed by Salmonella. In Korea, Escherichia coli followed by norovirus. Campylobacter- and Clostridium perfringens-related cases have been reported in Japan as well. This review suggests that Campylobacter, Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, and E. coli, which are usually isolated from animal-source food products are associated with a high risk of foodborne illnesses.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Determining the Reuse of Frying Oil for Fried Sweet and Sour Pork according to Type of Oil and Frying Time

          Park, Jung Min,Koh, Jong Ho,Kim, Jin Man Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2020 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.40 No.5

          Food Codex regulations have set freshness limits for oils used to fry food, such as potato and fish products, and fried food itself; however, no such freshness limits have been set for meat products, such as sweet and sour pork. The freshness standard suggest that acid values (AVs) and peroxide values (POVs) for frying oil should be less than 2.5 and 50, respectively, whereas AVs and POVs for common fried food should be less than 5.0 and 60, respectively. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effect of the number of frying cycles on oxidation-promoted changes in the oils used to fry sweet and sour pork and fried food itself during repeated frying over 10 d by determining their AVs and POVs, which were found to be highly correlated. Soybean, canola, palm, and pork lard oils could be reused approximately 37, 32, 58, and 87 times, respectively, to fry sweet and sour pork based on oil freshness, and 78, 78, 81, and 286 times, respectively, based on the freshness of fried food. Our data may help establish food-quality regulations for oils used to fry animal-based foods.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems

          Lee, Na-Kyoung,Paik, Hyun-Dong Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2016 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.36 No.4

          This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Antioxidant and Bioactive Films to Enhance Food Quality and Phytochemical Production during Ripening

          Min Byungjin,Dawson Paul L.,Shetty Kalidas Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2005 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.25 No.1

          Antioxidant films are one active packaging technology that can extend food shelf-life through preventing lipid oxidation, stabilizing color, maintaining sensory properties and delaying microbial growth in foods. Because raw, fresh and minimal processed foods are more perishable during storage or under display conditions than further processed foods, they rapidly lose their original quality. Foods are susceptible to physical, chemical, and biochemical hazards to which packaging films can be effective barriers. Although films incorporated natural (tocopherols, flavonoids and phenolic acids) or synthetic antioxidants (BHT, BHA, TBHQ, propyl gallate) have been extensively tested to improve quality and safety of various foods, food applications require addressing issues such as physical properties, chemical action, cost, and legal approval. Increased interest in natural antioxidants as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants has triggered research on use of the new natural antioxidants in films and coatings. Use of new components (phytochemicals) as film additives can improve food quality and human health. The biosynthesis of plant phenolics can potentially be optimized by active coatings on harvested fruits and vegetables. These coatings can trigger the plants natural proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway to increase the phenolic contents and maintain overall plant tissue quality. This alternate metabolic pathway has been proposed by Dr. K. Shetty and is supported by numerous studies. A new generation of active food films will not only preserve the food, but increase food's nutritional quality by optimizing raw food biochemical production of phytochemicals.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Direct Detection of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. in Animal-derived Foods Using a Magnetic Bead-based Immunoassay

          Kim, Jong-Hui,Yoo, Jae Gyu,Ham, Jun-Sang,Oh, Mi-Hwa Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2018 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.38 No.4

          In this study, an immuno-magnetic bead (IMB)-based assay was developed to simultaneously detect Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. and was tested in four animal-derived foods: beef, ham, egg, and ricotta cheese. The IMB-based assay exhibited good specificity by binding to five E. coli serotypes [capture efficiency (CE) average (avg.) 90.4%], five S. aureus strains (CE avg. 91.4%), and five Salmonella serotypes (CE avg. 95.4%) but not binding to non-target bacteria (CE<10%). Furthermore, the assay detected all three pathogens with a detection limit of 10 CFU/g without the need for enrichment or additional platforms. Since the results demonstrated that the IMB-based assay can effectively separate and enrich target bacteria from a variety of animal-derived food matrixes, the assay exhibits good specificity for potential use in providing rapid, immunological, presumptive identification of pathogenic bacteria.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Meat Value Chain Losses in Iran

          Ranaei, Vahid,Pilevar, Zahra,Esfandiari, Changiz,Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi,Dhakal, Rajan,Vargas-Bello-Perez, Einar,Hosseini, Hedayat Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2021 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.41 No.1

          To stop hunger, reducing food losses is a potential movement towards saving food. A large portion of these losses could be avoided and reduced through the improved food chain in many countries. Raising awareness on how and where food losses occur will help recovering foods such as meat by identifying solutions and convincing people to implement those solutions. This, in turn, will lead to private and public efforts to recover meat that might be otherwise wasted. After highlighting the importance of food saving benefits and relevant statistics, this paper explains the possible ways to reduce meat loss and waste in abattoirs and presents a framework for prevention according to the estimates of meat losses in Iran meat supply. The current article answers the questions of where do we have the meat loss in Iran and what approaches are most successful in reducing losses in the meat industry. The national average loss and waste in meat production are about 300,000 metric tonnes (about 15%). Many segments and players are involved with this huge amount of losses in the meat value chain, a large portion of these losses could be avoided and reduced by about 25% through using by-products with the mechanization of design and manufacturing. The production amount of mechanically deboned meat (MDM) is 105,091,000 kg, concluding the major waste (88.33%) of total poultry losses. Ensuring appropriate actions by exploiting the full potential of engaged Iranian associations and institutes is considered to reduce the losses.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Emerging Pathogenic Bacteria: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Foods

          Kim, Jung-Hoan,Griffiths, Mansel W. Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2011 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.31 No.2

          Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), the cause of Johne's disease in animals, may be a causative agent of Crohn's disease (CD) in humans, but the evidence supporting this claim is controversial. Milk, meat, and water could be potential sources of MAP transmission to humans. Thus, if the link between MAP and Crohn's disease is substantiated, the fact that MAP has been detected in retail foods could be a public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to review the link between MAP and CD, the prevalence of MAP in foods, heat inactivation, control of MAP during food processing, and detection methods for MAP. Although MAP positive rates in retail milk in nine countries ranged from 0 to 2.9% by the culture method and from 4.5 to 15.5% by PCR, high temperature short time pasteurization can effectively control MAP. The effectiveness of pasteurization to inactivate MAP depends on the initial concentration of the MAP in raw milk. Development of highly sensitive and specific rapid detection methods for MAP may enhance investigation into the relationship between MAP and CD, the prevention of the spread of MAP, and problem-solving related to food safety. Collaboration and efforts by government agencies, the dairy industry, farmers, veterinarians, and scientists will be required to reduce and prevent MAP in food.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Improving the Quality of Response Surface Analysis of an Experiment for Coffee-Supplemented Milk Beverage: I. Data Screening at the Center Point and Maximum Possible R-Square

          Rheem, Sungsue,Oh, Sejong Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resource 2019 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.39 No.1

          Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. As a design for a response surface experiment, a central composite design (CCD) with multiple runs at the center point is frequently used. However, sometimes there exist situations where some among the responses at the center point are outliers and these outliers are overlooked. Since the responses from center runs are those from the same experimental conditions, there should be no outliers at the center point. Outliers at the center point ruin statistical analysis. Thus, the responses at the center point need to be looked at, and if outliers are observed, they have to be examined. If the reasons for the outliers are not errors in measuring or typing, such outliers need to be deleted. If the outliers are due to such errors, they have to be corrected. Through a re-analysis of a dataset published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, we have shown that outlier elimination resulted in the increase of the maximum possible R-square that the modeling of the data can obtain, which enables us to improve the quality of response surface analysis.

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