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Compared with land logistics and sea logistics, air logistics takes not only less transportation time, but also makes just-in-time delivery possible. Because of this, in spite of high freight rates, many shippers make good use of airlines. To cope with borderless competition in this global age, most shippers using air logistics want to receive diverse information including just-in-time cargo delivery and dangerous situation as well as convenience and speed in job handling. Nevertheless, most domestic forwarders, who perform many kinds of important businesses for air logistics, mainly put emphasis on demanding information from overseas partners through their business agreements, that is, focusing on horizontal integration, instead of sharing information or improving job performance among air logistics participants. As a result, it is almost impossible to satisfy the needs of shippers. Airline users want to remove the uncertainties over their cargo movement. And in time of emergency, they want to take immediate measures through speedy information sharing and decision-making. In order to satisfy shipper's needs, all the organizations participating in the air logistics supply chain-cargo senders, cargo receivers, forwarders, transporters, licensed customs brokers, airlines as well as foreign partners-have to set up a vertical cooperation system. For effective air logistics SCM, it is very important to remove overlapping jobs, strengthen the efficiency of job handling, and provide online monitoring on cargo information in order to support decision-making. To this end, this paper has applied the concept of RTE (Real Time Enterprise), a new business management system, which tries to maximize competitiveness by removing many hindrance factors on an ongoing basis in managing and fulfilling core business processes based on up-to-the-minute information. In order to realize RTE-based information system for air logistics SCM, this paper has analyzed the information required by business process and by air logistics participant, and suggested the method for information sharing, point of time for information input and output, and its means.
Much information has been hierarchically organized to facilitate information browsing, retrieval, and dissemination. In practice, much information may be entered at any time, but only a small subset of the information may be classified into some categories in a hierarchy. Therefore, achieving document filtering (DF) in the course of document classification (DC) is an essential basis to develop an information center, which classifies suitable documents into suitable categories, reducing information overload while facilitating information sharing. In this paper, we present a technique ICenter, which conducts DF and DC by recognizing the context of discussion (COD) of each document and category. Experiments on real-world data show that, through COD recognition, the performance of ICenter is significantly better. The results are of theoretical and practical significance. ICenter may server as an essential basis to develop an information center for a user community, which shares and organizes a hierarchy of textual information.
This paper formally defines a role-driven security and access control model of a business process in order eventually to provide a theoretical basis for realizing the secured business process management systems. That is, we propose a graphical representation and formal description of the mechanism that generates a set of role-driven security and access control models from a business process modeled by the information control net(ICN) modeling methodology that is a typical business process modeling approach for defining and specifying business processes. Based upon the mechanism, we are able to design and accomplish a secured business process management system that provides an unified resource access control mechanism of the business process management engine domain's and the application domain's. Finally, we strongly believe that the secured access control policies from the role-driven security and access control model can be easily transformed into the RBAC(Role-based Access Control) model that is a standardized security technology for computer and communications systems of commercial and civilian government organizations.
Previous studies on user training have largely focused on assessing models which describe the determinants of information technology usage or examined the effects of training on user satisfaction, productivity, performance, and so on. Scant research efforts have been made, however, to examine those effects of training by using theoretical models. This study presented a conceptual models to predict intention to use information technology and conducted an experiment to understand how training for computer skill acquisition affects primary variables of the model. The data were obtained from 32 student subjects of an experimental group and 31 students of a control group, and the information technology employed for this study was a university electronic mail system. The study results revealed that attitude toward usage and perceived behavioral control helped to predict user intentions ;; outcome expectations were positively related to attitude toward usage ; and self-efficacy was positively related to perceived behavioral control. The hands-on training for the experimental group led to increases in perceived ease of use, self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control. The changes in those variables suggest more causal effects of user training than other survey studies.
The purpose of this study is to investigate factors which can lead small buyers to participate in a Reverse Aggregation Electronic Market (RAEM). Five factors including search, selection, price, delivery, and Internet literacy were selected as possible factors which are expected to influence small buyers' participation in a RAEM. This paper focused on a RAEM of the Korean automotive industry in which the third party aggregator formed a group of small automobile repair shops (ARS) and amassed buying power for them by building a buyer' oriented electronic market (EM). Survey data were collected from small ARS in South Korea. The results of the empirical analysis indicated that fast delivery and support for Internet illiteracy are potential incentives that could influence buyers' decisions to join a RAEM.
In a loosely-coupled distributed database server system, a server failure and/or a communication failure can be masked by a resiliency mechanism. Recognizing that a distributed transaction executes at several servers during its lifetime, we propose a resiliency mechanism which allows continuous transaction processing in distributed database server systems in the presence of a server failure. The resiliency mechanism for transaction processing is achieved by keeping redundant information using a primary/backup approach. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance improvement opportunities with the resiliency mechanism and to present the design of the proposed system.
With the increasing use of the Internet improved Internet technologies as well as web-based applications, the uses of e-Learning have also increased the effectiveness of e-Learning has become one of the most practically and theoretically important issues in both Educational Engineering and Information Systems. This study suggests a research model, based on an e-Learning success model, the relationship of the e-learner's self-regulated learning strategy and the quality perception of the e-Learning environment. This research model focuses on the learning environment and on the learners' self-efficacy. The former consists of LMS, learning contents and interaction that are provided by e-Learning and the latter refers to the learners' self-regulated learning strategy. In this study, academic performance was measured by student's real record. We will show the validity of the model empirically, and most of the hypotheses suggested in this model were accepted.
Though studies on negotiations have actively been conducted in the field of e-Commerce so far, some problems have yet to be solved and many application fields of negotiation systems exist. Currently, many businesses shift from various fields to e-Commerce market, due to recent social changes and expansion of e-Commerce market; however, we need to develop the study of automated agents to resolve the issue of negotiation, which is an essential element in the e-Commerce, by minimizing human interference under the e-Commerce environment. In this study, we intend to propose a new negotiation protocol considering the negotiation alternatives through continuous negotiation rounds in relation to an automated negotiation issue whose participants are one to N (seller to buyers). We also present an agent-facilitated negotiation methodology by which negotiation alternative generation process is automated, in consideration of buyer's negotiation attributes and strategies in the negotiation system.
Knowledge acquisition, maintenance of knowledge base, and validation and verification of knowledge are the addressed bottlenecks of building successful knowledge based systems. Along with the increment of interesting in the knowledge based systems, the organization needs to develop a new one although it has a similar one. This causes several serious problems including knowledge redundancy and maintenance of knowledge base. This paper present three models of the reusable knowledge base which might be the solution to the above problem. Three models are : 1) multiple knowledge bases for a single AI application, 2) multiple knowledge bases for multiple AI applications, 3) a single knowledge base for multiple AI applications. A new approach to build such a reusable knowledge base in a homogeneous environment is presented. Our model combines the essential object-oriented techniques with rules in a consistent manner. Important aspects of applying object-oriented techniques to AI are discussed (inheritance, encapsulation, message passing), and some potential problems in building an AI application (decomposition technique of knowledge, search time, and heterogeneous environment) are pointed out. The models of a reusable knowledge base provide several amenities : 1) reduce the knowledge redundancy, 2) reduce the effort of maintenance of the knowledge base, 3) reuse the resource of the multiple domain knowledge bases, 4) reduce the development time.
Mining of association rules is to find associations among data items that appear together in some transactions or business activities. As of today, algorithms for association rule mining, as well as for other data mining tasks, are mostly applied to relational databases. As XML being adopted as the universal format for data storage and exchange, mining associations from XML data becomes an area of attention for researchers and developers. The challenge is that the semi-structured data format in XML is not directly suitable for traditional data mining algorithms and tools. In this paper we present an encoding method to encode XML tree-nodes. This method is used to store the XML data in Value Table and Transaction Table that can be easily accessed via indexing. The hierarchical relationship in the original XML tree structure is embedded in the encoding. We applied this method to association rules mining of XML data that may have missing data.