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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current trends in research on pharmacopuncture in Korea since 2007. Methods: A literature review was performed by using the search engines 'Science and Technology Society Village', 'Korean Studies Information Service System', 'National Discovery for Science Leaders', and 'Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System' in Korea from January 2007 to December 2013. Searched key words were 'pharmacopuncture', 'herbal acupuncture', 'aqua-acupuncture', and 'bee venom'. Finally, we selected 457 papers, including Korean experimental studies and clinical studies. Selected papers were classified according to year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease & topic, research type and the publishing journal. Results: One hundred fifty pharmacopunctures were studied in 457 papers. Single compound pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in experimental studies while animal-based pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in clinical studies. Bee venom placed first among the various pharmacopunctures, followed by placenta, sweet bee venom, mountain-ginseng, and anti-inflammatory pharmacopunctures. Experimental research on pharmacopuncture has fallen since 2007 when 55 papers were published. However, clinical research has been increasing steadily. In clinical studies, case reports were numerous than randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Musculoskeletal diseases were the most frequently-treated diseases in studies on pharmacopuncture; among the musculoskeletal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis was the most frequently-treated disease in experimental studies and low back pain was the most frequently-treated condition in clinical studies. Since 2007, 45 different journals have published studies on pharmacopuncture, with the Journal of the Korean Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine Society having the largest number of papers on pharmacopuncture and the Journal of Pharmacopuncture the second largest number. Conclusion: The trends in research on pharmacopuncture published in studies from 2007 to 2013 were similar to those in studies published before 2006. Many studies on pharmacopuncture focused on bee venom and musculoskeletal diseases. Additional studies on diverse types of and indications for pharmacopuncture are needed.
Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain-ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-compound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period. Research on the types of pharmacopuncture and diseases has to be expanded. Especially, studies on the use of MFP and EPP for treating patients with various diseases are needed.
Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the concentrations of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were 'pain on cervical spine', 'cervical pain', 'ruptured cervical disk', 'cervical disc disorder', 'stiffness of the neck', 'cervical disk', 'whiplash injury', 'cervicalgia', 'posterior cervical pain', 'neck disability', 'Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)', and 'Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)'. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient's condition.
Objectives: Whiplash injury is one of the major diseases in recent times because of increasing traffic accidents. This review aims to analyze the overall trend of studies on pharmacopuncture for whiplash injury after traffic accidents. Methods: We searched through 4 Korean electronic databases from 2001 up to October 2020 for relevant clinical studies for whiplash injury after traffic accidents, regardless of the patients' age, gender, or race. We included studies that had an intervention group receiving pharmacopuncture therapy with or without other additional treatments, and also included studies that had a control group receiving sham treatment or active treatment such as physical therapy and herbal medication. For the clinical outcomes, we did not place any restrictions on evaluation scales if they are objective metrics. Results: We included 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 non-randomized controlled trials (nRCTs). 10 nRCTs were divided into 4 categories that were case-control studies, case series, case report, and retrospective observational study. In RCTs, Hwangryun-haedoktang (黃蓮解毒湯) pharmacopuncture was the most frequently used. In nRCTs, Jungsong-ouhyul (中性瘀血) pharmacopuncture, and bee venom pharmacopuncture were the most frequently used. As target points of Hwangryun-haedoktang pharmacopuncture, Ashi-points, Jianjing (GB21), and Fengchi (GB20) were the most frequently used. As target points of Jungsong-ouhyul pharmacopuncture, Ashi-points were the most frequently used. And as target points of Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Fengchi (GB20) was the most frequently used. Conclusion: Hwangryun-haedoktang pharmacopuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Jungsong-ouhyul pharmacopuncture were mainly used for whiplash injury, and their usual target points were Jianjing (GB21), Fengchi (GB20), and Ashi-points. However, a high level of evidence should be conducted through studies with systematic methodology in the future.
Objectives: This study was carried out to analyze the single-dose toxicity of Eun-Bi San pharmacopuncture injected into the muscle of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution certified to conduct non-clinical studies under the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. Six week old SD rats reared by ORIENTBIO were chosen for this pilot study. The reason SD rats were chosen is that they have been widely used in safety tests in the field of medicine, so the results can be easily compared with many other databases. The Eun-Bi San pharmacopuncture was made in a clean room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI, K-GMP). The constituents of the Eun-Bi San pharmacopuncture are Angelicae gigantis radix, Strychni semen and Glycyrrhizae radix. These were extracted at low temperature and low pressure in an aseptic room at the KPI. Doses of Eun-Bi San pharmacopuncture, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was performed under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotoxtech Co., Ltd. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To determine if abnormalities existed in any organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that treatment with Eun-Bi San pharmacopuncture is relatively safe and that its clinical use may be beneficial. Further evaluations and studies on this subject will be needed to provide more concrete evidence in support of these conclusions.
Objectives: Pharmacopuncture is a new form of acupuncture treatment that injects herbal medicine into acupuncture points. This paper introduces the management status of pharmacopuncture through accreditation, and examines the effect of accreditation on pharmacopuncture management. Methods: The Accreditation System of External Herbal Dispensaries (EHDs) of traditional Korean medicine clinics announced by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in September 2018 were investigated. Results: The Accreditation System of EHDs assesses and certifies herbal medicine and pharmacopuncture preparations. Regular components for the 'pharmacopuncture' certification consist of nine standards, 30 categories, and 165 items. The nine standards include: herbal dispensary facilities, clean room management, management and organization operation, employee management, document management, continuous quality control, herbal medicine management, management of preparation, and pavement management. Conclusion: Through EHD accreditation and certification system, traditional Korean medicine clinics and EHDs can now manage pharmacopuncture medicine quality and promise safe pharmacopuncture treatment for the people.
Objective: Pharmacopuncture, a new therapy in traditional medicine, has attracted significant attention since its introduction to the Western world. This short review article employs a database analysis to examine the profile of publication activity related to pharmacopuncture. Methods: Three databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. About 300 papers related to the topic "pharmacopuncture" were found in these three most-commonly-used databases. Results: Fourteen papers are described in detail and are discussed in the context of the research performed at the Medical University of Graz, especially by the Frank Bahr Research Group "Auriculomedicine and Pharmacopuncture." Conclusion: High-tech research methods concerning future pharmacopuncture studies are briefly discussed.
Jeong,,Hohyun,Cha,,Eunhye,Lee,,Jongcheol,Lee,,Seongjin,Park,,Manyong,Kim,,Dongwoung,Song,,Bongkeun,Lee,,Jongdeok,Kim,,Sungchul KOREAN PHARMACOPUNCTURE INSTITUTE 2016 Journal of pharmacopuncture Vol.19 No.4
Objectives: This study was carried out to analyze the single dose toxicity of ShinEumHur (SEH) pharmacopuncture injected into the muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The SEH pharmacopuncture was made in a clean room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (K-GMP). After the mixing process with sterile distilled water had been completed, the pH was controlled to between 7.0 and 7.5. All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of SEH pharmacopuncture, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weights, clinical signs, mean hematology parameters, mean clinical chemistry, necropsy and histopathological findings. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that treatment with SEH pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic studies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords 'cervical pain', 'traffic accident', 'whiplash injury', and 'pharmacopuncture'. Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solutions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous decade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were performed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.