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      • KCI등재

        Enhanced pig production: potential use of insect gut microbiota for pig production

        Shin, Jiwon,Kim, Bo-Ra,Guevarra, Robin B.,Lee, Jun Hyung,Lee, Sun Hee,Kim, Young Hwa,Wattanaphansak, Suphot,Kang, Bit Na,Kim, Hyeun Bum Institute of Agricultural Science 2018 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.45 No.4

        The insect gut microbiome is known to have important roles in host growth, development, digestion, and resistance against pathogens. In addition, the genetic diversity of the insect gut microbiota has recently been recognized as potential genetic resources for industrial bioprocessing. However, there is limited information regarding the insect gut microbiota to better help us understand their potential benefits for enhanced pig production. With the development of next-generation sequencing methods, whole genome sequence analysis has become possible beyond traditional culture-independent methods. This improvement makes it possible to identify and characterize bacteria that are not cultured and located in various environments including the gastrointestinal tract. Insect intestinal microorganisms are known to have an important role in host growth, digestion, and immunity. These gut microbiota have recently been recognized as potential genetic resources for livestock farming which is using the functions of living organisms to integrate them into animal science. The purpose of this literature review is to emphasize the necessity of research on insect gut microbiota and their applicability to pig production or bioindustry. In conclusion, bacterial metabolism of feed in the gut is often significant for the nutrition intake of animals, and the insect gut microbiome has potential to be used as feed additives for enhanced pig performance. The exploration of the structure and function of the insect gut microbiota needs further investigation for their potential use in the swine industry particularly for the improvement of growth performance and overall health status of pigs.

      • Prospects of Triticale as Fodder and Feed in Farming of Bangladesh

        나지아 타바섬,로미즈 우딘,김은순,Tabassum, Nazia,Uddin, Md. Romij,Gim, Uhn-Soon Institute of Agricultural Science 2008 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.35 No.1

        트리티케일은 호밀과 밀의 교잡에 의한 작물로서, 방글라데시에서 조사료 및 곡물로 재배가능하나 농가재배는 아직 시범단계에 있는 상태이다. 본 논문은 방글라데시농업에 있어서 비전통적인 작물로서 트리티케일의 재배 현황을 검토하고 최근 몇 년간의 시험연구 자료에 의거하여 트리티케일이 축산조사료와 곡물사료로 사용됨에 따르는 경제성을 비교하였다. 트리티케일과 밀 옥수수 재배의 수익성을 비교한 결과 트리티케일이 가장 높고 다음은 옥수수, 밀의 순으로 나타났다. 트리티케일의 재배대안별 수익성은 파종후 2회(파종후 35일째와 50일째 절단) 조사료로 절단 재배(4.9~20.2 t/ha)하고 이어서 곡물(1.1~2.4 t/ha)로서 재배하는 경우가 가장 높게 나타났으며, 이때 B/C ratio는 1.62로 나타나서 경제성이 있다는 것을 입증했다. 한편 시범농가재배결과에 의하면 트리티케일을 젖소의 조사료로서 사용한 경우가 볏짚을 사용한 경우보다 젖소의 우유생산량과 젖소의 체중을 36~46% 포인트 증가시키는 결과를 가져왔다. 아울러 트리티케일은 방글라데시 양계사육에 있어서 밀을 대체할 수 있는 좋은 곡물사료로 나타났다. 시험연구결과와 시범농가재배결과에 의하면 트리티케일을 조사료와 동시에 곡물로 이중목적으로 재배하는 것이 방글라데시 축산업에서 만성화 되어있는 조사료부족(특히 건기)현상을 경감할 뿐 아니라 소규모 방글라데시 농가의 소득에도 기여할 수 있는 잠재성이 있다고 판단된다. This paper reviews the present situation of Triticale cultivation and examines the potentiality of contribution to livestock as well as poultry sector in Bangladesh Agriculture. Triticale is a human-made cross between rye and durum wheat that has the ability to produce quality green fodder, and then re-grow after first and second cutting to produce grain. In Bangladesh, it is a non-traditional cereal that grows well during the cool and dry Rabi season (November-March) when fodder and feed scarcity is a major limiting factor for ruminant livestock. In Bangladesh Triticale was started to grow in the late Ninety's. The scientists of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) were first introduced triticale in Bangladesh. Still now the situation of Triticale is grown as fooder and feed in Bangladesh within the scientists under trial. High quality grass fodder was obtained by cutting green triticale plants twice, at 35 and 50 days after seeding, while later the ratooning tillers produced grain to a yield of 1.1-2.4 t/ha of grain for poultry feed or human food. Triticale straw was twice as nutritious as rice or wheat straw and its grain contained more protein than other cereals. Researchers and farmers have also successfully made triticale hay and silage from a mixture of triticale green cuttings, rice straw and molasses. A feeding trial at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute(BLRI), Savar station showed a large(46%) increase in cow live weight gain and a 36% increase in milk yield (but no change in milk quality or dry matter intake) in cows fed triticale silage compared with those fed rice straw over a period of nine weeks. In another feeding trial, it was found that triticale grain was a good replacement for wheat in the feed blend for chickens in Bangladesh. So it will be a good chance to alive our livestock as well as poultry sector if triticale enters to our existing cropping system as fodder cum grain. The challenge in Bangladesh is to identify fodder technologies that match existing small-scale farmer cropping patterns without needing major inputs or increasing risks. Preliminary field experiments revealed that triticale is a crop with good potential to produce quality fodder and grain for small scale farmers in Bangladesh.

      • KCI등재

        Insect natural enemies as bioindicators in rice paddies

        Ueno, Takatoshi Institute of Agricultural Science 2012 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.39 No.4

        In Asia, including Japan and Korea, rice paddies occupy the largest cultivated area in agricultural land. Rice paddies provide the habitats for many organisms including endemic species, sustaining high biodiversity. Insect natural enemies inhabiting rice paddies have an important function for rice production as agents of 'ecosystem services' because they play a major role in suppressing rice pests. The diversity and abundance of natural enemies can be a good index reflecting the 'healthiness' of agro-ecosystem services in rice paddies. The present study investigates whether insect natural enemies could be good biological indicators for general arthropod biodiversity and agricultural practice. First, the concept of ideal bio-indicators was summarized. The strategy to explore and select such bio-indicators was then proposed. Lastly, field survey was made to evaluate the abundance and biodiversity of natural enemies in Japanese rice paddies where chemical inputs, i.e., insecticide use, were different. The results showed that reduction of chemical inputs led to an increase in species richness or diversity of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators. Then, the data were analyzed to examine suitable indicator species to assess environmental soundness of agricultural practice and biodiversity in rice paddies. The density of several species of natural enemies did respond both to pesticide use and to general arthropod biodiversity. The analyses thus have indicated that natural enemies can be suitable as bio-indicators. Usefulness of indicator species in rice paddies is discussed in the context of ecologically sound agriculture.

      • KCI등재후보

        Effect of light illumination and camera moving speed on soil image quality

        정선옥,조기현,정기열,Chung, Sun-Ok,Cho, Ki-Hyun,Jung, Ki-Yuol Institute of Agricultural Science 2012 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.39 No.3

        Soil texture has an important influence on agriculture such as crop selection, movement of nutrient and water, soil electrical conductivity, and crop growth. Conventionally, soil texture has been determined in the laboratory using pipette and hydrometer methods requiring significant amount of time, labor, and cost. Recently, in-situ soil texture classification systems using optical diffuse reflectometry or mechanical resistance have been reported, especially for precision agriculture that needs more data than conventional agriculture. This paper is a part of overall research to develop an in-situ soil texture classification system using image processing. Issues investigated in this study were effects of sensor travel speed and light source and intensity on image quality. When travel speed of image sensor increased from 0 to 10 mm/s, travel distance and number of pixel were increased to 3.30 mm and 9.4, respectively. This travel distances were not negligible even at a speed of 2 mm/s (i.e., 0.66 mm and 1.4), and image degradation was significant. Tests for effects of illumination intensity showed that 7 to 11 Lux seemed a good condition minimizing shade and reflection. When soil water content increased, illumination intensity should be greater to compensate decrease in brightness. Results of the paper would be useful for construction, test, and application of the sensor.

      • KCI등재후보

        Management Strategies to Conserve Soil and Water Qualities in the Sloping Uplands in Korea

        양재이,유진희,김시주,정덕영,Yang, Jae-E.,Ryu, Jin-Hee,Kim, Si-Joo,Chung, Doug-Young Institute of Agricultural Science 2010 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.37 No.3

        Soils in the sloping uplands in Korea are subject to intensive land use with high input of agrochemicals and are vulnerable to soil erosion. Development of the environmentally sound land management strategy is essential for a sustainable production system in the sloping upland. This report addresses the status of upland agriculture and the best management practices for the uplands toward the sustainable agriculture. More than 60% of Korean lands are forest and only 21% are cultivating paddy and upland. Uplands are about 7% of the total lands and about 62% of the uplands are in the slopes higher than 7%. Due to the site-specificity of the upland, many managerial and environmental problems are occurring, such as severe erosion, shallow surface soils with rocky fragments, and loadings of non-point source (NPS) contaminants into the watershed. Based on the field trials, most of the sloping uplands were classified as Suitability Class III-V and the major limiting factor was slope and rock fragments. Due to this, soils were over-applied with N fertilizer, even though N rate was the recommendation. This resulted in decreases in yield, degradation of soil quality and increases in N loading to the leachate. Various case studies drew management practices toward sustainable production systems. The suggested BMP on the managerial, vegetative, and structural options were to practice buffer strips along the edges of fields and streams, winter cover crop, contour and mulching farming, detention weir, diversion drains, grassed waterway, and slope arrangement. With these options, conservation effects such as reductions in raindrop impact, flow velocity, runoff and sediment loss, and rill and gully erosion were observed. The proper management practice is a key element of the conservation of the soil and water in the sloping upland.

      • Variation and Trends of Irrigation Requirements of Rice Paddies in Korea

        Nkomozepi, Temba Darlington,Chung, Sang-Ok Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology 2013 慶北大農學誌 Vol.31 No.4

        Understanding the temporal variability of agricultural parameters derived from historical climate data is important for planning in agriculture. Therefore, this study assessed the magnitude and recent trends of the transpiration ratio defined as the crop water use per harvested yield for the period from 1980 to 2010. The crop water use was estimated using the Food and Agriculture Organization's Crop Wat model for eight administrative provinces in Korea. The temporal trends and spatial uncertainty were explored using the Mann-Kendall and Theil Sen's methods. The regional average rice yield was $6.31t\;ha^{-1}$(range 5.9 to $6.9t\;ha^{-1}$). The results showed that the rice yield in Korea increased by $26kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$. Overall, the regional average transpiration ratio was $1,298m^3t^{-1}$ (range 1,162 to $1,470m^3t^{-1}$). From 1980 to 2010, the transpiration ratio decreased by $8.2m^3t^{-1}$ (range 2.7 to $14.4m^3t^{-1}$), largely as a result of the increasing yield. The statistical approach to historical data used in this study also provides a basis for simulating the future transpiration ratio.

      • KCI등재

        Heavy metals and pollution index of agricultural soils around industrial complexes in the Jeon-Buk regions of Korea

        Suwanmanon, Sorakon,Kim, Ki In Institute of Agricultural Science 2019 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.46 No.4

        The aim of this study was to evaluate heavy metal contamination and pollution index of agricultural soils around industrial complexes in the Jeon-Buk Regions of Korea. Soil samples near industrial complexes in 2017 were collected at two depths (0 - 15 and 15 - 30 cm) within a 500- and 1000-meter radius before planting. Eight heavy metals (Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), Cupper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn)) and the pollution index (PI), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and soil pollution index (SPI) were evaluated based on soil contamination warning standard (SCWS). Overall, the heavy metal concentrations were below the SCWS. The PI ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 and categorized into Group 1 which is not polluted with any heavy metals. The average Igeo values of all the soil samples ranged from - 2.56 to 3.22. The Igeo values of Cd and Hg may not represent well the pollution index because the heavy metal concentrations in the soil is lower compared to the SCWS. In fact, based on the heavy metal concentrations, the Igeo for monitored soils should be categorized into Group 1, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. However, the Igeo of Cd and Hg are classified into heavily contaminated. These results suggest that for calculating the Igeo, the heavy metal concentration and background concentration should be used very carefully if the heavy metal concentration in the soil is lower than the background concentration. SPI for all the soil samples ranged from 0.00 to 0.11 which indicates no heavy metal pollution was observed.

      • KCI등재

        Measuring the efficiency and determinants of rice production in Myanmar: a translog stochastic frontier approach

        Wai, Khine Zar,Hong, Seungjee Institute of Agricultural Science 2021 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.48 No.1

        This study investigated the extent to which rice producers from the Ayeyarwaddy Region of Myanmar could improve their productivity if inputs were used efficiently in rice cultivation. To achieve this objective, simple random sampling was used to collect data from 300 rice growers in the study area. Data were analyzed with the translog stochastic frontier approach to understand the production efficiencies. The study further estimated the influencing factors that affect the efficiency levels of rice farmers. The empirical result reveals that the average technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies were at 76.11, 47.85, and 34.15%, respectively. This suggests that there is considerable room for improving rice production by better utilization of the available resources at the current level of technology. This study suggests that strenthening agricultural training programs and adoption of improved rice varieties may reduce overall inefficiencies among rice farmers in Myanmar. Factors like age, household size, education, farming experience, farm size, rice variety, training, and off-farm income have a significant impact on increasing/decreasing farmer's efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by establishing farmer field school programs to increase the scale of operations. The government should encourage young educated people to participate in paddy production and also intervene to reduce input prices and control the quality of seeds.

      • KCI등재

        Excessive soil water stress responses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) cultivated from paddy fields with different topographic features

        Ryu, Jongsoo,Baek, Inyeoul,Kwak, Kangsu,Han, Wonyoung,Bae, Jinwoo,Park, Jinki,Chun, Hyen Chung Institute of Agricultural Science 2018 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.45 No.4

        In Korea, the largest agricultural lands are paddy fields which have poor infiltration and drainage properties. Recently, the Korean government has pursued cultivating upland crops in paddy fields to reduce overproduced rice in Korea. For this policy to succeed, it is critical to understand the topographic information of paddy fields and its effects on upland crops cultivated in the soils of paddy fields. The objective of this study was to characterize the growth properties of sesame and perilla from paddy fields with three soil topographic features and soil water effects which were induced by the topographic features of the sesame and perilla. The crops were planted in paddy fields located in Miryang, Gyeongnam with different topographies: mountain foot slope, local valley and alluvial plain. Soil water contents and groundwater levels were measured every hour during the growing season. The paddy field of the mountain foot slope was significantly effective in alleviating wet injury for the sesame and perilla in the paddy fields. The paddy field of the mountain foot slope had a decreased average soil water content and groundwater level during cultivation. Stress day index (SDI) from the alluvial plain paddy field had the greatest values from both crops and the smallest from the ones from the paddy field of the mountain foot slope. This result means that sesame and perilla had the smallest stress from the soil water content of the paddy field on the mountain foot slope and the greatest stress from the soil water content of the alluvial plain. It is important to consider the topography of paddy fields to reduce wet injury and to increase crop yields.

      • KCI등재

        The safety behavior of agricultural reservoirs due to raising the embankment

        Lee, Dalwon,Lee, Younghak Institute of Agricultural Science 2013 Korean Journal of Agricultural Science Vol.40 No.3

        This study was carried out to investigate safety evaluation of agricultural reservoirs due to raising the embankment. The seepage analysis and large-scale model test were performed to compare and analyze the pore water pressure(PWP), leakage quantity, settlement and piping phenomenon in the inclined core type and the vertical core type embankments. The PWP after raising the embankment showed smaller than before raising the embankment and the stability for piping after raising the embankment. The allowable seepage quantity and the allowable leakage for the steady state and transient conditions is within the range of safe management standard. After raising the embankment in the inclined core, there was no infiltration by leakage. For the vertical core, the PWP showed a large change by faster infiltration of pore water than in the inclined core. In a rapid drawdown, inclined core was remained stable but the vertical core showed a large change in PWP. Settlement after raising the embankment showed larger amounts of settlement than before raising the embankment. The leakage quantity before raising the embankment and the inclined core type showed no leakage. From the result, an instrument system that can accurately estimate a change of PWP shall be established for the rational maintenance and stabilization of raising the embankment for agricultural reservoirs.

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