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        Protection Management for Guaranteed User-Driven Virtual Circuit Services in Dynamic Multi-domain Environments: Design Issues and Challenges

        Lim, Huhnkuk Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2015 ETRI Journal Vol.37 No.2

        Fault management of virtualized network environments using user-driven network provisioning systems (NPSs) is crucial for guaranteeing seamless virtual network services irrespective of physical infrastructure impairment. The network service interface (NSI) of the Open Grid Forum reflects the need for a common standard management API for the reservation and provisioning of user-driven virtual circuits (VCs) across global networks. NSI-based NPSs (that is, network service agents) can be used to compose user-driven VCs for mission-critical applications in a dynamic multi-domain. In this article, we first attempt to outline the design issues and challenges faced when attempting to provide mission-critical applications using dynamic VCs with a protection that is both user-driven and trustworthy in a dynamic multi-domain environment, to motivate work in this area of research. We also survey representative works that address inter-domain VC protection and qualitatively evaluate them and current NSI against the issues and challenges.


        Music/Voice Separation Based on Kernel Back-Fitting Using Weighted β-Order MMSE Estimation

        Kim, Hyoung-Gook,Kim, Jin Young Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2016 ETRI Journal Vol.38 No.3

        Recent developments in the field of separation of mixed signals into music/voice components have attracted the attention of many researchers. Recently, iterative kernel back-fitting, also known as kernel additive modeling, was proposed to achieve good results for music/voice separation. To obtain minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimates of short-time Fourier transforms of sources, generalized spatial Wiener filtering (GW) is typically used. In this paper, we propose an advanced music/voice separation method that utilizes a generalized weighted ${\beta}$-order MMSE estimation (WbE) based on iterative kernel back-fitting (KBF). In the proposed method, WbE is used for the step of mixed music signal separation, while KBF permits kernel spectrogram model fitting at each iteration. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better separation performance than GW and existing Bayesian estimators.


        A New Directional Coupler Design with High Directivity for PCS and IMT-2000

        Ji, Il-Gu,Chong, Jong-Wha Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2005 ETRI Journal Vol.27 No.6

        This paper proposes a new design of directional couplers with high directivity for personal communication services (PCS) and International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). The directional coupler is used to check and verify the power, frequency, and antenna reflection of a signal at transmission stations for mobile communications. The performance requirements of directional couplers are a strong coupling to reduce the effect on the transmitted power and high directivity to suppress the interference of the reflected signals and reduce the errors in communication. So far, various architectures have been proposed to gain high directivity, and there have been many studies used to obtain a strong coupling. However, conventional architectures for high directivity and strong coupling have a directivity of only about 20 dB, and there have been difficulties to achieve the higher directivity of 30 dB suitable for PCS and IMT-2000. This paper proposes a new architecture of directional couplers based on a grounding composed of strip lines, and compares the test results of this directional coupler with conventional ones. The results show that the proposed directional coupler has a directivity of more than 30 dB and is adequate for PCS and IMT-2000.


        Impact of Energy Relaxation of Channel Electrons on Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering in Nano-Scale Si-Based MOSFETs

        Mao, Ling-Feng Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2017 ETRI Journal Vol.39 No.2

        Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) is one of the main parameters employed to indicate the short-channel effect for nano metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). We propose a new physical model of the DIBL effect under two-dimensional approximations based on the energy-conservation equation for channel electrons in FETs, which is different from the former field-penetration model. The DIBL is caused by lowering of the effective potential barrier height seen by the channel electrons because a lateral channel electric field results in an increase in the average kinetic energy of the channel electrons. The channel length, temperature, and doping concentration-dependent DIBL effects predicted by the proposed physical model agree well with the experimental data and simulation results reported in Nature and other journals.


        Dimensioning a Retro-Directive Array for Communications via a Stratospheric Platform

        Thornton, John Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2002 ETRI Journal Vol.24 No.2

        High Altitude Platforms-craft maintaining stations in the stratosphere at altitudes of around 20 km-have been proposed as a means of supporting wireless telecommunications. They could exploit the best aspects of both terrestrial and satellite systems and support efficient frequency re-use plans. For solar powered platforms the power available for the downlink amplifiers may be minimal, particularly at night and/or higher latitudes. This paper discusses a novel type of link based on a modulated retro-directive transponder carried by the HAP. Relying chiefly on the ground station infrastructure, this would substantially reduce power consumption on the platform. We investigate the efficiency of the transponder aperture as a function of its area by developing general models for losses in the transmission lines which interconnect antenna pairs in the retro-directive array.


        Effective Admission Policy for Multimedia Traffic Connections over Satellite DVB-RCS Network

        Pace, Pasquale,Aloi, Gianluca Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2006 ETRI Journal Vol.28 No.5

        Thanks to the great possibilities of providing different types of telecommunication traffic to a large geographical area, satellite networks are expected to be an essential component of the next-generation internet. As a result, issues concerning the designing and testing of efficient connection-admission-control (CAC) strategies in order to increase the quality of service (QoS) for multimedia traffic sources, are attractive and at the cutting edge of research. This paper investigates the potential strengths of a generic digital-video-broadcasting return-channel-via-satellite (DVB-RCS) system architecture, proposing a new CAC algorithm with the aim of efficiently managing real-time multimedia video sources, both with constant and high variable data rate transmission; moreover, the proposed admission strategy is compared with a well-known iterative CAC mainly designed for the managing of real-time bursty traffic sources in order to demonstrate that the new algorithm is also well suited for those traffic sources. Performance analysis shows that, both algorithms guarantee the agreed QoS to real-time bursty connections that are more sensitive to delay jitter; however, our proposed algorithm can also manage interactive real-time multimedia traffic sources in high load and mixed traffic conditions.


        Gamut Compression and Extension Algorithms Based on Observer Experimental Data

        Kang, Byoung-Ho,Morovic, Jan,Luo, M. Ronnier,Cho, Maeng-Sub Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2003 ETRI Journal Vol.25 No.3

        Gamut compression algorithms have traditionally been defined functionally and then tested with deductive methods, e.g., psychophysical experiments. Our study offers an alternative, an inductive method, in which observers judge image colors to represent the original images more accurately. We developed a computer-controlled interactive tool that modifies the color appearance of pictorial images displayed on a monitor. In experiments, observers used the tool to alter color pixels according to the region of color space to which they belonged. We created three different gamut compression algorithms based on the observer experimental data. Observer groups evaluated the performance of the newly-developed algorithms, existing gamut compression algorithms, and an image based on the average observers' results from experiments in this study. The study of gamut extension is unlike the study of gamut compression in that it mainly deals with the degree of image pleasantness as judged by observers. The results of the gamut extension experiments in this study not only make available worthwhile data but also suggest a methodology for using the observer experimental tool for future gamut extension research.


        Facile Fabrication of Flexible In-Plane Graphene Micro-Supercapacitor via Flash Reduction

        Kang, Seok Hun,Kim, In Gyoo,Kim, Bit-Na,Sul, Ji Hwan,Kim, Young Sun,You, In-Kyu Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2018 ETRI Journal Vol.40 No.2

        Flash reduction of graphene oxide is an efficient method for producing high quality reduced graphene oxide under room temperature ambient conditions without the use of hazardous reducing agents (such as hydrazine and hydrogen iodide). The entire process is fast, low-cost, and suitable for large-scale fabrication, which makes it an attractive process for industrial manufacturing. Herein, we present a simple fabrication method for a flexible in-plane graphene micro-supercapacitor using flash light irradiation. All carbon-based, monolithic supercapacitors with in-plane geometry can be fabricated with simple flash irradiation, which occurs in only a few milliseconds. The thinness of the fabricated device makes it highly flexible and thus useful for a variety of applications, including portable and wearable electronics. The rapid flash reduction process creates a porous graphene structure with high surface area and good electrical conductivity, which ultimately results in high specific capacitance ($36.90mF\;cm^{-2}$) and good cyclic stability up to 8,000 cycles.


        Evaluating Internet Pricing Schemes: A Three-Dimensional Visual Model

        Nguyen, Thuy T.T.,Armitage, Grenville J. Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2005 ETRI Journal Vol.27 No.1

        Traditional Internet pricing schemes are coming under continual pressure to adapt to, and encourage, a changing mix of Internet applications and consumer usage patterns. Much research effort over the last decade has been focused on developing more efficient and attractive charging schemes. However, none of the proposed models has been widely deployed. This raises questions regarding the inhibiting factors and missing pieces that make pricing the Internet such a challenge. In this paper, we discuss the problems with current Internet pricing schemes, review the history of Internet pricing research over the last ten years, and summarize the key features and motivations of the most significant models. We develop a novel visual approach to comparing and evaluating such schemes using a three-dimensional (3D) metric encompassing technical efficiency, economic efficiency, and social impact. We address and discuss the important factors that have inhibited the deployment of the reviewed models and suggest productive areas of focus for future Internet pricing research.


        Novel Patterning of Gold Using Spin-Coatable Gold Electron-Beam Resist

        Kim, Ki-Chul,Lee, Im-Bok,Kang, Dae-Joon,Maeng, Sung-Lyul Electronics and Telecommunications Research Instit 2007 ETRI Journal Vol.29 No.6

        Conventional lithography methods of gold patterning are based on deposition and lift-off or deposition and etching. In this letter, we demonstrate a novel method of gold patterning using spin-coatable gold electron-beam resist which is functionalized gold nanocrystals with amine ligands. Amine-stabilized gold electron beam resist exhibits good sensitivity, 3.0 mC/$cm^2$, compared to that of thiol-stabilized gold electron beam resists. The proposed method reduces the number of processing steps and provides greater freedom in the patterning of complex nanostructures.

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