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            • Hong Kong Chinese Women's Lay Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Causation and Prevention

              Wang,,Linda,Dong-Ling,Lam,,Wendy,Wing,Tak,Wu,,Joseph,Fielding,,Richard Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.18

              Background: This study aimed to seek insights into Chinese women's lay beliefs about cervical cancer causal attributions and prevention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three new immigrant adult women from Mainland China and thirty-five Hong Kong adult women underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results: This study generated three foci: causal beliefs about cervical cancer, perceived risk of cervical cancer, and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Personal risky practices, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of cervical cancer. New immigrant women more likely attributed cervical cancer to external factors. Most participants perceived cervical cancer as an important common fatal female cancer with increased risk/prevalence. Many participants, particularly new immigrant women participants, expressed helplessness about cervical cancer prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, it being perceived as beyond individual control. Many new immigrant participants had never undergone regular cervical screening while almost all Hong Kong participants had done so. Conclusions: Some Chinese women hold pessimistic beliefs about cervical cancer prevention with inadequate knowledge about risk factors. Future cervical cancer prevention programs should provide more information and include capacity building to increase Chinese women's knowledge and self-efficacy towards cervical cancer prevention.

            • Physical Activity and Cancer Prevention: Awareness and Meeting the Recommendations among Adult Saudis

              Amin,,Tarek,Tawfik,Al-Hammam,,Abudllah,Mohammed,AlMulhim,,Nasser,Abdullah,Al-Hayan,,Mohammed,Ibrahim,Al-Mulhim,,Mona,Mohammed,Al-Mosabeh,,Modhahir,Jawad,Al-Subaie,,Mohammed,Ali,Al-Hmmad,,Qassem,Ahmed Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.6

              Background: There is a scarcity of information about the proportion of the adult Saudi population that meet the recommended guidelines of physical activity (PA) to reduce cancer risk. Moreover, their awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention is unclear. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the proportion of adult Saudis meeting the PA guidelines, specifically those recommended by American Cancer Society (ACS) for cancer prevention, and to assess the public awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention. Materials and Methods: Using a multistage sampling method, 2,127 adult Saudis of both genders were recruited from 6 urban and 4 rural primary health care centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information about their sociodemographic characteristics, searching activity about PA and cancer, and the time spent in leisure time PA (moderate and vigorous)/week using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire with show cards. Finally, items about the role of PA in cancer risk reduction were inquired. Results: Of the included participants, 11.6% met the recommendations for cancer prevention (${\geq}45$ minutes of moderate-vigorous PA activity/${\geq}5$ days/week or 225 minutes/week). Multivariate regression showed that being male (AOR=1.49, CI=1.09-2.06), <20 years of age (AOR=3.11, CI=2.03-4.76), and unemployed (AOR=2.22, CI=1.57-3.18) were significant predictors for meeting PA recommendations for cancer prevention. Only 11.4% of the sample indicated correctly the frequency and duration of PA required for an average adult to be physically active and while >70% of them indicated the role of PA in prevention of hypertension, coronary heart disease and lowering elevated blood cholesterol, only 18.6% and 21.7% correctly mentioned the role of PA in reducing colon and breast cancer risk, respectively. Poor knowledge was found among those with less than college education and aged ${\geq}50$ years. The level of knowledge was significantly positively correlated with total leisure time PA of the participants. Conclusions: A minority of adult Saudis in Al Hassa was aware about the role of PA in cancer prevention and engaged in sufficient LTPA for cancer risk reduction benefits, highlighting the need for public health actions to include policies and programs that address factors deterring their participation in LTPA and increasing their awareness with remedies to manage the prevalent misconceptions.

            • Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

              Obel,,J,McKenzie,,J,Buenconsejo-Lum,,LE,Durand,,AM,Ekeroma,,A,Souares,,Y,Hoy,,D,Baravilala,,W,Garland,,SM,Kjaer,,SK,Roth,,A Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.8

              Objective : To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results: Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific.

            • Gastric Cancer in Asian American Populations: a Neglected Health Disparity

              Taylor,,Victoria,M.,Ko,,Linda,K.,Hwang,,Joo,Ha,Sin,,Mo-Kyung,Inadomi,,John,M. Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.24

              Gastric cancer incidence rates vary dramatically by world region with East Asia having the highest rate. The Asian population of the United States (US) is growing rapidly and over 17 million Americans are of Asian descent. A majority of Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans are immigrants. Americans of East and Southeast Asian descent experience marked gastric cancer disparities and the incidence rate among Korean men in the US is over five times higher than the incidence rate among non-Hispanic white men. Randomized controlled trials have provided evidence for the effectiveness of helicobacter pylori identification and eradication in preventing gastric cancer. Additionally, Japan and South Korea have both experienced improvements in gastric cancer mortality following the implementation of programs to detect early stage gastric cancers. There are currently no clear US guidelines regarding the primary and secondary prevention of gastric cancer in high-risk immigrant populations. However, it is likely that a proportion of US physicians are already recommending gastric cancer screening for Asian patients and some Asian immigrants to the US may be completing screening for gastric cancer in their native countries. Surveys of US primary care physicians and Asian American communities should be conducted to assess current provider practices and patient uptake with respect to gastric cancer prevention and control. In the absence of clinical guidelines, US health care providers who serve high-risk Asian groups could consider a shared decision-making approach to helicobacter pylori identification and eradication, as well as gastric endoscopy.

            • A Model for Community Participation in Breast Cancer Prevention in Iran

              Ahmadian,,Maryam,Samah,,Asnarulkhadi,Abu Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.5

              Context: Genuine community participation does not denote taking part in an action planned by health care professionals in a medical or top-down approach. Further, community participation and health education on breast cancer prevention are not similar to other activities incorporated in primary health care services in Iran. Objective: To propose a model that provides a methodological tool to increase women's participation in the decision making process towards breast cancer prevention. To address this, an evaluation framework was developed that includes a typology of community participation approaches (models) in health, as well as five levels of participation in health programs proposed by Rifkin (1985&1991). Method: This model explains the community participation approaches in breast cancer prevention in Iran. In a 'medical approach', participation occurs in the form of women's adherence to mammography recommendations. As a 'health services approach', women get the benefits of a health project or participate in the available program activities related to breast cancer prevention. The model provides the five levels of participation in health programs along with the 'health services approach' and explains how to implement those levels for women's participation in available breast cancer prevention programs at the local level. Conclusion: It is hoped that a focus on the 'medical approach' (top-down) and the 'health services approach' (top-down) will bring sustainable changes in breast cancer prevention and will consequently produce the 'community development approach' (bottom-up). This could be achieved using a comprehensive approach to breast cancer prevention by combining the individual and community strategies in designing an intervention program for breast cancer prevention.

            • Breast Cancer Characteristics and Survival Differences between Maori, Pacific and other New Zealand Women Included in the Quality Audit Program of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand

              Campbell,,Ian,Scott,,Nina,Seneviratne,,Sanjeewa,Kollias,,James,Walters,,David,Taylor,,Corey,Roder,,David Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.6

              Background: The Quality Audit (BQA) program of the Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand (NZ) collects data on early female breast cancer and its treatment. BQA data covered approximately half all early breast cancers diagnosed in NZ during roll-out of the BQA program in 1998-2010. Coverage increased progressively to about 80% by 2008. This is the biggest NZ breast cancer database outside the NZ Cancer Registry and it includes cancer and clinical management data not collected by the Registry. We used these BQA data to compare socio-demographic and cancer characteristics and survivals by ethnicity. Materials and Methods: BQA data for 1998-2010 diagnoses were linked to NZ death records using the National Health Index (NHI) for linking. Live cases were followed up to December $31^{st}$ 2010. Socio-demographic and invasive cancer characteristics and disease-specific survivals were compared by ethnicity. Results: Five-year survivals were 87% for Maori, 84% for Pacific, 91% for other NZ cases and 90% overall. This compared with the 86% survival reported for all female breast cases covered by the NZ Cancer Registry which also included more advanced stages. Patterns of survival by clinical risk factors accorded with patterns expected from the scientific literature. Compared with Other cases, Maori and Pacific women were younger, came from more deprived areas, and had larger cancers with more ductal and fewer lobular histology types. Their cancers were also less likely to have a triple negative phenotype. More of the Pacific women had vascular invasion. Maori women were more likely to reside in areas more remote from regional cancer centres, whereas Pacific women generally lived closer to these centres than Other NZ cases. Conclusions: NZ BQA data indicate previously unreported differences in breast cancer biology by ethnicity. Maori and Pacific women had reduced breast cancer survival compared with Other NZ women, after adjusting for socio-demographic and cancer characteristics. The potential contributions to survival differences of variations in service access, timeliness and quality of care, need to be examined, along with effects of comorbidity and biological factors.

            • Dentists' Perception of the Role they Play in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

              Saleh,,Amyza,Kong,,Yink,Heay,Vengu,,Nedunchelian,Badrudeen,,Haja,Zain,,Rosnah,Binti,Cheong,,Sok,Ching Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.1

              Background: Dentists are typically the first professionals who are approached to treat ailments within the oral cavity. Therefore they should be well-equipped in detecting suspicious lesions during routine clinical practice. This study determined the levels of knowledge on early signs and risk factors associated with oral cancer and identified which factors influenced dentist participation in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: A survey on dentists' knowledge and their practices in prevention and early detection of oral cancer was conducted using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: A response rate of 41.7% was achieved. The level of knowledge on early signs and risk habits associated with oral cancer was high and the majority reported to have conducted opportunistic screening and advised patients on risk habit cessation. Factors that influenced the dentist in practising prevention and early detection of oral cancer were continuous education on oral cancer, age, nature of practice and recent graduation. Notably, dentists were receptive to further training in the area of oral cancer detection and cessation of risk habits. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the dental clinic is a good avenue to conduct programs on opportunistic screening, and continuous education in these areas is necessary to adequately equip dentists in running these programs. Further, this study also highlighted knowledge deficits and practice shortcomings which will help in planning and developing programs that further encourage better participation of dentists in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

            • Using Implementation Science to Advance Cancer Prevention in India

              Krishnan,,Suneeta,Sivaram,,Sudha,Anderson,,Benjamin,O.,Basu,,Partha,Belinson,,Jerome,L,Bhatla,,Neerja,D',Cruz,,Anil,Dhillon,,Preet,K.,Gupta,,Prakash,C.,Joshi,,Niranjan,Jhulka,,PK,Kailash,,Uma,Kapambwe Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.9

              Oral, cervical and breast cancers, which are either preventable and/or amenable to early detection and treatment, are the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in India. In this paper, we describe implementation science research priorities to catalyze the prevention and control of these cancers in India. Research priorities were organized using a framework based on the implementation science literature and the World Health Organization's definition of health systems. They addressed both community-level as well as health systems-level issues. Community-level or "pull" priorities included the need to identify effective strategies to raise public awareness and understanding of cancer prevention, monitor knowledge levels, and address fear and stigma. Health systems-level or "push" and "infrastructure" priorities included dissemination of evidence-based practices, testing of point-of-care technologies for screening and diagnosis, identification of appropriate service delivery and financing models, and assessment of strategies to enhance the health workforce. Given the extent of available evidence, it is critical that cancer prevention and treatment efforts in India are accelerated. Implementation science research can generate critical insights and evidence to inform this acceleration.

            • Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Older Adult Women in South Africa

              Peltzer,,Karl,Phaswana-Mafuya,,Nancy Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.6

              Background: Little is known about the cancer screening prevalence and correlates in older adults from different racial backgrounds. In the context of heightened efforts for prevention and early diagnosis, we collected information on screening for two major types of cancers: cervical and breast cancer in order to establish their prevalence estimates and correlates among older South African women who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in 2008. Materials and Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a multi-stage stratified cluster sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa in 2008. In this analysis, we only considered the female subsample of (n=2202). The measures used included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables and cancer screening. Results: Overall, regarding cervical cancer screening, 24.3% ever had a Papanicolaou (PAP) smear test, and regarding breast cancer screening, 15.5% ever had a mammography. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, higher education, being from the White or Coloured population group, urban residence, greater wealth, and suffering from two or more chronic conditions were associated with cervical cancer screening, and higher education, being from the White or Indian/Asian population group, greater wealth, having a health insurance, and suffering from two or more chronic condtions were associated with breast cancer screening. Conclusions: Cancer screening coverage remains low among elderly women in South Africa in spite of the national guideline recommendations for regular screening in order to reduce the risk of dying from these cancers if not detected early. There is a need to improve accessibility and affordability of early cervical and breast cancer screening for all women to ensure effective prevention and management of cervical and breast cancer.

            • The Colorectal Cancer Mortality-to-Incidence Ratio as a Potential Cancer Surveillance Measure in Asia

              Sunkara,,Vasu,Hebert,,James,R Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.9

              Background: The cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) has been established as an important measure of health disparities in local and global circumstances. Past work has corroborated a linkage between the colorectal cancer MIR and the World Health Organization (WHO) Health System ranking. The literature further documents many Asian countries having incomplete cancer registries and a lack of comprehensive colorectal cancer screening guidelines. Materials and Methods: The colorectal cancer MIR values for 23 Asian countries were calculated from data obtained from the 2012 GLOBOCAN database. The 2000 World Health Organization (WHO) Health System rankings were used as a proxy for health system infrastructure and responsiveness. A regression equation was calculated with the MIR as the dependent variable and the WHO Health System ranking as the independent variable. Predicted MIR values were next calculated based on the regression results. Actual MIR values that exceeded 0.20 from the predicted MIR were removed as 'divergent' points. The regression equation was then re-plotted. Goodness-of-fit for both regressions was assessed by the R-squared test. Results: Asian countries have a relatively wide colorectal cancer MIR range, from a minimum of 0.24 to a maximum of 0.86. For the full dataset, the adjusted R-squared value for this regression was 0.53. The equation was then used to calculate a predicted MIR, whereby two data points were identified as 'divergent' and removed. The adjusted R-squared for the edited dataset increased to 0.66. Conclusions: Asian countries have a marked range in their colorectal cancer MIR values and there is a strong correlationwith the WHO Health System ranking. These results corroborate the contribution of the MIR as a potentially robust tool in monitoring changes in colorectal cancer care for Asian nations.

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