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            • Physical Activity and Cancer Prevention: Awareness and Meeting the Recommendations among Adult Saudis

              Amin,,Tarek,Tawfik,Al-Hammam,,Abudllah,Mohammed,AlMulhim,,Nasser,Abdullah,Al-Hayan,,Mohammed,Ibrahim,Al-Mulhim,,Mona,Mohammed,Al-Mosabeh,,Modhahir,Jawad,Al-Subaie,,Mohammed,Ali,Al-Hmmad,,Qassem,Ahmed Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.6

              Background: There is a scarcity of information about the proportion of the adult Saudi population that meet the recommended guidelines of physical activity (PA) to reduce cancer risk. Moreover, their awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention is unclear. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the proportion of adult Saudis meeting the PA guidelines, specifically those recommended by American Cancer Society (ACS) for cancer prevention, and to assess the public awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention. Materials and Methods: Using a multistage sampling method, 2,127 adult Saudis of both genders were recruited from 6 urban and 4 rural primary health care centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information about their sociodemographic characteristics, searching activity about PA and cancer, and the time spent in leisure time PA (moderate and vigorous)/week using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire with show cards. Finally, items about the role of PA in cancer risk reduction were inquired. Results: Of the included participants, 11.6% met the recommendations for cancer prevention (${\geq}45$ minutes of moderate-vigorous PA activity/${\geq}5$ days/week or 225 minutes/week). Multivariate regression showed that being male (AOR=1.49, CI=1.09-2.06), <20 years of age (AOR=3.11, CI=2.03-4.76), and unemployed (AOR=2.22, CI=1.57-3.18) were significant predictors for meeting PA recommendations for cancer prevention. Only 11.4% of the sample indicated correctly the frequency and duration of PA required for an average adult to be physically active and while >70% of them indicated the role of PA in prevention of hypertension, coronary heart disease and lowering elevated blood cholesterol, only 18.6% and 21.7% correctly mentioned the role of PA in reducing colon and breast cancer risk, respectively. Poor knowledge was found among those with less than college education and aged ${\geq}50$ years. The level of knowledge was significantly positively correlated with total leisure time PA of the participants. Conclusions: A minority of adult Saudis in Al Hassa was aware about the role of PA in cancer prevention and engaged in sufficient LTPA for cancer risk reduction benefits, highlighting the need for public health actions to include policies and programs that address factors deterring their participation in LTPA and increasing their awareness with remedies to manage the prevalent misconceptions.

            • A Model for Community Participation in Breast Cancer Prevention in Iran

              Ahmadian,,Maryam,Samah,,Asnarulkhadi,Abu Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.5

              Context: Genuine community participation does not denote taking part in an action planned by health care professionals in a medical or top-down approach. Further, community participation and health education on breast cancer prevention are not similar to other activities incorporated in primary health care services in Iran. Objective: To propose a model that provides a methodological tool to increase women's participation in the decision making process towards breast cancer prevention. To address this, an evaluation framework was developed that includes a typology of community participation approaches (models) in health, as well as five levels of participation in health programs proposed by Rifkin (1985&1991). Method: This model explains the community participation approaches in breast cancer prevention in Iran. In a 'medical approach', participation occurs in the form of women's adherence to mammography recommendations. As a 'health services approach', women get the benefits of a health project or participate in the available program activities related to breast cancer prevention. The model provides the five levels of participation in health programs along with the 'health services approach' and explains how to implement those levels for women's participation in available breast cancer prevention programs at the local level. Conclusion: It is hoped that a focus on the 'medical approach' (top-down) and the 'health services approach' (top-down) will bring sustainable changes in breast cancer prevention and will consequently produce the 'community development approach' (bottom-up). This could be achieved using a comprehensive approach to breast cancer prevention by combining the individual and community strategies in designing an intervention program for breast cancer prevention.

            • Breast Cancer Characteristics and Survival Differences between Maori, Pacific and other New Zealand Women Included in the Quality Audit Program of Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand

              Campbell,,Ian,Scott,,Nina,Seneviratne,,Sanjeewa,Kollias,,James,Walters,,David,Taylor,,Corey,Roder,,David Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.6

              Background: The Quality Audit (BQA) program of the Breast Surgeons of Australia and New Zealand (NZ) collects data on early female breast cancer and its treatment. BQA data covered approximately half all early breast cancers diagnosed in NZ during roll-out of the BQA program in 1998-2010. Coverage increased progressively to about 80% by 2008. This is the biggest NZ breast cancer database outside the NZ Cancer Registry and it includes cancer and clinical management data not collected by the Registry. We used these BQA data to compare socio-demographic and cancer characteristics and survivals by ethnicity. Materials and Methods: BQA data for 1998-2010 diagnoses were linked to NZ death records using the National Health Index (NHI) for linking. Live cases were followed up to December $31^{st}$ 2010. Socio-demographic and invasive cancer characteristics and disease-specific survivals were compared by ethnicity. Results: Five-year survivals were 87% for Maori, 84% for Pacific, 91% for other NZ cases and 90% overall. This compared with the 86% survival reported for all female breast cases covered by the NZ Cancer Registry which also included more advanced stages. Patterns of survival by clinical risk factors accorded with patterns expected from the scientific literature. Compared with Other cases, Maori and Pacific women were younger, came from more deprived areas, and had larger cancers with more ductal and fewer lobular histology types. Their cancers were also less likely to have a triple negative phenotype. More of the Pacific women had vascular invasion. Maori women were more likely to reside in areas more remote from regional cancer centres, whereas Pacific women generally lived closer to these centres than Other NZ cases. Conclusions: NZ BQA data indicate previously unreported differences in breast cancer biology by ethnicity. Maori and Pacific women had reduced breast cancer survival compared with Other NZ women, after adjusting for socio-demographic and cancer characteristics. The potential contributions to survival differences of variations in service access, timeliness and quality of care, need to be examined, along with effects of comorbidity and biological factors.

            • Hong Kong Chinese Women's Lay Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Causation and Prevention

              Wang,,Linda,Dong-Ling,Lam,,Wendy,Wing,Tak,Wu,,Joseph,Fielding,,Richard Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.18

              Background: This study aimed to seek insights into Chinese women's lay beliefs about cervical cancer causal attributions and prevention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three new immigrant adult women from Mainland China and thirty-five Hong Kong adult women underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results: This study generated three foci: causal beliefs about cervical cancer, perceived risk of cervical cancer, and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Personal risky practices, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of cervical cancer. New immigrant women more likely attributed cervical cancer to external factors. Most participants perceived cervical cancer as an important common fatal female cancer with increased risk/prevalence. Many participants, particularly new immigrant women participants, expressed helplessness about cervical cancer prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, it being perceived as beyond individual control. Many new immigrant participants had never undergone regular cervical screening while almost all Hong Kong participants had done so. Conclusions: Some Chinese women hold pessimistic beliefs about cervical cancer prevention with inadequate knowledge about risk factors. Future cervical cancer prevention programs should provide more information and include capacity building to increase Chinese women's knowledge and self-efficacy towards cervical cancer prevention.

            • Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

              Obel,,J,McKenzie,,J,Buenconsejo-Lum,,LE,Durand,,AM,Ekeroma,,A,Souares,,Y,Hoy,,D,Baravilala,,W,Garland,,SM,Kjaer,,SK,Roth,,A Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.8

              Objective : To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results: Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific.

            • Gastric Cancer in Asian American Populations: a Neglected Health Disparity

              Taylor,,Victoria,M.,Ko,,Linda,K.,Hwang,,Joo,Ha,Sin,,Mo-Kyung,Inadomi,,John,M. Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.24

              Gastric cancer incidence rates vary dramatically by world region with East Asia having the highest rate. The Asian population of the United States (US) is growing rapidly and over 17 million Americans are of Asian descent. A majority of Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans are immigrants. Americans of East and Southeast Asian descent experience marked gastric cancer disparities and the incidence rate among Korean men in the US is over five times higher than the incidence rate among non-Hispanic white men. Randomized controlled trials have provided evidence for the effectiveness of helicobacter pylori identification and eradication in preventing gastric cancer. Additionally, Japan and South Korea have both experienced improvements in gastric cancer mortality following the implementation of programs to detect early stage gastric cancers. There are currently no clear US guidelines regarding the primary and secondary prevention of gastric cancer in high-risk immigrant populations. However, it is likely that a proportion of US physicians are already recommending gastric cancer screening for Asian patients and some Asian immigrants to the US may be completing screening for gastric cancer in their native countries. Surveys of US primary care physicians and Asian American communities should be conducted to assess current provider practices and patient uptake with respect to gastric cancer prevention and control. In the absence of clinical guidelines, US health care providers who serve high-risk Asian groups could consider a shared decision-making approach to helicobacter pylori identification and eradication, as well as gastric endoscopy.

            • Evaluation of an Educational Program on Cervical Cancer for Rural Women in Mangalore, Southern India

              Mary,,Bright,D'Sa,,Juliana,Linnette Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.16

              Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer.

            • Liver Cancer Mortality Trends during the Last 30 Years in Hebei province: Comparison Results from Provincial Death Surveys Conducted in the 1970's, 1980's, 1990's and 2004-2005

              Xu,,Hong,He,,Yu-Tong,Zhu,,Jun-Qing Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.5

              Background and Aims: Liver cancer is a major health problem in low-resource countries. Approximately 55% of all liver cancer occurs in China. Hebei Province is one of the important covering nearly 6% of the population of China. The aim of this paper was to explore liver cancer mortality trends during past 30 years, and provide basic information on prevention strategies. Methods: Hebei was covered covered all the three national surveys during 1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005 and one provincial survey during 1984-1986. Subjects included all cases dying from liver cancer in Hebei Province. Liver cancer mortality trend and geographic differences across cities and counties were analyzed. Results: There were 82,878 deaths in Hebei Province during 2004-2005 with an average mortality rate was 600.9/10,000, and an age-adjusted rate of 552.3/10,000. Those dying of cancer were 18,424 cases, accounting for 22.2% of all deaths, second only to cerebrovascular disease as a cause of death. Cancer mortality was 133.6/100,000 (age-adjusted rate was 119.2/100,000). Liver cancer ranked fourth in this survey with a mortality rate of 21.0/100,000, 28.4/100,000 in males and 13.35/10,000 in females, accounting for 15.7%, 17.1% and 13.4% of the total number of cancer deaths and in males and females, respectively. The sex ratio was 2.13. Since the 1970s, liver cancer deaths of Hebei province have been increasing slightly. The crude mortality rates in the four surveys were 11.3, 16.0, 17.4, 21.0 per 100,000, respectively, with age-adjusted rates fluctuating during the past 30 years, but the trend also being upwards. There is a tendency for the mortality rates to be higher in coastal than mountain areas, and is relative lower in the plain area, with crude mortality rates of 25.3, 22.1, and 19.1 per 100,000, respectively. There were no notable differences in cride data between urban and rural, but the age-adjusted mortality rate in rural was much higher. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the mortality of liver cancer in Hebei Province is lower than the national average level. There is a slightly increase trend, especially in some counties. Liver cancer is a major health problem and it is necessary to further promote prevention strategies in Hebei province.

            • Agreement of Iranian Breast Cancer Data and Relationships with Measuring Quality of Care in a 5-year Period (2006-2011)

              Keshtkaran,,Ali,Sharifian,,Roxana,Barzegari,,Saeed,Talei,,Abdolrasoul,Tahmasebi,,Seddigheh Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.3

              Objectives: To investigate data agreement of cancer registries and medical records as well as the quality of care and assess their relationship in a 5-year period from 2006 to 2011. Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 443 cases summarized through census and using a checklist. Data agreement of Nemazi hospital-based cancer registry and the breast cancer prevention center was analyzed according to their corresponding medical records through adjusted and unadjusted Kappa. The process of care quality was also computed and the relationship with data agreement was investigated through chi-square test. Results: Agreement of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy data between Nemazi hospital-based cancer registry and medical records was 62.9%, 78.5%, and 81%, respectively, while the figures were 93.2%, 87.9%, and 90.8%, respectively, between breast cancer prevention center and medical records. Moreover, quality of mastectomy, lumpectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy services assessed in Nemazi hospital-based cancer registry was 12.6%, 21.2%, 35.2%, and 15.1% different from the corresponding medical records. On the other hand, 7.4%, 1.4%, 22.5%, and 9.6% differences were observed between the quality of the above-mentioned services assessed in the breast cancer prevention center and the corresponding medical records. A significant relationship was found between data agreement and quality assessment. Conclusion: Although the results showed good data agreement, more agreement regarding the cancer stage data elements and the type of the received treatment is required to better assess cancer care quality. Therefore, more structured medical records and stronger cancer registry systems are recommended.

            • Using Implementation Science to Advance Cancer Prevention in India

              Krishnan,,Suneeta,Sivaram,,Sudha,Anderson,,Benjamin,O.,Basu,,Partha,Belinson,,Jerome,L,Bhatla,,Neerja,D',Cruz,,Anil,Dhillon,,Preet,K.,Gupta,,Prakash,C.,Joshi,,Niranjan,Jhulka,,PK,Kailash,,Uma,Kapambwe Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.9

              Oral, cervical and breast cancers, which are either preventable and/or amenable to early detection and treatment, are the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in India. In this paper, we describe implementation science research priorities to catalyze the prevention and control of these cancers in India. Research priorities were organized using a framework based on the implementation science literature and the World Health Organization's definition of health systems. They addressed both community-level as well as health systems-level issues. Community-level or "pull" priorities included the need to identify effective strategies to raise public awareness and understanding of cancer prevention, monitor knowledge levels, and address fear and stigma. Health systems-level or "push" and "infrastructure" priorities included dissemination of evidence-based practices, testing of point-of-care technologies for screening and diagnosis, identification of appropriate service delivery and financing models, and assessment of strategies to enhance the health workforce. Given the extent of available evidence, it is critical that cancer prevention and treatment efforts in India are accelerated. Implementation science research can generate critical insights and evidence to inform this acceleration.

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