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The purpose of this study is to investigate the principle and procedure of systematic design of Korean writing program. Language is the most powerful tool we have for representing the world to ourselves to the world. Language is not only a mans of communication, it is basic instrument of thought, a defining feature of culture, and important mark of individual identity. Encouraging and enabling students to learn to use written language effectively is one of our society's most important tasks. The writing curriculum mainly contain purpose dimension, content dimension, and development dimension. The purpose dimension adresses the question of why students learn written communication skills. It considers the range of motives, reasons, and desired outcomes, or the ends to which direct our teaching writing. Students should use written language for a variety of purposes, such as to learn, to express ideas, to convey information, to pursuade others, to note things we observe, or to engage with others socially. The act of writing may involve several of these different purposes. The content dimension adresses what students should know and be able to do with writing curriculum. This includes knowledge of written texts and of the processes involved in creating such texts. The development dimension focuses on how learners develop competencies in the writing.
This study aims to expose what is going on in educational policy change at a financial level for thirty years (1960-1990). Based upon this research questions' findings, we enabled to compare the planning with the implementation of educational development programs. To analyze these research questions, this study uses data including educational budget and policy reports made by the ministry of education during 1960-1990. The educational budget data were analyzed with regression models using loglinear transformation. This study finds scale of educational budget to total government budget is a little elastic(elastic coefficient= 1.05). However, in the near future we cannot expect the amount of educational budget to increase as much as we need to make students' educational circumstances at an optimum level. This is because of "small government policy" in the sense of financial scale, which has helped Korean firms to accumulate capital through exemption from many kinds of taxation. We think the policy priority of economic and social development goals(esp. excellence of education) should be readjusted as soon as possible. The most important policy to our ministry of education during the last thirty years seems to increase the equal opportunity of education in terms of access. It is prior to other educational policy goals such as an equal opportunity of educational process, excellence of education etc.. What is surprising is that budget of special education for handicapped to total educational budget is quite unelastic(elastic coefficient =.870). Special education has to be supported more strongly if the ministry of education considers equality of education the most important policy goal. Regarding policy of excellence education, textbook compilation, budget and audio-visual education budget to total budget of the ministry of education are unelastic. Good textbooks and teaching methods are critical for a high quality of education. The ministry of education should concern these areas financially as well as nominally in order to improve the quality of education in an efficient way. Both the budget of vocational education(1.06) and that of social education(1.32) to total budget are elastic. The former seems to be considered very important in an economic sense and the latter in the sense of equality of educational opportunity for non-school population. However, the budgetary amount of vocational education should be increased much more in the near future. If not, the present proportion of highschool students of nonvocational school to vocational school(64 : 36) will not be able to be reverted to nominally aimed proportion(3 : 7). The lack of supply of workers in the Korean labor market today will not be loosened, either. What is more important among this study's findings is a gap between nominal policy goals and actual goals. That is in most educational policy fields we did not find statistically significant differences in terms of educational budget scale between years announced officially to be important and years not announced. These findings prove dual structure between educational planning and implementation. We argue planning and financial allocation to be consistent in order to get rid of educational planning divorced from implementation contexts, or implementation unhitched from some form of planning. Without strong links between the planning and implementation of educational development programs, we cannot achieve programs of educational development efficiently.
The purpose of education is to make desirable change in students. Generally it can be said that the function of educational objectives is to suggest the curriculum content and to provide a basis for curriculum evaluation. The criteria for selecting purposes is based on philosophy, society, learner, and subject matter. After the liberation our curriculum has been revised four times in accordance with the change of educational trend. In 1988, the Fifth curriculum was publicized. But because of poor critical acceptance, educational conflict and confusion was brought about. The purpose of this study is to analyze the revision of High School Curriculum objectives after the period of liberation. In relation to this, it is to consider the political, social, and educational backgrounds and a trait of curriculum objectives. Furthermore the purpose of study is to identify how the objectives of Korean language, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science have been changed into the revision of curriculum. Finally, I would suggest an ideal direction toward which education should proceed. Periodical deviding of curriculum change can be four periods. Each period comes during which the revision of curriculum has taken effect; the first period lasts from 1955 to 1962, second period from 1963 to 1972, third period from 1973 to 1981, and fourth period from 1982 to 1988. The major result of this study is as follows; From U.S. Military Government to Fifth revision, the curriculum objectives have developed toward modern conception. But the contents were much complicated and of variety. Also the connection between basic guideline and objectives of curriculum, rupture between main and specific objectives, and intergration of each subject matter are still the remaing problems which must be solved. Therefore we have to try the group thinking which can prove the content and character of each subject matter in order to build the curriculum objectives of modern meaning for the balanced change of mutual objectives and the new generations. And it is strongly recommended, among other things, the rational process is badly needed, which should be in harmoney with obvious rational guideline and the established educational policy.
Essentially education has its purpose on making a desirable change in student. It can generally be said that the function of educational objectives is to suggest the curriculum content and to provide a basis for evaluation. The criteria for selecting and establishing purposes are based on philosophy, social change, learner and subject matter. Since liberation from Japanese colonial rule our curriculum has been revised five times in accordance with the educational flow. The fifth revised curriculum was publicized this year. Because of poor critical acceptance, however, educational conflict and confusion was being brought about. The aim of the study is an analysis of the revision and the modification of high school curriculum objectives since the period of national liberation. In relation to this, it was considered and compared that each curriculum objectives have a certain background and traits politically, socially, and ideologically. Periodical deviding of curriculum change can be classified into five periods. Each period comes during which the revision of curriculum has taken effect; first period lasts from 1955 to 1962, second period from 1963 to 1972, third period from 1973 to 1981, fourth period from 1982 to 1988, and fifth period from 1989 to five or six years later. It is commonly recognized that the curriculum objectives has developed towared direction for modern conception and trend from U.S. Military Government period to the present fifth curriculum. The educational content and management were much complicated in spite of a certain innovation made so far. Furthermore, the connection between basic guideline and objectives of curriculum, rupture among main and specific objectives, and the integration of objectives are still the remaining tasks which have to be solved sooner or later. We therefore should try to utilize our group thinking process which can prove the content and character of objectives in order to build objectives of modern meaning for the balanced change of mutual objectives and the new generations. Finally it is strongly recommended that among other things the rational process is badly needed and the established educational policy must be in harmony with the obvious national guideline which includes overall interrelationship among educational objectives.
Today, the Korean society is experiencing various problems such as immoral and inhumane murder, embezzlement by the government officials, and accidents by negligence. There may be many reasons for these accidents and problems. However, many people agree with the lack of humanistic education both in the school and home. The problem of school education aiming only for the entrance examination has long been pointed out by the education professionals themselves as well as general publics. Up until now, the school education has been focusing on intellectual area rather than affective or emotional aspect of students. However, the traditional emphasis on teaching subject matter are inadequate to prepare students for effective living in the future. In response to this recognition, a balanced education has been tried to pursue the development of both cognitive and affective domain of students. One of the most systematic efforts for this purpose is psychological education. A psychoeducational intervention addresses both the psychological and educational needs of one or more students. It complements or suplements classroom academic and vocational instruction, but is not intended to supplant it. The focus is on interventions targeted to students. However, in most instances it is necessary to involve teachers, parents, and community professionals in such efforts, as wel as to take an ecological perspective regarding problem causes and solutions. Recently, it has become apparent that schools need psychoeducational programs, which is of benefit to students and is intended to complement classroom instruction. The psychoeducational intervention is reflected in the programs, services, methods, and activities provided by professionals and paraprofessionals in such areas as: study-skills development, social problem solving, substance-abuse prevention, and social-skills training. In this paper, the following psychoeducational intervention programs are introduced and examined: confluent education, feeling class, activity group guidance, developmental guidance experiences, magic circle, values clarification, and enhancing interpersonal skills.