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Film`s most notable characteristic as a medium is how it materializes physical reality more than any other form of art. Therefore, film has been brought up by thinking about the relationship between art and reality. Most films are developed through agonizing on the border of reality. But, there were some attempts at trying to exceed the limitations of the medium since the early years of film. Let`s recall the history of other arts that tried to reproduce reality. Symbolism of the 19th century was one of the first movements that pursued essence beyond reality. The purpose of this essay is to take a look at the change of ex-realization in films by the historicity of symbolism. Also, to tap-out the possibility of it, I`d like to define the meaning of symbolism. Not just introducing historical facts, but also to find the relationship between the film and the historical facts in the flow of it. Charles Chadwick`s study of literature was a great inspiration in writing this essay. After all that preceded work, this essay focuses on specific films which follow the tradition of symbolism. The subject of debate includes surrealism, film which is directly related to symbolism, French impressionism film, and avant-garde films of the 1920s. Moreover, since those films that were mentioned before are relatively pertaining to early films, 4th Chapter analyzed Hans-Jurgen Syberberg`s Hitler: A Film from Germany which can be classified as contemporary symbolistic film. It shows that symbolism have persistent influence over the films. This analysis owes a lot to Susan Sontag`s essay. By the analysis of the defined meaning of symbolism, and of the influence of it-, we can comprehend that symbolism concretely exists in the fate of ex-realization of film.
Cho Kung Ha is one of the directors who haven`t been focused very much among famous contemporary directors like Shin Sang Ok, You Hyun Mok and Lee Man Hi in the film history of Korea. Although he made 33 movies during 15 years and spectators loved them so much, there is no intensive study about his life and movies yet. It shows us that studies about film history of Korea have been partial for familiar directors who are already well known for us. Cho Kung Ha is usually known for melodrama, but he made many kinds of movies and each of them equally have good qualities. Basically, as a director studied music, Cho Kung Ha made use of it efficiently in his movies, especially his famous melodramas like <The Way of Body> and <The Confession of Body>. He put the music-`Climbing the hill` in <The Confession of Body>, `Meditation de Thais` in <The Way of Body>-into the narrative and at the same time, the music plays important role as back ground music helping spectators feel sorrows within them. And through his political drama like <It is going well> and historical drama like <Temporary Government in Shanghai(and Baekbum Kim Gu)>, he shows how much he was interested in our history and politics. However, there are no strong antagonists or villains and the director doesn`t want to punish or judge someone. Probably it means that Cho Kung Ha had affection for human and he seems to believed that environment and destiny can make human happy or unhappy. This dissertation is only a tiny start to study about Cho Kung Ha and unknown directors in the film history of Korea. Obviously He didn`t make really famous movies to current young people, and also his movies are not perfect enough to be highly evaluated by critics. However, Cho Kung Ha asked to the contemporary spectators about human nature and right values which was exactly needed at that time. And he made various movies by proper styles. Therefore, we should notice even a small chink and continuously develope new area of film history of Korea.
Cinema in North Korea is in the core of political propaganda of the government, which is a representative character of socialist system that uses the genre for confirming public propaganda, ideology and the justification of the government. The labor party of North Korea has a direct control on the cinema as other socialist countries and as a result, movies are produced as a core of the politics. Thus, it is inevitable to have a close look at the process of North Korean society from the political aspect. As the liberation of the Korean peninsula in 1945, the Soviet Union army stationed at the North Korea. Their objective was to expand socialist power in the peninsula at the same time with to prevent the establishment of anti-Soviet Union government. Movies made by the Soviet Union were shown in diverse areas and massive amount of resources were backed to support the development of cinema. Kim Il Sung, who was in close relationship with the Soviet Union, was put in front and victories earned by him against Japan, such as Bocheonbo combat, were strongly emphasized. The first North Korean government was established in 1948. Since then, the first movie `My Hometown` was produced in 1949. `My Hometown` was made with combined efforts of talented professionals ran from the South Korea and advanced equipments. It was the first North Korean cinema which combined socialism with nationalism. As the Korean War broke out, Kim Il Sung commanded the manufacture of artworks that can motivate the public to participate the war. More efforts were put on the manufacture of anti-American artworks that can revoke undisguised hates against Americans. As a result, North Korean cinemas of the time shared the same theme; the socialist patriotism and the public patriotism that makes hero of the sacrifice of their soldiers and motivates victory of the war. From its first artwork, North Korean cinema was originated with the limitation that it had to be the reflection of the government policy and the public propaganda. Though, initially, it was able to carry the delicacy of montage and variety of characters. However, more advancement of the genre was prevented as the Korean War forced it to focus only on political ideology with heroic and standardized characters.
In North Korea, the cinema is method to teach the masses. Especially, Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il thought that the cinema was produced in a breeze. Because the cinema moved the majority of the masses to sympathize with the emotions. In 1970s, the Kim administration was stabilized therefore Kim Jong-Il made many concrete policies about the cinema. That is to say, the North Korean cinema was formalized by Kim Jong-Il`s instruction during that time. In 1973, Kim Jong-Il published 『On the Art of Cinema』, The book was a 332-page treatise on how to act, film, direct, edit and score a movie. Aimed at North Koreans, the book had its share of stupefying ideas but also some legitimate tenets and some beliefs that might be shared by a film critic. By constitution, North korea`s all movies was influenced by the book hence understanding the book was important. It made comprehending North Korean cinema possible. In 1970s, the juche ideology was organized well and constitutional law was made public at least. So Kim Jong-Il started effort for acquiring a position of successor earnestly. He developed the concept of the `Revolutionary View of the Leader` into a more theoretical and systemized form by presenting the `Theory of the Immortal(Socio)-Political Body`. It says the Suryong. Moreover he completed Kim Il Sungism. According to the book, Kim Jong-Il claimed that all movies in North Korea was produced by juche ideology inclusive of Suryong-non and Kim Il Sungism. Then the movies on the basis of the book had a few keynotes. There were the same subjects repeatedly, standardization, narration, excessive expressions. These problems brought on deterioration in quality of North Korean cinema.