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On 25 December 2000, China and Vietnam signed the Agreement on the Delimitation of the Territorial Seas, EEZs and Continental Shelves in the Tonkin Gulf. Three and a half years after signature, in June 2004, China and Vietnam both ratified a maritime boundary agreement for the Tonkin Gulf (Beibu Gulf) and the agreement entered into force. A potentially complicating factor in the negotiation process was likely to have been the status of the Sino-French Agreement of 1887. In the end, the agreement reached indicated that even if the status of the Sino-French Agreement of 1887 was part of the negotiations, both sides eventually agreed that it would not have an impact on the delimitation of maritime zones in the Gulf of Tonkin. Another crucial issue was the impact of the islands, in particular, the Vietnamese controlled Bach Long Vi Island and Con Co Island. Especially, Bach Long Vi Island was entitled to a half suite of maritime zones (3n.m. EEZ) and would impact the tracing of a line of equidistance in the Gulf of Tonkin. Minor as the point might be, Con Co Island also would have an impact for it would play a fixing terminal point for the boundary. Article 7 of the agreement is about minerals and hydrocarbons of cross-boundary deposit, and if any single geophysical structure of oil and gas or other mineral deposits should straddle the demarcation line, an agreement is to be reached on the development of the structure or deposit and on the most effective manner to equally share the profits resulting from the development.
The purpose of this study is to carry out a comparative analysis of Korean and US Sea Grant College Program (SGCP). The important lesson learned from the US SGCP is that ocean policy requires active interaction among public and oceans since oceans are far from constituents, law makers and government officials. Also, Sea Grant Program (SGP) should be based on universities so as to facilitate the use of equipment and expertise, there is a need for a well-organized control system, legislative mandates and strong government financial support, and sea grant activities must be well combined with regional/local outreach, education and research at the appropriate level.
There are disputes for oil and gas development between China and Japan in the East China Sea. These involve the area where China is already carrying out activities of oil and gas development and where Japan is proclaiming its EEZ. China insists that the Chinese activities on oil and gas development area are being carried out within the Chinese jurisdictional waters even if the median line principle of Japanese proclamation is applied in delimitation. Indeed, the permit for Japanese development is causing disputes between China and Japan because its permit allows development in the waters adjacent to Chinese development area. In the event, the core of this dispute around the oil and gas field in the East China Sea relates to issues of maritime boundary delimitation and issues of resources acquisition with both states. Chinese policy on oil and gas development is to first consider development issues in accordance with a median line principle where waters toward to China from the median line should be developed by China and the area toward Japan from the median line within the Chinese continental shelf should be jointly developed. However, the Japanese position is that the East China Sea should be jointly developed, and Japan hopes to eventually convince China to accept its median line delimitation. With on-going development of such issues, Korea should establish a strategy of negotiation based on analyses of resource distributional conditions and other strategic factors in the Korean delimitation area. In particular, Korea should prepare and make the best use of joint development zone established in an agreement between the ROK and Japan concerning the development of the southern part of continental shelf adjacent to both states.
For an efficient management and utilization of marine biodiversity information, we made an attempt to develop the Korea Marine Biodiversity Information System (KoMBIS), building a species name inventory of Korea marine organisms. The inventory includes 17 organism groups: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae and halophyte, sponges, cnidarians, rotifers, nematodes, bryozoans, brachiopods, molluscs, echiurans, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms, urochordates and fish. The species names were collected from 37 different references and reviewed for validity by taxonomists, which resulted in 9,798 valid names in addition to 1,845 synonyms. The Korea marine species inventory is the first one of this kind, for previous Korean species name inventories were mostly composed of terrestrial and freshwater organisms. KoMBIS, the information system developed, contains not only the species name but also information on morphological and ecological characteristics such as distribution, DNA barcode, and references. This system is convenient for the inputting of new data and servicing users through the internet, so that management and utilization of the biodiversity information is more efficient. Linking the DNA barcode data with species information provides an objective measure for identification of a species, which accommodates the recommendation of Consortium for the Barcode of Life, and makes the Korea marine biodiversity information compatible with international databases. Considering the frequent exchange of marine organisms internationally via ballast water and such issues as climate change, this information system will be useful in many areas of marine biodiversity.