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『율리시즈』는 정확하고 일관성이 있는 것처럼 보이나 사실 많은 실수가 내재해 있다. 실수는 어디에나 있으며 사물들은 엉뚱하게 잘못되어 가는 경향이 있다. 자끄 데리다의 말대로 해체주의는 사상도 아니고 개념도 아니고 다만 읽기의 전략이라고 하였다. 이러한 데리다식 자세한 글읽기를 통하여본 논문에서는 그 동안 이분법적 서구 형이상학에서 열등한 것으로 가리어져 왔던 실수의 문제를 조이스가 어떻게 전략적으로 사용하여 데리다가 주장하는 해체주의 이론인 중심의 해체 및 유희를 유발하며 이로 인하여 텍스트의 의미파악을 어렵게 만드는지를 조사하며, 또한 이 실수의 문제가 어떻게 데리다의 "차연"의 개념에 일치하는지 밝힌다. 조이스가 전략적으로 사용하는 각종 실수 -활자상의 실수, 언어의 전달의 문제에서 생기는 실수, 인물들의 실수- 중 언어의 실수가 매우 중요한데 『율리시즈』에서 언어는 잘못되어 빗나가는 경향이 있으며 정확한 의사전달을 방해한다. 언어상의 실수는 언어의 안정성과 가치에 대한 의문을 제기하는 데리다의 해체주의 사상이 이미 조이스의 텍스트에 나타나는 것이 된다. 언어의 실수는 인물들의 불분명한 identity와 밀접한 관계를 가지고 있다. Bloom의 이름에서 m이나 1의 탈락은 그의 identity의 모호성을 나타내는 것이다. 모든 인물들의 이름은 문자로 형성되어 있으므로 문자의 손실은 인물들의 identity를 모호하게 한다. 문자가 불안정하여 손실되면 자동적으로 문자로 이루어진 단어와 인물 그리고 더 나아가 텍스트의 identity가 모호해진다. 여기에 sound의 첨가는 실수를 더욱 더 만연하게 만들어 이로 인해 더욱 텍스트의 의미를 텅 비게 만든다. sound를 불완전하게 창조하기 의해 쓰인 문자들은 더욱 실수와 혼란을 독자에게 가중시키기 때문이다. 그러나 조이스에서 실수의 문제는 Stephen이 선언하듯 발견의 창구가 되기도 하는 것이다. 어떤 실수들은 사실로 이끌 수 있다는 조이스의 암시에 빛을 밝힌다. Mulligan의 실수 또한 언어의 모호성으로부터 기인하는데 그러나 그의 실수는 완전히 잘 못 된 것이 아니다. 왜냐면 Milly는 어떤 의미에서는 그가 실수한대로 "photo girl"이다. 표준 글쓰기가 주는 진지성 및 압박을 흐트러뜨리고 독자에게 웃음을 자아내는 것은 조이스의 해체적 글쓰기의 중요한 효과이다. 실수로 흔동하는데서 우스꽝스러운 일이 벌어지는데 이는 jouissance의 해체적 효과를 나타낸다. 조이스가 의도적으로 새겨 넣는 모든 종류의 실수로 인하여 인물들이 실수를 하듯 독자 또한 율리시즈를 잘못 해석하며 혼돈과 실수로 오류를 범하기 쉽다. 중요한 것은 실수를 새겨 넣음으로써 조이스는 독자로 하며금 텍스트에 더욱 집중하여 주의 깊게 읽게 하는 것이다. 독자는 실수와 오자 투성이의 텍스트를 읽으며 자신도 저지르는 해석상의 실수와 오판을 그 선행문구들을 다시 읽게되면서 교정하기도하고 한다. 확정적인 의미를 거부하는 조이스의 텍스트는 이런 면에서 독자의 적극적인 참여를 유도하며 그의 글쓰기는 새로운 독자를 요구한다. 실수의 문제를 사용한 조이스의 텍스트는 데리다의 "차연"과 일치하는데 이는 독자의 텍스트를 이해하려는 욕망이 계속 연기되기 때문이다. 이로 인해 독자는 더욱 더 텍스트에 매이게 된다. 『율리시즈』는 데리다의 말대로 시체를 해부하듯이 텍스트를 자세하게 분석하며 읽고 또 읽기를 반복하는 세밀한 글 읽기가 요구될 뿐이다.
It seems unimaginable to connect the name of James Joyce with pragmatism, but its relevancy has been already discussed by a few critics. Almost all discussions of Joyce's aesthetic theory have focused on the Stephen Dedalus of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. But Joyce's aesthetic machine consists of two disparate axles-Stephen's and Bloom's. So we have to approach Ulysses in terms of Bloom's aesthetic, which is related to Hebraic values. In a book review published in Daily Express, Joyce understands pragmatism as this: "Pragmatism is really a very considerable thing. It reforms logic, it shows the absurdity of pure thought, it establishes an ethical basis for metaphysic, makes practical usefulness the criterion of truth, and pensions off the Absolute once and for all. In other words, pragmatism is common-sense" (CW, 135). In addition, Joyce distinguishes between "philosophic" and "pragmatic" history in a note to Finnegans Wake. By combining these conceptions related to pragmatism, I will show that Bloom's aesthetic is based on Joyce's understanding of pragmatism. In order to understand Joyce's distinction, we must first of all look at his concept of "history," which is identified as "denial of reality" in a speech on Irish poet James Clarence Mangan delivered in University College, Dublin. Joyce's "pragmatic" history is in opposition to what Derrida calls "metaphysical concept of history." Derrida prefers "intervallic, differentiated histories" rather than history as "the linear consecution of presence." In this respect, the best example of "metaphysical concept of history" can be found in Mr. Deasy's perspective on history: "All human history moves toward a great goal: manifestations of God." Throughout Ulysses, Joyce brings out a lot of different discourses on history and, by doing so, never allows no single historical perspective to be valorized. In other words, Joyce's "pragmatic" history implies a consistent, ongoing struggle against the danger of universalizing a history, especially the victor's. Joyce as a colonial writer denies any historical discourse that may endorse the British imperialist ideology. Rather than compromising the values of Hellenism and Hebraism asserted by Matthew Arnold, Joyce puts Stephen's and Bloom's aesthetics in an eternal struggle, thereby producing stories, not History. Joyce's protagonist, Leopold Bloom, is an eccentric person, a personification of Joyce's concept of pragmatism. His eccentricity rejects any consolidating authority and incessantly interrogates traditional notions of art. In the National Museum scene, Bloom tries to make sure whether a statue of a Greek goddess has "three holes." The statue of a Greek goddess is regarded as representing of the Hellenistic value of beauty as a seamless whole. Bloom is searching for "holes" in a seamless totality. Bloom's "eccentric" behavior and thinking reveals "the absurdity of pure thought," and "pensions off the Absolute." As ad canvasser, Bloom interrogates everything in terms of pragmatic validity, thus leveling the hierarchy of values. Joyce's pragmatism is permeated in his attitude toward history and Bloom personifies its values. It is why Ulysses is an encyclopedia of not only narrative styles, but also historical perspectives. It defies any unifying approach and its final meaning is persistently displaced.
Because Joyce comes from the Catholic community and Yeats from the Protestant community, an agelong ruling class in Ireland, the two Irish writers are quite different in their literary world. Defining Irish identity and emphasizing physical struggle against the British, Yeats overtly expresses nationalistic views in his writings. On the other hand Joyce's way of doing this is more indirect. That is, Joyce in his writings subverts Yeats's conception of Ireland and Irish people and points out more appropriate ways of gaining liberation. Yeats claims that Irish people represent spiritualism while English people represent materialism. Joyce attacks this binary division by evincing that the national characteristics were made by the English to justify Irish failure in politics and make Irish people take their colonial status for granted. Joyce deconstructs the binarism by showing that Irish people asserting the national characteristics are absorbed in seeking material interests. Also, Joyce rejects heroic death and the myth of martyrdom which are well described in Yeats's poems and plays. To Joyce physical struggle against the British only proves the British conception of Irish people, a violent people. Instead of death and martyrdom Joyce praises this world and the pleasure of being alive. Joyce's consistent subversion of Yeats derives from his dilemma in Ireland where Anglo-Irish writers dominate the Irish literary world, leading Irish people spiritually. Joyce attacks Yeats who pretends to be the representative of Irish nationalist writers. Through his writing, Joyce, therefore, tries to recover the privilege of being called the Irish national bard.
This essay aims at finding a clue to answer the following question: Is Stephen Dedalus a misogynist? Stephen's position toward Irish women is discussable against two premises. First, he surely falls into the pitfall of the binary opposition of virgin and harlot deduced from Catholicism, even though he consciously challenges it. Secondly, the tawdriness of his circumstantial reality in contrast with the idealized romantic view of women has a poignant significance to Joyce's whole scheme. Stephen's problematic thoughts on the woman question render his ambitious project of being a national writer questionable mainly due to Stephen's self-centered ego. The narrator's distance from the would-be young artist's questionable position toward Irish women thus deserves our attention. The binary logic of the romantic ideal and sordid reality, plus Stephen's tilt toward his dream typically appear in his perception of Irish women. The female characters are fairly two dimensional in Stephen's thoughts. They are either perceived as threatening or enchanting, seductive or aloof. Their fictional portraits are largely contingent on Stephen's narcissistic projections and misogynist frame of mind. Stephen's resort to the dark slimy streets of Nighttown and his sexual affairs with prostitutes lead him to a troubled initiation into the question of sexuality. His submission to sexual desire brings about a sinful feeling in him. His religious education is instrumental in enforcing his sinful feeling. The female characters have their own individualities and voices in Stephen Hero. This marks a crucial difference between Stephen Hero and A Portrait. In A Portrait the female characters appear only as the social types who are deprived of their own individualities, which reflects Irish men's general attitude toward the opposite sex. Women do not interest Irishmen except as streetwalkers or housekeepers. Stephen's relationship with Emma is no exception. Stephen's self-imposed exile at the end of A Portrait is thus risky in falling short of a real freedom from the soul-stifling Irish reality if he does not pay due attention to his contemporary Irish people, especially Irish women.
This paper aims to search for the elements of excuse for Judas of Iscariot, who has been blamed for betraying his master, as a central motif of "Ivy Day in the Committee Room" using materials from the Bible and other sources. The procedure shined a light on the need for new positions of the religious leaders in Ireland, who have been treated similarly due to the betrayal of their political leader. The main characters in the story are pursuing only the economic influence, which they hope to fill their empty pockets instead of the grand purpose of freedom and independence of Ireland. In every aspect, they do not care even though the money comes from the British Empire, who have colonized their country. The negative evaluation of Judas Iscariot is based on the resentment of the other disciples who were influenced by the death of their master. The betrayal of the Irish religious leaders, who blamed Parnel emphasizing the purity of a political leader, has been degraded as a target of blame because it had caused the downfall of the leader. However, as many well-documented evidences claim that there are some plausible, namely personal, political and religious reasons for Judas of Iscariot to sell his master, Jesus, the conversations of the people in this story shows some real reasons for religious and political people of Ireland to rebuke and betray their substantial leader. In brief, the downfall of a promising Irish political leader and subsequent frustration of his home country do not seem to be caused by a mere betrayal of a specific group of people who wish to achieve political and economic benefit, but can be interpreted as a manifestation of their righteous desire for a leader not to lose his spiritual and physical purity.
This study analyzes James Joyce`s “Clay” focusing on its main narrative technique, Free Indirect Discourse (FID). FID is one of the main narrative forms of expression used by modernist novelists. It is a syntactic combination of direct discourse (DD) and indirect discourse (ID), using the third-person pronoun and past tense with deictics indicating the present. It mixes a character`s speech and the narrator`s comments. In the presentation of the character`s thought, the mixing and merging of the two voices, or to put in another way, the double narrative strategy, can create the quality of double consciousness. In “Clay,” FID mirrors the narrational manipulation employed by the main character Maria. She uses the “narration under a blindfold” to hide and wash her hopeless, inescapable reality of life in paralyzed Dublin. As the story goes on, we come to sense that something wrong, some serious fallacy, is involved in her attempt to embellish her own life and environment. Finally, we experience an awakening, the epiphany of the truth about her situation: she has no way out of her paralyzed reality, and the “narration under a blindfold” is the only way for her to maintain the dignity as a human being.
To facilitate the understanding of Ulysses, Joyce produced two schemas for his novel highlighting the Homeric correspondences. When the novel was finally published in 1922, however, Joyce expunged the Homeric titles from each chapter, and in 1937 he told Nabokov that he regretted his emphasizing of Homer to promote Ulysses. Therefore, it is necessary to check if the Homeric correspondences Joyce offered make sense by scrupulously analyzing one of eighteen episodes, “Telemachus” in this article. The Homeric correspondences encourage us to discern between good and bad in “Telemachus,” but Stephen and Mulligan are depicted with multiple identities and cannot be easily defined as good or bad. When Mulligan deprives Stephen of his residence, he is a usurper just like Antinous. However, he also plays the role of Athene, who gives priceless advice to Telemachus. The Homeric correspondences cannot explain the multiple identities of characters Joyce has created in his work. Though Joyce uses Homer in Ulysses, he does not confine the character's identity to the Homeric correspondences. He encourages the readers to read beyond them and find both multiple perspectives and characters with multi-faceted identities.
This study examines how extensive trash is in Joyce's works, how close the relationship between his literature and trash is, and how significant this is in his aesthetics. Probably, Mr. Duffy in “A Painful Case” lives the farthest away from the world of trash. The hidden overripe apple in his desk symbolizes his abhorrence of trash. His orderly and austerely furnished room reflects his monkish habits. On the other hand, rejecting the priesthood, Stephen in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man accepts his vocation as an artist. The bird-girl wading the sea serves his epiphany and the seaweed attached to her leg will appears as trash in Ulysses, as if to suggest that his art would be closely connected with it. Stephen confronts the world of trash while walking along the beach at Sandymount strand in Ulysses. The beach is a place of deposition, heavy with waste. Stephen compares sands with language; the objects scattered there are the signs to be read. Joyce's art will be about these objects accumulated from the past. It is worth noting that the distinction between “letter” and “litter” collapses here. Joyce writes that his head is full of rubbish, and this connection between waste and mind is illustrated in Finnegans Wake. The mind of Shem, possible avatar of Joyce, is described as the seashore full of flotsam and jetsam. It is interesting to see that the landscape of the artist's mind is similar to the littered shoreline as mentioned above. Further, Shem's literary output is associated with the excrement of his body. The relationship between these two is emphasized when Bloom defecates while reading a story in the jake. Here Bloom's dung is confused or almost identified with the literary work. Joyce can be compared to the writer of the letter in Finnegans Wake who had “to see life foully,” to present life fully no matter how foul it is. He writes in his letter, “the odour of ashpits and old weeds and offal [hang] around” his stories, and this shows his desire to tell the truth as he saw and smelled it.
The Great Famine of the 1840s, one of the most catastrophic events in the history of Ireland, had been nearly absent from Irish writing until the 1990s when Eagleton noted that the Famine was hardly referred to in the Revival literature or Joyce. It can be said that the Anglo-Irish Protestants, leading the Revival and belonging to the land-owning class, evaded the tragic event which their immediate ancestors had survived mostly intact. Joyce, the Irish Catholic, was not free from the historical trauma either, which makes him only allude to it in his work, particularly Ulysses. The Irish Catholics were not completely innocent victims but often complicit in their own tragedy. The Church inculcated them with the scrupulousness of morality, which made them starve rather than withhold the landlord's rent during the Famine. Their submissiveness to the Church led them to be indifferent to the suffering and death of others as well as their own. Thus, the Irish feel a sense of guilt for the horrible memories of the Famine, which inhibits them from remembering the history altogether. The memories come back only as a nightmare or a ghost, like the ghost of Stephen's mother in Ulysses. The mother's ghost, evoking the starving and dying during the Famine, symbolizes the guilt of the Irish Catholics, as well as Stephen's personal guilt of declining his mother's last wish. Stephen, only trying to awake from the nightmare of his mother's ghost without confessing his guilt, remains paralyzed. With the Famine memories missing, Irish history remains a nightmare from which they will never awake.
"The Death of the Author" is one of the most controversial issues in the literary world in the later half of the 20th century. The author is traditionally considered as a creator of a work. In that sense, the author is the actual agent of meaning, and he is responsible for the production of the sequence of events as a whole. In general, he represents the governing consciousness of the work as a whole, and he is the source of power, intelligence, and even moral standards. In the 1060s, however, a new concept of the author was suggested that he is the effect of the language on the reader rather than a subject's consciousness or persona. Joyce's fiction has once supported a modernist myth: the myth of the narrator's impersonality, which is however, only an illusion. For example, in his polystylism and parodic narrating manner of Ulysses, the narrator's structural presence cannot be accepted as the rationale for the book's arrangement. John Fowles also continually experimented a new concept of authorshipa as existence and writing in the sequence of his novels. He presents in his works the passivity of the authorial process, its reliance upon combinations of a cultural repertoire of conventions. All of these explanations are depended upon Barthes, Foucault, and Joyce, all of whom argued the conversion of the author from an absolute entity to a textual strategy.