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In the year of 2002, the first Korean translation of Finnegans Wake was published for the first time after much meandering of effort and encouragement. During the long assignment of translating Joyce`s work, the great Human Comedy, the translator was "torn by conflicting doubts" and indeed tormented with the struggle between body and mind. Yet, despite it all, today in Korea the highbrow readers as well as the common ones have found the translated text very difficult and obscure to read and understand. This is largely due to the translated work like the original`s expansive linguistic experiments and its abandonment of the conventions of plot and character construction. So far, the Korean work remains largely unread by the general public. This unreadability mainly and surely comes from the translator`s faithfulness of enlivening and restoring Joyce`s original literary style and technique. Sometimes using certain Chinese characters that the Korean alphabet "Hangeul" incorporates can prove to be very helpful because of their spontaneous, compact visual effect. This macrocosmic lyric, Finnegans Wake, is the text of "the ineluctable modality of the visible" and "the ineluctable modality of the audible." In consequence, the translator once again did his best to conquer these difficulties and obstacles, and to make the work readable as he once did to Ulysses. A saying comes to his mind: "The general principle of my life is labor." To this writer reading and translating Finnegans Wake has been catharsis for him. In order to conquer these handicaps and to enrich our reader`s understanding and appreciation of the translated work, he once again has recently published his new revised edition of his former translation, as the work has to continue because it is the art possibility. This time, he inserted many extra explanatory notes and hints in the brackets into the translated text, which, as a role of a useful vertical rudder, will help the competent keyless reader proceed "from the known to the known through the incertitude of the void." Furthermore, he published another new and additional companion-book of annotations to the version which ties up all the fragments of such a huge mosaic and the most monstrous hybridization of "soundsense" masquerading as a dream. This book includes a brief outline and commentary of each page. The quoted last page (FW 628), from "ALP`s monologue, will hopefully demonstrate the translator`s above mentioned purport: videlicet text, C. K. Ogdenian Basic English(Matrix), translation, notes, criticism, etc.
This essay explores how cinematography in “Two Gallants” helps Joyce better communicate with his readers its theme of human commodification. In this story, male exploitation of woman as a commodity, culminating in her transformation into a prostitute, not only subjects the men to the ruthless world of commerce but also commodifies them as well. Such commodification is conveyed and highlighted by the cinematic form of narrative. While the female body is objectified by Lenehan’s gaze, his and Corley’s bodies are not free from the gaze that controls the whole narrative. In fact, their physical description exposes the fact that they are equally the objects of the camera eye, which Joyce has inserted into the story. By the use of alternating gazes, furthermore, the narrative adds dramatic effects to the climactic ending: when Corley opens his palm in a proud manner, his and his disciple’s subjugation to money have been completed.
This paper examines the “Cyclops” episode of Ulysses and how nationalism and Jewishness create a sense of double agency in the episode. Not only Bloom, but also the other characters in Barney Kiernan’s, are double agents: their identities blur and commingle with Bloom’s presence. The tension between the Irish nationalists in the pub and Bloom’s perceived Jewishness highlight that double agency; yet, there is also a tension in the narration itself with the interruptions in the narrative. The narrator too produces paranoia because he is an unknown character who is paranoid himself. The entire episode works to show that paranoia surrounds identity, and any clear definition of national identity—especially for nationalists whose supreme goal is freedom from colonial rule—is troubled. But double agency, the episode suggests, is how identity works.
This article historicizes the psychopathological aspects of family process in the Irish Famine Joseph O’Connor’s Star of the Sea presents. Critics on Star of the Sea have drawn much of their attention to the novel’s revisionist complication of the traditional view of the Irish Famine as the Irish holocaust by the English government. Taking note of O’Connor’s non-racial, non-national discourse on the historical calamity, this article makes the case the social effects of the attachment problem in family process during the Famine on Irish emotional life. Drawing on Bowlby’s attachment theory, this article further illustrates the historicity of the Famine-driven emotional illness appearing in both Irish and Anglo-Irish families. The disruption of family bond especially from the loss of the mother figure ethnographically originates the Irish emotional character such as the emotionality of betrayal and the ambivalent feelings of attached-detachment towards Irishness.
This paper unfolds itself by re-evaluating Andrew Gibson’s statement in Joyce’s Revenge—“Bloom is robustly indifferent to matters that Irish funerary culture tends to clothe in solemn garb” (57)—and demonstrates that Bloom is in fact a keen observer of the English etiquette of mourning that his fellow Dubliners practice. The cultural archaeology of mourning dress paves the way for my examination of the intriguing fact that Stephen—who hates his “English and Italian masters” (U 1.638)—ironically insists on wearing mourning garment, a dominant English commodity at the turn of the 20th century. The irony that Stephen holds a hostile attitude towards the British Empire and the Roman Catholic church but at the same time embraces crêpe anglaise—an English fabric originating in Italy—exposes the colonising power of commodities and global capitalism.