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This article investigates differences in interpretations of English reflexives between Korean EFL speakers and English native speakers in terms of the c-command constraint. We examine whether Korean EFL learners selection of a non-c-commanding NP as an antecedent for an English reflexive is caused by L1 transfer or induced by different processing strategies between a mother tongue and a foreign language. The results show that, during the initial processing period, Korean EFL learners employ different strategies from English natives’ to resolve the interpretation of reflexives: EFL learners are reacting to pragmatic factors, while English native speakers are relying on syntactic factors at the initial stage of processing. This result supports the Shallow Structure Hypothesis of Clahsen and Felser(2006) in that during the first stage of parsing in a timed task, proficient EFL speakers interpret English reflexives according to the contextual information when biased sentences are given.
Chang, Suk-Jin. 2003. Jespersen's Analytic Syntax and syntactic Analysis of Korean: 1²1(21) & S0 1(3) X. English Language and linguistics 16, 131-160. This paper has a two-fold purpose: (I) explicating Jespersen's system of symbolization in his Analytic Syntax (1937) and (2) analyzing Korean constructions syntactically in the framework of Analytic Syntax. Jespersen's system of symbolization, together with his functional approach to grammar rooted in notions like nexus, junction, and ranks, enables us to look into the deep insight of the workings of English and to disambiguate structura1 meanings by distinctly symbolizing the same surface form by means of a string of annotated symbols such as small subjects (s), half-subjects (½S…½S), coindexing (S₂...S₂), stars, alternatives (s/3), zero (S0), and brackets ( [ ], for extraposition). In the course of exercises analyzing major syntactic constructions of Korean a la Analytic Syntax, the following augmentations or modifications are made: (i) subtyping V into V" (processive verb, or verb), Vd (descriptive verb, or adjective), and v¹ (linking verb, ar copula), (ii) adding indices: " (utterer) and h (hearer), (ⅲ) an augmented use of '+' (e.g. S0+h). (iv) category change;V¹(nominalization), V² (adnominalization), V³ (adverbialization), (v) subtyping X (nexus-substantive) into X0 (processive nexus-sustantive) and X0 (descriptive nexus-substantive), and (vi) adding discourse functions: topic ( ¹) and focus ( ¹).
English linguistics of Korea, despite its considerable development and growth for thc last 50 years, has continued to lag behind that of not only the US and the UK but also many European countries and even Japan as well. The current state of English linguistics of Korea seems to be closely related, above all, to our lack of the native speaker's intuition about English and the failure in developing a successful model of Korean-style English linguistics which enables us to overcome our weaknesses and limitations and to make the best use of our strengths. The purpose of this paper is to show the possibility of developing a model of internationally competitive Korean-style English linguistics, which is proposed to be based on the ingenious use of English corpora I will first briefly review and evaluate the study of English linguistics in Korea. Then I will consider the question of how English corpora such as the BNC can and/or should be used for dealing with certain problems in English linguistics. I will conclude this paper by suggesting future directions for Korean English linguistics in connection with important problems confronting us.
This paper investigates the survival and death of languages that influenced Middle English from the emergence of the Franks. As one of the Germanic tribes, the Franks had their own language when they nested on the area of Gallia. Adapting themselves to the circumstances of Gallo-Romance, they eventually established their own language, Old French. Gallo-Romance was a dialect of Classical Latin and was the main source of Anglo-Norman & Anglo-French. The language of Normandie, a dialect of Old French, along with those of Anjou and Picardie, which were in the northwest area of France, made the basis of Anglo-Norman. Middle French that became Anglo-French also influenced Middle English. This paper investigates the influence of Vulgar Latin on Middle English by examining some social, phonological and lexical relationships among the inherited languages.
Compilation and investigations of non-native learner English have been a relatively recent enterprise worldwide. It was not until the early 1990s that academics and publishers started collecting corpora of non-native English, which have come to be referred to as the learner corpus. Granger (1998b) is said to be the first systematic collection of learner corpus studies, and studies based on learner corpora have only started to become more widespread in the early 2000s. The availability of various learner corpora opened up a new field of SLA research, but a decent size corpus of Korean learners of English has not been available until recently. The purpose of this paper is to describe a project involving the compilation of a Korean-speaking English learner corpus, to survey existing major learner corpora of English and learner corpus-based studies in Korea, and to illustrate how learner corpus data can be applied to language research and teaching.
This paper investigates English infinitival relative clauses. A particular emphasis is put on the syntax and semantics of these constructions. Generally, tensed relative clauses employing wh-forms have no restriction on the use of prepositions. However, infinitival relative clauses do not allow prepositions if the relative pronoun is deleted. In this paper, we review the analyses given in Chomsky (1981) and Dubinsky (1996) and propose a new analysis based on some pragmatic considerations, as an alternative. Particularly we argue that overt boundary indicators are needed in infinitival relative clauses as well as in other non-related constructions.
The generation of negative inversion (NI) has been puzzles to the English grammar. One prevalent approach for the construction is a configurational, movement one that contributes the inversion force to the so-called NEG criterion as well as to the interaction of functional projections and movement operations. This paper reviews the basic properties of NI with naturally occurring data (corpus). Our corpus examples indicate that the NI is controlled not by syntactic operations such as movement but is constructionally determined. The inversion force cannot be originated from simple lexical entries or syntactically. The constructional constraints of the NI, a subtype of other general inversion constructions, allow us to link its form and idiosyncratic semantic and pragmatic functions as well.