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Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the assessment of exposure to welding fume and heavy metals among construction welders. Methods: Activity-specific personal air samplings(n=206) were carried out at construction sites of three apartment, two office buildings, and two plant buildings using PVC(poly vinyl chloride) filters with personal air samplers. The concentration of fumes and heavy metals were evaluated for five different types of construction welding jobs: general building pipefitter, chemical plant pipefitter, boiler maker, ironworker, metal finishing welder. Results: The concentration of welding fumes was highest among general building pipefitters(4.753 mg/㎥) followed by ironworkers(3.765 mg/㎥), boilermakers(1.384 mg/㎥), metal finishing welders(0.783 mg/㎥), chemical pipefitters(0.710 mg/㎥). Among the different types of welding methods, the concentration of welding fumes was highest with the CO2 welding method(2.08 mg/m3) followed by SMAW(shield metal arc welding, 1.54 mg/m3) and TIG(tungsten inert gas, 0.70 mg/m3). Among the different types of workplace, the concentration of welding fumes was highest in underground work places(1.97 mg/m3)followed by outdoor(0.93 mg/m3) and indoor(wall opening as 0.87 mg/m3). Specifically comparing the workplaces of general building welders, the concentration of welding fumes was highest in underground workplaces(7.75 mg/m3) followed by indoor(wall opening as 2.15 mg/m3).Conclusions: It was found that construction welders experience a risk of expose to welding hazards at a level exceeding the exposure limits. In particular, for high-risk welding jobs such as general building pipefitters and ironworkers, underground welding work and CO2 welding operations require special occupational health management regarding the use of air supply and exhaust equipment and special safety and health education and fume mask are necessary. In addition, there is a need to establish construction work monitoring systems, health planning and management practices
Objectives : This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among workers handling rust preventive oils. Methods : A total of 30 bulk samples and 54 personal air samples were collected using diffusive samplers at 22 workplaces handling rust preventive oils in Daegu and Gyongsangbuk-do Province from March to October 2013. We also investigated detailed information on the related work conditions, such as kinds of products, handling methods, local exhaustive ventilation systems, and the status of the wearing personal protective equipment. All bulk samples and air samples were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify components to which workers potentially were exposed. Quantitative airborne concentrations of VOCs were confirmed using gas chromatography with flame ionized detectors. Results : In terms of qualitative analyses for the 30 bulk samples, we found carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproductive toxic(CMR) substances such as butane(carcinogenic Group 1A, mutagenic Group 1B), butoxy ethanol(carcinogenic Group 2), cumene (carcinogenic Group 2), ethyl benzene(carcinogenic Group 2), methyl isobutyl ketone(carcinogenic Group 2) and toluene (reproductive toxic, Group 2). As a result of full-shift based personal air samples, eight substances such as n-hexane, n-heptane, octane, nonane, decane, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene were detected. Among them, n-hexane and n-heptane were detected in all of 54 air samples with 13.13 ㎎/㎥ and 8.61 ㎎/㎥ of maximum concentration, respectively. The level of airborne concentration from all of samples were bellow the occupational exposure limit in Korea. Conclusions : Based on the results of this study, workers handling rust preventive oils could be exposed to CMR substances contained in rust preventive oils and n-hexane and n-heptane were found as the most frequent sources of VOC exposure.
임현술 ( Hyun Sul Lim ), 양원호 ( Won Ho Yang ), 김근배 ( Geun Bae Kim ), 조용성 ( Young Sung Cho ), 민영선 ( Young Sun Min ), 이관 ( Kwan Lee ), 이덕희 ( Duk Hee Lee ), 주영수 ( Young Su Ju ), 김순신 ( Sun Shin Kim ), 허정 ( Jung Heo ), ) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2016 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.26 No.1
Objectives: Exposure to volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene(TCE) and perchloroethylene(PCE), along with Agent Orange, that were issued around Camp Carroll US Army Base situated in Waegwan, Chilgok-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, Korea. The main objective of this study was to assess the exposure to TCE and PCE of residents of the area surrounding Camp Carroll. Methods: The TCE, PCE and trichloroethanol(TCEOH) concentrations in blood and trichlroroacetic acid(TCA) and TCEOH concentrations in urine were measured and analyzed in a total of 1,033 residents around Camp Carroll. TCA and TCEOH are metabolites of TCE and PCE, respectively. The information on demographic characteristics and exposure variables in relation to underground water were obtained through a questionnaire completed by the subjects. Results: TCE, PCE and TCEOH concentrations were not detected in blood. Detection rates of TCA and TECOH concentrations in urine were 98.5% and 36.6%, respectively. Creatinine-corrected average TCA and TCEOH concentrations were 12.23±23.81 μg/g and 0.66±4.31 μg/g, respectively. A significant difference was not shown between the drinking group and no drinking group for underground water, which was assumed as a potential route of exposure to TCE and PCE through the consumption of ground water. However, females drinking ground water showed a significantly higher mean level of TCA in urine than did males. There was no significant difference according to drinking ground water as a potential source of exposure to TCE and PCE in residents around Camp Carroll. Conclusions: Considering the statistical analysis of factors affecting exposure to TCE and PCE in ground water along with previous reports, TCA in urine as exposure to TCE and PCE might not be appropriate because it is found in chlorinated drinking water. Therefore, TCA concentration in urine may be the result of drinking of chlorinated water.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in concentration according to the position at the left or right shoulder within a 30 cm of radius of workers' respirators and provide basic data for the establishment of an industrial health policy. Methods: Personal samples were collected from a total of 65 workers from 27 manufacturing firms in South Gyeongsang-do Province from November 5, 2011 to December 30, 2012 after classifying the laborers into left- and right-side groups. The organic compound samples were collected and analyzed in accordance with the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) 1501. Results: In terms of the concentration of organic compounds collected from both left and right shoulders at the position of workers' respirators, isobutyl acetate was the highest with 145 ppm at the left shoulder, followed by ethyl acetate (133.5 ppm) and toluene (38.13 ppm). At the right shoulder, on the contrary, ethyl acetate (149.3 ppm) was the highest, followed by toluene (46.26 ppm), xylene (29.63ppm) and isopropyl alcohol (28.06 ppm). Overall, the right shoulder was higher than the left shoulder in terms of concentrations. Conclusions: For the measurement of the working environment, workers' personal samples should be collected at the place closest to the respirator. In terms of the reduction of error, the attachment of two sample media is expected to reduce errors in exposure assessment.
Objectives: This study sought to examine the association between long working hours and depressive symptoms among interns and residents in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 1,661 interns and residents from the 2014 Korean Interns & Residents Survey. Total working hours during the preceding week was assessed and classified into five categories(i.e. less than 60 hours, 60-79 hours, 80-99 hours, 100-119 hours, and 120-168 hours). Depressive symptoms during the previous week were measured by using ten items from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale questionnaire. Multivariate negative binomial regression was applied to examine the association between long working hours and depressive symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders, including medical specialty and training year. All analyses were performed using STATA/SE version 13.0. Results: 86%(N=1,429) of interns and residents worked 60 hours or more per week. Compared to the “less than 60 hours” group, long working hours for interns and residents were significantly associated with depressive symptoms: “60-79 hours”(PR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.32), “80-99 hours”(PR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.54, 3.33), “100-119 hours”(PR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.76, 3.89), and “120-168 hours”(PR: 3.28, 95% CI: 2.21, 4.86). Conclusions: This study found that long working hours were prevalent among interns and residents in South Korea, and it was associated with depressive symptoms.
우경숙 ( Kyung Sook Woo ), 박희진 ( Hee Jin Park ), 강택신 ( Tack Shin Kang ), 김근배 ( Geun Bae Kim ), 전준민 ( Jun Min Jeon ), 장봉기 ( Bong Ki Jang ), 이종화 ( Jong Wha Lee ), 손부순 ( Bu Soon Son ) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2015 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.25 No.1
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the atmospheric concentration of VOCs and the urinary concentration of t,t-MA, HA, MA in the industrial complex of Yeosu, South Jeolla Province. Methods: In order to study seasonal patterns of air concentration of VOCs, measurements were taken at five sampling sites around Yeosu from June 2013 to June 2014. Urinary metabolite excretionsfrom 671 subjects, exposure and comparison area were analyzed. Results: The average concentration of VOCs in the air was 1.53ppb for benzene, 0.73ppb for toluene, 0.22ppb for ethylbenzene, 0.52ppb for xylene and 0.12ppb for styrene. The concentration of benzene was somewhat higher than the year-average standard (5 ㎍/㎥, about 1.5ppb) of the domestic air-environment criteria newly established in 2010.The metabolic concentration of VOCs in the urine of the entire sample was analyzed at 47.76μg/g cr., 213.07mg/g cr., and 290.09μg/g cr. for t,t-MA, HA, and MA, respectively. Compared with the average values for Korea as presented in the first basic survey of national environmental conservation (49.8μg/g cr. for t,t-MA, 0.17g/g cr. for HA, and 0.26mg/g cr. for MA), the metabolic concentrations of HA and MA in urine were higher than the average values. Conclusions: The concentration of VOCs in the air and urinary metabolites of the exposed and control areas showed that the concentrations of all substances were higher in the exposed area than in the control area.
김난희 ( Nan-hee Kim ), 민경우 ( Kyoung-woo Min ), 조광운 ( Gwang-woon Cho ), 서동주 ( Dong-ju Seo ), 임경훈 ( Kyeong-hun Im ), 정원삼 ( Won-sam Jeung ), 조영관 ( Young-gwan Cho ), 양진석 ( Jin-seok Yang ) 한국산업보건학회 (구 한국산업위생학회) 2017 한국산업보건학회지 Vol.27 No.1
Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the exposure of VOCs and effects of the chemicals on the nail technicians whose works in a nail shop. Methods: For four month from May to August in 2016, we measured twenty-two kinds of VOCs in ten nail shops and carried out health examinations on thirty-four workers in there. Results: The TVOC concentration in indoor air of nail shops is 0.487 ㎎/㎥ at a minimum and 33.236 ㎎/㎥ at a maximum where it consists of 70.5% of Ketones, 25.4% of Alcohols, 2.6% of Esters, 0.8% of Aldehydes and 0.7% of Aromatics. The VOCs concentration during nail art works shows an increase in average ratio 1.8 compared to the concentration of indoor air quality and also the concentration of Isopropanol rose with 3.2 of the highest ratio. The results of Spearman correlation between TVOC concentration in indoor air and environmental factor was like that has significance level of correlation(ρ<0.05, r=0.682) in case of number of customers per day, but the other factors were not meaningful in correlation. Correlation between VOCs and medical check-up items was like that has positive significance level(ρ<0.01, r=0.638) between isopropanol and GPT, but the others have not meaningful. The exposure level of VOCs was not exceed the criteria exposure level 1 of working environment measuring method which announced by labor ministry in all ten nail shop indoor air quality. Conclusions: In this study although it was not significant correlation between harmful substances and medical check-up items in the nail shop indoor air quality, it is necessary to do more ventilation and to install exhaust facilities because of existing high VOCs concentration in the nail shop indoor air.
Objectives: Dustiness of nanomaterials is considered as exposure index of essential material. Research on dustiness of nanomaterial is needed to control exposure in workplaces. Method: Dustiness measurement using vortex shaker were installed in the laboratory. Nanomaterials, 1 g, was put in the glass test tube and shaked using vortex shaker. Aerosol dispersed was measured using scanning mobility particle sizer(SMPS) and optical particle counter(OPC). Mass concentration using PVC filter and cassette was measured and TEM grid sampling was conducted. Total particle concentration and size distribution were calculated. Image and chemical composition of particles in the air were observed using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Eleven different test nanomaterials were used in the study. Results: Rank of mass concentration and particle number concentration were coincided in most cases. Rank of nanomateirals with low concentration were not coincided. Two types of fumed silica had the highest mass concentration and particle number concentration. Indium tin oxide, a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide, had high mass concentration and particle number concentration. Indium oxide had very low mass concentration and particle number concentration. Agglomeration of nanoparticles in the air were observed in TEM analysis and size distribution. In this study, mass concentration and particle number concentration were coincided and two index can be used together. The range of dustiness in particle number concentration were too wide to measure in one method. Conclusion: Particle number concentration ranged from low concentration to high concentration depend on type of nanomaterial, and varied by preparation and amount of nanomaterial used. Further study is needed to measure dustiness of all nanomaterial as one reference method.
Objectives: The purpose of this case study is to assess workers' exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and characterize particles aerosolized during the process of producing CNT-enabled polytetrafuoroethylene(PTFE) composites at a worksite in Korea. Methods: Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected for determining respirable concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) using NIOSH(National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Method 5040. Personal exposure to nano-sized particles was measured as the number concentration and mean diameter using personal ultrafine particle monitors. The number concentration by particle size was measured using optical particle sizers (OPS) and scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) area samples were collected on TEM grids and analyzed to characterize the size, morphology, and chemistry of the particles. Results: Respirable EC concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.24 μg/m<sup>3</sup>, which were below 23% of the exposure limit recommended by NIOSH and lower than background concentrations. Number concentrations by particle size measured using OPS and SMPS were not noticeably elevated during CNT-PTFE composite work. Instant increase of number concentrations of nano-sized particles was observed during manual sanding of CNT-PTFE composites. Both number concentrations and mean diameters did not show a statistically significant difference between workers handing CNT-added and not-added materials. TEM analyses revealed the emission of free-standing CNTs and CNT-PTFE aggregate particles from the powder supply task and composite particles embedded with CNTs from the computer numerical control (CNC) machining task with more than tens of micrometers in diameter. No free-standing CNT particles were observed from the CNC machining task. Conclusions: Significant worker exposure to respirable CNTs was not found, but the aerosolization of CNTs and CNT-embedded composite particles were observed during handing of CNT-PTFE powders and CNC machining of CNT-PTFE composites. Considering the limited knowledge on the toxicity of CNTs and CNT composite particles to date, it seems prudent to take a precautionary approach for the protection of workers' health.
Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the total dust, size-selective dust, and heavy metal concentrations generated inside and outside toll booths on an expressway and to identify the source through analysis of the components of the deposited dust. Methods: A total of 32 samples were collected from eight expressway toll booths. Each total dust sample was collected using a 37 mm PVC filter attached to a personal air sampler. Heavy metal samples were collected according to NIOSH method 7300. The size-selective dust concentrations were identified using a DustMate, and deposited dust was analyzed by WD-XRF and UHR-FE-SEM. Results: The geometric mean concentrations of the total dust inside and outside the toll booths were 337.5 ㎍/㎥ and 342.7 ㎍/㎥, respectively. The overall concentrations of TSP, PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, and PM<sub>1</sub> were higher on the outside of the toll booths, as the particle size of dust was larger, and higher in the underground passage as the dust size was smaller. The real-time analysis of the dust concentrations of TSP, PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, and PM<sub>1</sub> revealed to be higher at morning and evening times than other times because of heavy traffic. The element components of deposited dust in the toll booth were related to natural sources rather than artificial sources. Among the chemical components in the deposited dust analyzed by WD-XRF, SiO<sub>2</sub> was the highest. For the elements analyzed by UHR-FE-SEM, C was the highest, followed by O, and Si. Conclusions: In order to reduce the dust concentrations around toll booths on an expressway, it is necessary to periodically clean surrounding areas such as underground passages, and it is also necessary to remove deposited dust inside the toll booth from time to time.