http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Objectives: This study is aimed to illustrate the status of the occupational accident rate, fatality rate, and musculoskeletal disorder rate by safety and health management type in workplaces. Methods: In order to analyze the status of the occupational accident rate, fatality rate, and musculoskeletal disorder rate of different safety and health management types in workplaces, selected data from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute were used. Results: The occupational accident rate in workplaces where safety and health managers had been appointed was lower than in those where safety and health management was entrusted to other organizations, while the result was the opposite in regards to the fatality rate per 10,000 workers caused by accident. However, the occupational fatality rate per 10,000 workers in workplaces where safety and health managers have other roles was 426% higher than those where safety and health management was entrusted to other organizations. Moreover, the musculoskeletal disorder rate of the workplaces where safety and health managers have other roles was 15% higher than those where health management was entrusted to other organizations. Conclusions: It is necessary to review the effectiveness of systems in which safety and health managers can concurrently engage in other roles.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to review the results of exposure to chemicals and to extremely low frequency(ELF) magnetic fields generated in wafer fabrication operations in the semiconductor industry. Methods: Exposure assessment studies of silicon wafer fab operations in the semiconductor industry were collected through an extensive literature review of articles reported until the end of 2015. The key words used in the literature search were “semiconductor industry”, “wafer fab”, “silicon wafer”, and “clean room,” both singly and in combination. Literature reporting on airborne chemicals and extremely low frequency(ELF) magnetic fields were collected and reviewed. Results and Conclusions: Major airborne hazardous agents assessed were several organic solvents and ethylene glycol ethers from Photolithography, arsenic from ion implantation and extremely low frequency magnetic fields from the overall fabrication processes. Most exposures to chemicals reported were found to be far below permissible exposure limits(PEL) (10% < PEL). Most of these results were from operators who handled processes in a well-controlled environment. In conclusion, we found a lack of results on exposure to hazardous agents, including chemicals and radiation, which are insufficient for use in the estimation of past exposure. The results we reviewed should be applied with great caution to associate chronic health effects.
Objective: Shift work including night work is known to be harmful to the health of nurses. This study was conducted in order to systematically review the academic literature on the health effects of working time patterns, including shift work or night work, among Korean nurses and propose a research direction for the future. Methods: We searched online academic databases to find relevant papers in domestic and international journals using the keyword terms ‘shift work', ‘night work', ‘night shift', ‘work shift', ‘nurse', and ‘Korea', and reviewed a total of 36 articles. Results: As a result of this literature review, more than half of the articles were found to investigate the health effects between shiftwork and non-shiftwork nurses. A few studies considered the shift type(n=6), frequency of night shift(n=4), and shiftwork duration(n=3) as working time patterns. These studies focused mainly on mental health(n=18) or sleep(n=15). Conclusions: Based on the review results obtained from this study, it is necessary to assess working time patterns of Korean nurses using a variety of variables including night-work-related factors, and various health outcomes should be examined considering the confounder.
Objectives: This study was conducted in order to improve the current understanding of rare earths(RE) and to provide supporting data for establishing occupational health policies by reviewing the toxicological data and issues caused by the use of RE compounds in various fields. Methods: To evaluate the potential toxicity of RE from the viewpoint of occupational health, we summarized extensive reviews of relevant articles in the toxicology(animals and cells), occupational health and safety, and epidemiologic literature. Results: Although occupational RE exposure occurs extensively from ore mining and refining to end users in various industrial applications, epidemiologic study has not been performed among workers up to now. Bioaccumulation and adverse effects of RE have also been mentioned in ore mining regions and nearby residences, but safety standards for each process are insufficient. Moreover, because new commercial recycling technology will soon be applied to various industries, regulation and policies are needed for preventing abuse of recycling. In the results of animal toxicity for a few REs(mostly cerium, lanthanum, and gadolinium), toxicities of liver, lung, blood, and the nervous system were identified due to oxidative stress, but study of long-term RE exposure is required. Understanding the dual effect for RE and discovery of biomarkers pose a scientific challenge in further mechanism studies. Conclusions: In the future, additional hazard evaluation based on animal experiments is required, alongside continuous research for developing analytical methods and discovering biomarkers. Finally, RE occupational health and safety management needs to be integrated into the sustainable use of these materials.
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to summary controversy over health risks among semiconductor workers, to review major cancer risk results conducted in semiconductor operation and to evaluate occupational health activities in Korea for controlling hazardous agents generated in semiconductor operations Methods: Major occupational health issues that has been social controversies among semiconductor workers since 2007 were reviewed through an extensive literature, report and article review. Results: Since a female semiconductor worker aged 22 died from leukemia in 2007, job-association of a number of former semiconductor workers with various types of cancer and rare diseases have been denied by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (KWCWS), but some of them were later awarded compensation as an occupational disease by the administrative court. Two epidemiologic cancer risk studies conducted in Korea found increased risks in leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among semiconductor workers. Various legal occupational health activities taken in semiconductor industry were found to fail to assess a complex characteristics of semiconductor operations, such as drastic changes in chemical use, processes, and technology, multiple exposure. National compensation regulation also showed the limitation to evaluate job-association of semiconductor workers who had worked in semiconductor operation. Conclusions: National legal measures should be taken to improve several occupational health activities and duties for protecting workers. In addition, the KWCWS program should be revised so that all workers who meet minimal job or environment associations can be compensated.
Objectives: We aimed to examine the association between experience of workplace violence and musculoskeletal pain among wage workers in South Korea. Methods: We analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 29,601 wage workers from the third wave Korean Working Conditions Survey in 2011. Experience of workplace violence was assessed through three questions, “Over the past 12 months, have you ever experienced: (1) physical violence, (2) bullying, or (3) sexual harassment at workplace?” Musculoskeletal pain was measured using the three questions, “Over the past 12 months, have you ever experienced: (1) low back pain, or (2) upper limb pain(i.e. shoulder, neck, and arm), or (3) lower limb pain(i.e. hip, leg, knee, and foot)?” Wage workers could answer ‘Yes' or ‘No' to each of the three questions. Multivariate negative binomial regression was applied to examine the association between workplace violence and musculoskeletal pain after adjusting for confounders including self-reported physical work factors. All analyses were performed using STATA/SE version 13.0. Results: Physical violence was associated with low back pain(PR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.77, 2.65), upper(PR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.45, 1.88) and lower limb pain(PR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52, 2.15) among male wage workers whereas it was related to upper(PR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.53, 2.26) and lower limb pain(PR: 2.95, 95% CI: 2.47, 3.53) among female wage workers. Significant association was observed between sexual harassment and upper(PR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.56) and lower limb pain(PR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.97, 2.93) among female wage workers whereas the association was only significant in the analysis with lower limb pain(PR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.97) among male wage workers. Bullying was associated only with lower limb pains among both male(PR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.37) and female(PR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.61) wage workers. Conclusions: This study found that experience of workplace violence, particularly physical violence and sexual harassment, was associated with musculoskeletal pain among Korean wage workers.
Objectives: To evaluate the biodurability of Korean Chrysotile(KC), the changes in fibers numbers and changes in the element composition of fibers from the lung of Sprague-Dawley rats instilled KC(average size 4.74 ㎛, 59,043 × 106 fibers/mg) was estimated. Methods: Rats were administered 1 mg KC(low group) or 2 mg KC(high group) by a single intratracheal instillation. At each time point(5 days, 5 weeks, 10 weeks), the numbers of KC fibers and the changes of element composition(atomic %) of KC fibers from the lung of the rats were analyzed with transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Results: Over time, the number of fibers within the lungs of animals were reduced. The average length of the low and high group is significantly reduced from 5 days after administration. Over time, the fiber ratio of at least 5 ㎛remaining in the lung tissue of the low concentration group was up but the high group was reduced. From day 5 after administration, the composition ratio(Mg) was significantly decreased in all groups. Conclusions: Size and composition of Korean Chrysotile in the lung tissue of rats was changed from 5 days.