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Despite its benefit in engine thermal efficiency, gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engines generate substantial particulate matter (PM) emissions compared to conventional port-fuel-injection (PFI) engines. One of the reasons for this is that the spray collapse caused by the spray-to-spray interaction forms the locally rich fuel-air mixture and increases the fuel wall film. Previous studies have investigated the spray collapse phenomenon through the macroscopic observation of spray behavior using laser optical techniques, but it is somewhat difficult to understand the interaction between sprays that is initiated in the nearnozzle region within 10 mm from the nozzle exit. In this study, the spray structure, droplet size and velocity data were obtained using an X-ray imaging technique from the near-nozzle to the downstream of the spray to investigate the spray-tospray interaction and discuss the effects of spray collapse on local droplet size and velocity distribution. It was found that as the ambient density increases, the spray collapse was promoted due to the intensified spray-to-spray interaction, thereby increasing the local droplet size and velocity from the near-nozzle region as a result of droplet collision/coalescence.
Deteriorated agricultural diesel engines using mechanical fuel injection systems have low fuel injection pressures. And they are not equipped with an exhaust gas abatement device, so it produces a lot of exhaust gas. Remanufactured used injectors can reduce emissions because spray characteristics are improved. In addition, remanufacturing is environmentally friendly and economical compared to producing new parts. For efficient injector remanufacturing, it is necessary to conduct a comparison experiment on the spray characteristics of an used mechanical injector and a new injector of the same model. In this study, the spray characteristics of the two injectors were compared by performing an injection quantity measurement and a spray visualization experiment. As a result, the used injector had a larger injection quantity, a shorter spray tip penetration, a wider spray angle and a smaller spray area than the new injector.
Y-jet nozzle has a wide fuel flow rate range and turn-down ratio, thus, it is used in industrial boilers, furnace and agricultural atomizer. However, it has asymmetrical spray characteristics due to the nozzle design factors. Therefore, in this study, asymmetric spraying characteristics of the elliptical Y-jet nozzle was studied by using the lab-scale spray apparatus. As a result, the elliptical Y-jet nozzle had lower gas mass flow rate than circular Y-jet nozzle at same gas pressure, because of bigger shear stress due to the wider inner surface at the elliptical Y-jet nozzle. Larger SMD was measured on the elliptical Y-jet nozzle than the circular Y-jet nozzle. When SMD was measured in the X_Axis direction at the same gas mass flow rate, the elliptical Y-jet nozzle with an aspect ratio of 2:1 showed greater asymmetry than the others.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of cryogenic intake air temperature on the injected fuel droplet behavior in a compression ignition engine under the different start of energizing timing. To achieve this, the intake air temperatures were changed from -18℃ to 18℃ in steps of 9℃, and the result of fuel evaporation rate, Sauter mean diameter, and equivalence ratio distributions were compared. When the intake air temperature decreased in steps of 9℃, less fuel was evaporated by about 3.33% because the cylinder temperature was decreased. In addition, the evaporated fuel amount was increased with retarding the start of energizing timing because the cylinder temperature raised. However, the difference was decreased according to the retarded start of energizing timing because the cylinder pressure was also increased at the start of fuel injection. The equivalence ratio was reduced by 5.94% with decreasing the intake air temperature. In addition, the ignition delay was expected to longer because of the deteriorated evaporation performance and the reduced cylinder pressure by the low intake air temperature.