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This special topic is to examine the pluralistic approaches in a comparative study on Eastern and Western literature/culture. As Susan Bassnett says comparative literature involves the study of texts across cultures, that it is interdisciplinary and that it is concerned with patterns of connection in literatures across both time and space. For studying on a comparative study on Eastern and Western literature, we need to use the pluralistic approaches to study them. These mean employing not any one method in interpreting a work of art but every method which might prove efficient. And we must understand following contents in the process of study: filiation and affiliation in Edward W. Said's travelling theory, the thought of East and West, Zen Buddhism in Western society, Octavio Paz's Orient, the meaning of ‘no' in Eastern religion, the establishment of an authentic text in textual criticism, concept of reality, context framework which mean the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement or idea about ‘author, reader, language, text, reading.' Those are the new ideas and concepts of Eastern and Western literature today. Accordingly we may find out new themes, approaches, and so on in the process of study of Eastern and Western literature by synthesizing the above contents.
Studies on comparative literature in the west of the 19th century occurred in the politico-cultural matrix in which European sense of cultural superiority to non-Europe nations politically increases. In facing this ethos J. W. von Goethe raised the necessity of world literature (Weltliteratur) in order to get over a hidebound nationalism. Goethe's vision expedited the study for comparative literature and widened the extension of literature. In the 21st century globalization and localization are simultaneously in progress in the name of so-called ‘glocalization'. In the age of glocalization what is unavoidability of literature and should be? Some said that literary critics and scholars should be a comparativist. For this reason, comparative studies as a new academic methodology has been suggested. In response to this tendency I intend to suggest some methodological alternatives for the study of comparative literature in East-West. Firstly, not seeing eastern literature with western eyes and vice versa but seeing one's literature with each one's eyes is necessary in the age of glocalization. In this case the gap between East and West can be widened. Thus it is necessary to apply the fusion of horizon (Horizontverschmelzung) that H.-G. Gadamer insisted for the way of hermeneutic conformity in ‘argumentum e contrario' to the study of comparative literature in East-West. Secondly, Korean distinguished Buddhist monk-scholar Wonhyo's idea of One Mind (一心) as a basis of hermeneutic fusion of horizon can be applied to the study of comparative literature. Thirdly, Dilthey's hermeneutics of life as a structural nexus of lived experience, expression and understanding has two aspects: the diachronic and the synchronic. According to Dilthey, life itself is prior to conceptual thought and knowledge. Life is experienced as a dynamic/productive nexus (Wirkungszusammenhang). Dilthey's triadic nexus of life can be applied to the study of comparative literature as a basis of hermeneutic confirmity. Lastly, it is necessary to explore religious canons in East and West which supply literary imagination and thoughts. Even though the ways of expression are different human mental structure and desire for happiness of life, eternity, essence of beauty and so on are similar in East and West.
The teaching consideration of Han Feizi (韓非子) was originated from one of the main leading factions of Oriental thoughts in ancient China from the Zhou dynasty to the Chao dynasty (770-403 B.C.E.). His point of view was in suitabilities as well as in realities of life at that time. Especially he rearranged the defects of previous philosophers' ideas. Also many of his practical alternatives were contributed to the valuable worths. The Zhou dynasty to the Chao dynasty was confronted with each others' countries to expand their territories At that time all philosophers and scholars tried to solve the problems themselves by the suggestions for governing and guiding for their countries which were political solutions. The philosophers, Confucius (孔子), Mencius (孟子), Xunzi (荀子), Mozi (墨子), Laozi (老子), Zhuangzi (莊子), etc., they had no ethical norms to solve the problems. Although Han Feizi's philosophy agreed partly the government and enlightenment over human beings' natural state, he believed that their philosophy couldn't be the basic solution against the confused and troubled times. So he insisted that the a new suitable political strategy is to be centered by the law-governed state by political power. Han Feizi criticized Shen Buhai (申不害) who insisted on using only artifices not the application of law and Shang Yang (商鞅) who insisted on using only artifices not the application of law. Therefore he insisted on using jointly the application of artifices and laws. Also he insisted that a state is a monarch's horse, therefore he could controll by artifice. he believed that if in case of disregarding on the relations of law and artifice and power. As we have examined above, Han Feizi power same time. Also that means that the relation of artifice and power shows unavoidably. According to the above, Han Feizi regarded courtesy as power and use as law and artifice, And he studied and analyzed Xian Qin's (先秦) lawful idea. And he reorganized Xian Qin's works, which was described that monarch's sovereign power was regarded as important means of law and artifice to execute his state.
This study is to analyze the drama, Queen Seonduck in terms of C.G. Jung's concept of individuation. According to Jung's Analytical Psychology, individuation is the process of spiritual transformation to become an undivided and unified person in whom the conscious and the unconscious are harmonized and assimilated into the whole personality. It is achieved by allowing the ego, the center of the conscious to recognize and integrate the archetypes latent in the collective unconscious. Archetypes are the inherent and universal psychological complexes in the unconscious that serve as organizing principles on everything we do and feel. The major archetypes are the shadow, the anima/animus, the wise old man, and the Self. The ultimate goal of individuation is to realize the Self, the center and the totality of the entire psyche. In the drama, Queen Seonduck, the process of individuation is symbolically represented in the adventures of Princess Duckman. The main archetypes that are seen in the drama are the animus, the wise old man, and the Self. Animus is a masculine inner personality in the unconscious of a woman. In Jung's framework of psychology, animus plays a crucial role in individuation because as a psychological opposite to a woman's conscious, animus can represent her whole unconscious. Therefore, animus being consciously recognized can facilitate the ego's recognition of the Self, the center of the unconscious. In the drama, Queen Seonduck Duckman's conscious recognition of her animus is symbolically illustrated by her masquerading as a man. The next archetype Duckman relates to is the wise old man that leads the ego to the Self along with animus. In myths, the wise old man appears as a figure who gives advice and guidance to the hero throughout the hero's journey to help him achieve what he has sought for. In the drama, Queen Seonduck the wise old man is represented by Misil who motivates Duckman to figure out answers to various problems in her way. The final aspect of the individuation process is portrayed in Duckman's dream. In Jungian psychology archetypes manifest themselves in dreams as dream symbols or figures. In Duckman's dream the Self archetype appears as adult and mature Duckman who prepares young Duckman for the passage to self-realization. Young Duckman in this dream symbolizes the ego. The dream symbolically shows that the Self serving as the facilitator of individuation leads the ego to individuation. Duckman's dream depicts the ultimate phase of selfrealization or individuation in which the ego is assimilated into the Self to form the whole personality.
Itoh Project's dystopic and apocalyptic SF 〈Harmony〉 imagines a world of “harmony” in which body, emotion, and will should be under the bio-governmental control. Following Tuan, protagonist of the narrative, and her struggle against her ex-friend but now enemy, Miach, who would build a harmonized world by erasing emotions and wills only to erase human consciousness, Itoh tries to reveal affective conditions of our posthuman era in which soft (digital) biopolitics governs our life. However, his analysis of the conditions appears scarcely different from the earlier understanding before the advent of digitalized panopticon. With plenty of technological discourses notwithstanding, his fiction does not reflect our posthuman conditions of digital surveillance. What makes Itoh's work worthy of critical reading is his unprecedented experiment of forms of fiction: etml, markup language (coding) as a part of the structure of his fiction. Exposing the matadata foregrounded which should work hidden from us, Itoh puts forth the inner working of the conditions.