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The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases and activated by binding with activated Rho GTPases such as Rac or Cdc42. PAKs regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility, cell survival, and apoptosis. Also, PAKs are involved in several diseases such as cancer, virus infectious diseases, mental retardation, Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, the substances that are able to inhibit PAK activation can be used as powerful tools and medicines for PAK relative diseases or specific inhibitors for study of PAK signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated and characterized the 5 compounds of 4-benzene-1, 2-naphthoquinone (NQ) family as candidate substances to inhibit the PAK1 activation in vitro and in cells. Binding between p21-binding domain (PBD) of PAK1 and Cdc42 was blocked by 5 NQ-compounds in ELISA assay. Myelin basic protein (MBP) phosphorylation was dramatically reduced by treatment of these compounds in vitro kinase assay for Cdc42-induced or constitutive active PAK1 mutant. Also, phosphorylation at Thr 423 of transfected PAK1 was inhibited by treatment of 5 NQ-compounds in 293T cells, respectively. Finally, NQ-5 inhibited strongly the PAK1 activation by PDGF stimulation and cell motility in PDGF-induced wound migration assay in NIH 3T3 cells. Therefore, these NQ compounds will be good candidates as target molecules to regulate PAK1-related diseases or inhibitors to study PAK1 signaling pathway.
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological development pattern of conical papilla (CP) on prenatal and postnatal periods in Korean native goats by scanning electron microscopy. Tongues were removed from fetuses on days 90, 120, and neonates and from juveniles on days 30, 50, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 after birth. The lengths of CP were 194~240 μm in the neonates, 335~485 μm in the weaning period of 60-day-old goats, and 526~662 μm in the maturing period of 180-day-old goats. The primordia of CP in 90-day-old fetuses, shaped like mountain berry, were sprouted. The CP of 120-day-old fetuses was a cylinder shape with apex whose center was a little bit concave and the margin was sticking up like a low fence. The CP of neonates was empty inside and the secondary papillae were irregularly arranged fence-like structures on it. In 60-day-old goats, CP was an obliquely sectioned cylinder shape compacted in inner surface. 120-day-old goats had various shapes of CP, which surface was smooth. 150- and 180-day-old goats had a low elevation of CP. The microridges, microplicae and micropits were well developed on the epithelial surface of lingual papillae from 60- to 120-day-old goats. These findings indicate that CP of goat has a variety of sizes and shapes during development.
This study was conducted in order to determine the functionality of mineral-rich salt with lower NaCl and higher mineral contents on blood pressure and lipid metabolism in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. A 1% salt solution was administered to five-week-old male Dahl rats– one normal and three salt groups (Purified salt, sun-dried salt, and bamboo salt) for 15 weeks. On the basis of the salt production process, the sun-dried group was classified into two subgroups: SS1 (2-year) and SS2 (>5-year) depending on the storage period of the mineral-rich salt. The relationships between salt intake and changes in blood pressure, serum lipids, and serum mineral concentrations were then examined. The results showed that intake of SS2, which is stored for five years, and BS (bamboo salt) resulted in continuous delay of the increase in blood pressure and inhibited angiotensin–converting enzyme (ACE) activity. In addition, a significant decrease in the triglyceride level in serum lipids of approximately 30% was observed in the SS2 group compared to the PS (purified salt) group. However, all salt intake groups showed an increase in total cholesterol levels compared to the normal group. The results demonstrate that intake of mineral-rich salt is beneficial for the human body and results in reduced blood pressure and triglyceride levels in serum lipids, however, conduct of more research will be needed in order to explore other functions.
Recently, several companies have released H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test kits. However, there is little information about the usefulness of HpSA testing for Helicobacter felis, which is the major Helicobacter species in cats. The aim of the present study was to compare diagnostic methods for diagnosis of H. felis with HpSA tests and PCR assay using cat stools or gastric mucosa. Male cats (n=6) were infected with H. felis ATCC 49179 (1.0 × 109 CFU /cat) by intragastric inoculation two times at 3-day intervals, and stool specimens of cats were collected 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days after infection for HpSA testing and H. felis-specific PCR. For the results, sensitivities of the HpSA test and PCR analysis were 50.0% and 83.3% respectively. Cats were sacrificed 21 days after H. felis inoculation, and gastric tissues were homogenized. All gastric biopsy specimens were positive based on a rapid urease test (RUT) (6/6, 100%) and PCR (6/6, 100%). Based on these results, the HpSA kit is useful and effective for monitoring H. felis infection using stool specimens. If an HpSA test could be made with H. felis antibodies in the future, its sensitivity could be increased further. Further, PCR assay could be successfully used to detect H. felis in stools. Application of this HpSA kit and PCR assay can be utilized as a non-invasive strategy to identify H. felis in cats.
To evaluate the acute to chronic effects of crude oil exposure on hematological and blood biochemical toxicities, Sprague-Dawley rats were given by oral doses of 0, 50 or 100 mg/kg BW/day of Iranian heavy crude oils for four weeks. In the acute phase of exposure (1 day after 4 weeks oil treatment), decreases in weight of thymus, serum level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in liver or kidney, and increase in weight of adrenal gland occurred after oral administration of crude oil. In body weight, histopathological examination, hematological and blood biochemical analyses in the acute phase of exposure, there were no significant differences among the experimental groups. In the subchronic and chronic phase of exposure (2 months and 6 months after 4 weeks oil treatment), the changes of biomarkers were normalized except the indicators of oxidative stress. Our findings show that the bioassay on the indicators of oxidative stress is a sensitive method for determining exposure to crude oil in rat.
Peripheral nerve injuries are very common in clinics which often result in severe functional deficits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treadmill running and electro-acupuncture on the nerve regeneration and the functional recovery of muscle activity following sciatic nerve crushed injury in rat model. Comparative study was performed over 30 days on 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats grouped into sham control (C), electro-acupuncture (EA), treadmill (T) and treadmill plus electro-acupuncture (TEA). The left sciatic nerve was crushed for 30 sec by a hemostatic forceps and functional activity was evaluated with sciatic functional tests, nerve conduct velocity, muscle weight and histology at 10, 20, and 30 days after injury. The muscle weight was significantly (P<0.05) increased between days 10 and 30 in TEA group. In histology, the degree of damage was scored as C > TEA > T > EA, although the necrosis and fibrosis of muscle appeared only in TEA group. The EA and TEA groups showed fast recoveries with better myelinated axons at day 10. These results suggest that the application of TEA method with balanced exercise is a useful treatment option for peripheral nerve injury regeneration and muscle activity.
The purpose of this study was to explore the morphological characteristics of developing lentiform papilla (LP)in Korean native goats by scanning electron microscopy (SAM). Tongues were removed from fetuses on days 90, 120,neonates, and juveniles on days 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180. In prenatal development, the primordia of LP in 90-day-old fetuses were round and spotted on the inner most part of the torus linguae of the tongue. Primordia of LP in 120-day-old fetuses also had a lens-like shape. In neonates, LP displayed similar features as the adult one. In postnatal juveniles on days 30 and 60, LP continually increased in size without much difference in structure compared to that of neonates. By postnatal day 90, detached pieces of keratinized superficial epithelia were observed. Microridges and microplicae were well developed on the epithelial surface of LP in 60-to 120-day-old goats. The lengths of LP were 476~514 μm in neonates, 687~962 μm in the weaning period of 60-dayold goats, and 1,068~1,567 μm in the maturing period of 180-day-old goats. These findings indicate that goat LP has different sizes and shapes from those of other species during development.
Guillain-Barre´ syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflam- matory demyelinating polyneuropathy most common- ly characterized by rapidly progressive, essentially symmetric weakness and areflexia. This study exam- ined clinical symptoms of clinical variants of GBS through a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, nerve con- duction (NCV) study, treatment, and prognosis. There were 16 children with GBS who visited our hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. Guillen-Barre´- like syndromes with transient synovitis were noted in three children. Clinical variants of GBS with acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis were observed in one child. Previous infections were noted in 16 children with Guillen-Barre´-like syndrome. There were as- cending infections in 16 cases. Fifteen children showed symmetric infections, and one showed asymmetric infection. In NCV, slow waves were noted in two cases. We treated using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in four cases, IVIG with steroid in two, cases and sup- portive care in 10 (62.5%) cases. Five children treated with IVIG and 10 with supportive care management were completely improved.Our study suggests that supportive care is effective as a treatment for clinical variants of GBS. Further study is necessary for more patients.