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Looking back upon the Saemaul Undong, even since it began in the year 1970, it has been developed more powerfully and accomplished community development with the slogan of diligence, self-help and cooperation. As the result, most villages have gotten the improvement of physical environment, income increasing and positive changes in the attitudes and values of inhabitants. However, in spite of the Saemaul Undong's achievements, the movement has been faced to many kind of problems about the middle of the time of 1980's. And so nowadays, Saemaul Undong is not get out of a swamp of stagnation. Of course, it cannot he denied that it has made much contribution to the community development, but it is confronted with many serious problems. The reasons for the decline of Saemaul Undong are mainly the corruption of the headquarters of Saemaul Undong, disordered society, disparity of strata, depersonalization, the lack of new methodologies in the pursuit of Saemaul Undong, and etc. Recognizing these problems and to cope with the newly emerzing situation, a need has arisen for a change in Saemaul Undong. Therefore, these paper aims at researching for a new methodologies and strategies to carry out Saemaul Undong's progams continuously, and intends to suggest a new direction of sustaining Saemaul Undong. For the Purposes of suggesting altternatives continuously sustaining Saemaul Undong, this paper intends to formulate the principles and new directions of Saemaul Undong as follows : (1) The objectives and methodologies of Saemaul Undong should be reorganized in the context of new emerging situations. (2) Revitalizing local towns and rural areas must be pursued with special reference with hometown development. For the purpose, it is proper to organize a society for the support of hometown, and to invest money and resources in trying to help it. (3) In the spiritual aspect, it is desirable that the spirits of Saemaul Undong : diligence, self-help and cooperation should be expanded into a public interest and self-governing. (4) To induce residents to take part in and support Saemaul Undong, Noluntary Systems are formulated for securing public interest and a cultivation of personality. (5) A public movement creating a new nation, to meet a new twenty-frist centry, should be pushed ahead with a nation-wide development. (6) In a dimension of province level Saemaul Undong, the local branch of the headquarters of Saemaul Undong must take the initiative in doing Saemaul projects, and residents show their ability to carry out Saemaul Undong.
Ⅰ. Introduction The conception of a linked development between the Saemaul Undong and the regional development in this paper originated in the recognition of the same old practice and the perfunctory movement of the Saemaul Undong which could not cope with the economic, social and political situations since the beginning of 1980's, and so, receutly the transformation of Saemaul Undong's objectives, methodologies is required. Looking back upon the Saemaul Undong, even since it began in the year 1970, it has been developed more powerfully with the slogan of diligence, self-help and cooperation throughout the country. As the result, most of villages have accomplished improved life environments, increased income and changes in the attitudes and values of inhabitants through their participation and cooperation in village-level developing projects. However, in spite of the Saemaul Undong's achievements, the movement has been faced to many kinds of problems about the time of 1980's. The important reasons are as follows : the lack of new methodologies to expand and revitalize the movement, routinized patterns of development projects, making political capital of the movement, the limit of village-level development and the deficiency of countermeasures to cope with newly emerging situations. Therefore, A need has arisen for a change in the Saemaul Undong. One of the most important anticipated changes is relative to the regional development, that is to say, in the light of future national development the Saemaul Undong must be carried out in the context of the balanced regional development. Considering those reasons mentioned above, this paper is intended to link the regional development to the Saemaul Undong. Namely the purpose of this paper is how to link the Saemaul Undong to the regional development in a small area unit. Ⅱ. An Overview of the Regional Development Policy and its Future It is necessary to overview the historical background of the regional development for the purpose of this study, and to catch hold of the trend of the future regional development. During the last two decades, the policies and strategies of regional development have changed gradually in accordance with the shift of the economic and social environment, which is mainly distinguished by economic growth, rapid urbanization, spatial polarization and differentiation of the social structure in Korea. The early stage of the national development was marked by economic rationalism based on efficiency and quantitative growth, and then the resultant outcome was the achievement of an accelerated economic growth. But we have confronted with many kinds of negative problems such as regional disparity, inequality of opportunities, population concentration and industrial polarization to the metropolitan areas, depression in the rural areas, urban congestion, environmental pollution and so on. Recognizing those problems, recently the trends and strategies of regional development have directed to equity-oriented policies. In order to deal with the negative problems, most of all, it is necessary to establish the principle of well balanced socio-economic development between growth region(center) and depressed rural region(periphery). Especially, the government announced the second ten-years National Land Development Plan in 1981. The government plan for balanced regional development divided the country into twenty-eight "Integrated Settlement Area (生活圈)" to be developed on the basis of their spatial and functional relationships. The main focus of the Intergrated Settlement Area is how to accomplish the balanced regional development, linking local cities to its surrounding rural areas. In this context, the Saemaul Undong should be toward the integrated development in the regional dimension beyond the village-level development. Ⅲ. Contents and Theoretical Background of the Saemaul Undong The basic unit of the Saemaul Undong is the village. In principle it was advertised as a movement for rural community development and spiritual revolution. The Saemaul Undong has changed rural areas into new vital communities, bringing a fresh and revolutionary air into lagging rual areas. In the initial stage, the purpose of the movement is the eradication of poverty and so, to change poverty-stricken rural areas into the most prosperous communities. In a provincial governors conference on April 22, 1970, President Park emphasized that "self-helping" villages could easily overcome the rural poverty. The Saemaul Undong is a new community movement in which people cooperate together in order to construct better and richer villages, and as the consequence, to achive the national development. In this regard, the nature of the Saemaul Undong is as follows : The Saemaul Undong is a new community movement in which people cooperate together in order to construct better and richer villages, and as the consequence, a richer and stronger nation. In this regard, the nature of the Saemaul Undong is : 1) spiritual enlightment to keep all the people voluntarily participate in the activity. 2) social development and physical improvement through which the people can enjoy affuent lives in better villages. 3) economic development through which villagers raise productivity of labor and increase per capita income. As stated above, the Saemaul Undong has developed rural communities through the villager's cooperative endeavors, and so, the movement established objectives and methodologies of it, but the movement doesn't have theoritical framework as Korean planners proclaim the Saemaul Undong to have been a movement without a theory. However, looking into the movement, we can find that the Saemaul Undong has something to do with some kinds of development theories. That is to say, the theoritical background of the Saemaul Undong is related to community development theory, rural development theory, bottom-up approach, basic needs approach and modernization theory. Ⅳ. Interrelationships between the Saemaul Undong and the Regional Development A prerequisite to link the Saemaul Undong to the regional development is to understand the interrelationships between the Saemaul Undong and the regional development. The Saemaul Undong is differentiated from the regional development in some aspects, but the two are also similar in other aspects : 1) The Saemaul Undong is village-level development through villager's cooperation and self-help, but the regional development make a region an object of development projects. 2) The Saemaul Undong is carried out through citizen participation, but the regional development is supported by central and local government. 3) The main objective of the Saemaul Undong is the community development, achieving living environment, spiritual enlightment and increasing income. But generally speaking, the principal goal of the regional development is to solve regional problems : regional disparities, depressed rural area's poverty, industrial polarization, population concentration to a metropolitan area and so on. 4) The Saemaul Undong does not ensure the sale economies. Therefore, the movement is toward solving encountered villager's common needs. But the regional development is executed beyond the scale which maintains a population threshold and a range of goods. Ⅴ. Strategies for the Linked Development between the Saemaul Undong and the Regional Development A need has arisen for a change in the aspect of spatial linkage. A single village was discovered to be rather small and inappropriate to be developed as a self-sufficient, growing and independent regional unit. As a consequence, the necessity to link the Saemaul Undong to the regional development is recognized. And then, how the linked development could be achieved? First of all, it is important that the linked development is aimed at combining several homogeneous villages with close interregional ties into a single integrated development region, and also it is necessary to transform the village-oriented approach into a regional-evel approach. Strategies and methodologies for the linked development are suggested as follows : 1) At first, the existing policies and future trends relevant to the regional development must be scrutinized. That may throw some light on the framework of the linked development. 2) Considering the limit of village-level development, the scale of projects and the boundary of the Saemaul Undong must be expanded. It is proper that, 5∼10 villages should be integrated into a single development region. 3) The objectives of the Saemaul Undong should be redrganized in the context of regional development. 4) Micro-level regional development with special reference to area-wide development in the Saemaul Undong is a proper alternative to the linked development. In this case, it is necessary to pursue area-wide projects in need of scale-economies in regional level. Especially, in the construction of public facilities and income-increasing projects, population threshold and market of goods should be considered. 5) It is desirable that the linked development should be toward better promoting local divesification and greater potential for self-reliance. Ⅵ. Concluding Remarks : Synopsis and policy-oriented Comment 1) In the spiritual aspect, it is desired that the spirits of the Saemaul Undong : diligence, self-help and cooperation should be expanded into an interregional cooperation mind. The mind is to encourage the people to develop a regional unit in which they can lead their lives together. 2) In the ideological aspect, it is necessary to foster a regionalism, namely, regional consciousness. For the purpose of fostering regionalism, the spirit of Saemaul Undong must be transformed into the mind which thinks much of a regional solidarity than their own villages. 3) In the aspect of spatial development, the hierarchy of "Integrated Settlement Area" must be established. And then, the connection between local cities and its surrounding rural areas should be taken into account. Especially, public facilities, transportation routes and economic activities which link the centers to peripheral rural areas have to be supplied sufficiently. 4) Considering the aspect of spatial policy, the linked development should be towards an integrated regional development by which isolated development of the Saemaul Undong and polarization development of the local centers could be united. 5) In respect of objectives, it is proper to transform the village leval goal-oriented approach into the goal setting in the regional dimension. 6) In the aspect of regional policy, the linked development seeks to get a interregional balanced development. To solve regional problems such as regional disparities and deficiency of public facilities in the rural areas is an important task of it. 7) In the aspect of a living environment, convenient facilities must be systematized according to the hierarchy of Integrated Settlement Area. Particulary, development projects make sure of both a population threshold and a market area. 8) As for a environment for production, the regional economic base must be constructed. The regional economic structure should be expanded so as to ensure the scale economics. 9) In the aspect of the regional administration, the community organizations and indigenous groups need to change their systems into a new regional based committee in a view of an area-wide approach. 10) As for development methodologies, it is desired that the linked development is to be toward both Top-down approach and development from below. 11) As for development theories, the linked development is connected with community development theory, rural development theory, basic needs approach, a modernization theory and a bottom-up approach. 12) Lastly, in order for the Saemaul Undong to steadily develop and maintain it self, the capacity to cope with political, economic and socio-cultural changes must be fostered. Self-direction based on the complete participation of all the inhabitants will be the hallmark of its future success. Especially, recognizing the era of localism, with an expectation of the activation of the Saemaul Undong, it is necessary for the movement to transform itself into "new nation movement," "new integrated settlement area movement," "my town movement," or "Mass Saemaul Undong".
The purpose of this study is mainly to find out the regional development model and the strategic change of the Saemaul Undong in these days of political decentralization and localization. Saemaeul Undong began in 1970. And it can not be denied that it has made much contribution to the improvement of income level, physical condition of resident's life and mentality of people, especially in rural area. But it has also problems like deep envolvement of government bureaucracy and emphasizing material production as a criterion of effectiveness. So, being faced with the introduction of local self-government system, the Saemaul Undong should be changed in the direction as follows. 1. Citizen partictpation should be increased through activating all kinds of self-generating, informal civil organizations. 2. In prospect of carrying out of local self-government system, government initiative can be decreased by transfering the leadership of the Saemaul Undong to the organization composed of citizen and local self-government officials. 3. Transfering most activities except mental develoment area to the normal goverment administration can make the movement concentrate its efforts onmental devolopment goal. Even then, mental development activities should be directed mainly to awaken a person to the importance of self conciousness as a citizen living in democratic socity on the premise that only such self conciousness could establish local self -government system and democracy ultimately in our country. 4. Saemaul Uodong should change its strategy from the community. development approach to the regional development approach to keep in step with increasing concern for localization and regional development. To sum up, Saemaul Undong should be done for the purpose of enlightening a person as a citizen who knows his civil rights and duties, and should expand its activity perspective from community development model to the regional development model.
Korea has experienced the rapid economic growth, which greatly changed our way of life, since the early nineteen sixties. By the extraordinary pace of urbanization and industrialization were accompanied the emergence of regional disparity in income and the relative low level of quality of life in the rural region. Two principal activities were implemented to cope with these problems; one was the regional development which began in 1964, the other was the Saemaul Undong which was launched in 1970. The regional development and the Saemaul Undong have been implemented independently without mutual coordination although they have similar objectives, similar projects and usable resources. This phenomenon has resulted in the dichotomy of institution and organization which has diminished the effects of the regional development and Saemaul Undong. To maximize the effects of the development is it necessary to integrate the Saemaul Undong with the regional development. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to establish the relationships clearly, which have been obscure, between the regional development and Saemaul Uudong.
Korea has experienced the rapid economic growth, which greatly changed our way of life, since the early nineteen sixties. By the extraordinary pace of urbanization and industrialization were accompanied the emergence of regional disparity in income and the relative low level of quality of life in the rural region. Two principal activities were implemented to cope with these problems; one was the regional development which began in 1964, the other was the Saemaul Undong which was launched in 1970. The regional development and the Saemaul Undong have been implemented independently without mutual coordination although they have similar objectives, similar projects and usable resources. This phenomenon has resulted in the dichotomy of institution and organization which has diminished the effects of the regional development and Saemaul Undong. To maximize the effects of the development is it necessary to integrate the Saemaul Undong with the regional development. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to establish the relationships clearly, which have been obscure, between the regional development and Saemaul Undong.
As the Saemaul Undong (the New Community Movement) has been stagnant for a long time, it is a matter of urgency to reorient the course of the Undong. To explore a new direction of it, we should, first of all, overcome difficulties in the way of its progress, with the nature of the Undong reilluminated, Then we should consider some essential matters. First, taking the process of the Undong, we should promote it following its scientific and systematic footsteps and should adapt a bottom-up approach and a rational procedure, Second, taking the contents of the Undong into account, we should choice a programme or a policy in view of its peculiarity, because the Undong is closely connected with the situation of present days. Third, taking the organization of it into account, we should spare no effort in reinforcing the organizational foundation of the Saemaul Undong association which has been much reputed for its originality. In the last analysis, we should so reoriented the Undong as to be grown as a device for the self-development of mankind.
It has been 16 years since Saemaul Undong (New Community Movement) introduced in Korea. This movement which was initialy started in the rural area and spreaded to the whole country, has tremendous effects on rural people as well as urdan dwellers in terms of spiritual and enviromental improvemt But it meet its limits when people try to improve their incomes through this movement. So, several alternatives are recommended to overcome this problems. Among them, fundamental ones are as follows; 1) Improvement of agricultural incomes. 2) Improvement of non-agricultural incomes. 3) Improvement of agricultural goods marketing structures. Among these ways I think improving agricultural goods marketing structure is the most fundamental and important thing. Therefore, in this paper several policy alternatives are suggested to improve agricultural goods marketing structure. Among them, important things are as follows ; 1) We should secure enough supply facilities. 2) We should narrow marketing margins. 3) Gov't should change its agriculture policy. 4) We should encrouge enlargement of private marketing facilities. 5) We should support consummer groups as well as producer's groups. 6) It is necessary that we should improve agricultural good's marketing administration efficiency. 7) Efficient financial and information systems are necessary.
The regional ethos of Chungbuk province is a specific character of inhabitants from Chungbuk province and it is the product of history and tradition. Now, we can find double-faces, affirmative and negative ethos, about it. To be called that the regional ethos of inhabitants of Chungbuk province, the spirit of classical scholars who has esteemed courtesy and scholarship, abundant humanity, harmonious character, they are proud ethoses of inhabitants of Chungbuk province. But, to be called that the other regional ethos of them, negative and passive character, opportunistic inclination, attitude respecting his reputation, they are ethoses that it is necessary to break by them. The findings as the result of the investigation by questionnaire reveal to change the regional ethos of inhabitants of Chungbuk province with relation to the Saemaul movement as follows. (1) The inhabitants of Chungbuk province believe that they have mild and simple-minded character as his ethoses and passive character, the former is his merits while the other is his demerits. (2) The inhabitants in the 40.2% of Chungbuk province give an affirmative anwer in the matter of the development on a full scale in Chungbuk district. It means the powerful change in character of the inhabitants. However, it is worthy of attention that the inhabitants in the 59.8% agree with reservations or come out against about it. (3) The inhabitants of Chungbuk province (87.3%) believe that the human nature of them is good-hearted as compared to other provinces' people, and they take pride in it. (4) The inhabitants of Chungbuk province(70.2%) estimate that Saemaul movement contributed affirmatively to change in character of them. (5) Above all, they appreciate that Saemaul movement exert a far-reaching influence on the change of conciousness, which regard his profit as important than his reputation. It may be given as a conclusion that Saemaul movement has exerted a great influence, affirmatively and negatively, on the change of ethos of inhabitants of Chungbuk province. Now, they regard his profit as important than his reputation and his conservative ethos is beginning to be revised. On the other hands, the findings as the result of the investigation reveal to change the regional ethos of inhabitants of Chungbuk province that the merits of them, simple human nature and the spirit of classical scholars who has esteemed courtesy and scholarship is beginning to wear of sensibly. In consequence, we have to look for the best way which harmonize tradition with modern, conservative with progressive, and reputation with profit, ethic with economics.
This paper is to review the background of Seamaul Movement and to clarify the efficiency of rural land utilization by the spread effect of innovation through the Saemaul Movement, and to suggest the orientation of improvement that the Saemaul Movement approaches through researching the effects and the problems of the Saemaul Movment. It is seemed that the Saemaul Movement diminishes income inequality of rural and urban area and acts marketing function to connect rural and urban area. The Saemaul Movement acts on the intension, commercialization, mechanization of farming in rural area by the spread effect of innovation through the improvement of rural infrastructures. Also, the Saemaul Movement contributes to improve the income of rural area and to act the marketing function to connect the rural and urban area, and to diminish the income inequality of rural and urban area. But the Saemaul Movement has the problems that bring the obstacles to diminish the spread effect of innovations in the rural area. Therefore, we must work to improve the problems that the Saemaul Movement has in spreading the effect of innovations in the rural area in future.
Saemaul Undong, which was initialed by the late president park, spreaded from rural area to urban area, and became a pan-national movement which was crucial to the regional development as well as national development. It is the movement, at which people try to seck a lot of cultural identity at the regional level. Especially recent Saemaul Undong become the private-lead one in which citizen and private institutions are encouraged to participate freely. Therefore, in this paper the writer tried to find out relations between the Saemaul Undong and regional culture, and provide policy alternatives for activating the Saemaul Undong. The study results show that the Saemaul Undong has been influenced by the our regional culture especially Ture, Kae and pumasi etc, Finally several policy alternatives were suggested to activated Saemaul Undong those policy alternatives are as follows. 1) stremthening community consciousness 2) activating urban Saemaul Undong 3) improving Saemaul educationa qualtively 4) relating pan sang whai (pan-meeting) with Saemaul Undong 5) securing able leders 6) developing Saemaul Undong-lead organization