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A water quality modeling study was performed for network stream located at western part of Lower Nakdong River. Model construction was based on SNSIM(Stream Network Simulation Model) which was developed by United States Environmental Protection Agency. The study area includes Western Nakdong River, Joman River and their tributaries. The area was divided into 22 reaches according to the model structure. Each reach was then subdivided into uniform computational element of 0.1km. In order to characterize study area, two synoptic field surveys were performed during February 6∼7 and March 29∼30, 1991 periods at network stream and input tributaries. The model was calibrated to the February survey data and verified to the March survey data. The water quality parameters simulated in the model included dissolved oxygen(DO), carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand(CBOD), and nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand(NBOD). Computer code of SNSIM model was modified in this study to be executable on IBM PC or comparable with metric input/output unit. The study indicated that the modified SNSIM model would be an effective tool to simulate the water qualities in the complicated stream network. The predicted water qualities displayed reasonable agreements with the field measurements during both surveys.
In support of a proposal for designating a national marine park in the Cheju Island area, a research project consisting of a 9-part biological survey was carried out in 1991. Four study sites in the Cheju Island area(Songsanp'o, Pomdo, Ch'akwido and Marado) were selected based on species diversity and the occurrence of range-restricted and recently described new species of algae and benthic invertebrates. During the period of October 22-25, 1991, the author examined the fauna of 5 benthic phyla(Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, Echinodermata and Chordata) from the intertidal and subtidal zones at these four sites. In all, 112 species in 67 families, 23 orders, and 8 classes belonging to the 5 phyla were identified: cnidarians(44 spp., 39.3%), sponges(33spp., 29.5%), bryozoans(17spp., 15.2%), echinoderms(12spp., 10.7%) and ascidians(6spp.). Moreover, 28 of the 112 species were newly recorded in Korean waters:sponges(10spp.), cnidarians(13spp.), bryozoans(4spp.) and echinoderms(1spp.). Up to this time, the benthic invertebrates in these 5 phyla known from the Cheju Island area amountto 528 species in 149 families, 39 orders and 12 classes.
Microwave Sounding Unit(MSU) radiometer abservations in Channel 2(53.74GHz) male from sequential, sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites have been used to derive global temperature trend for the period 1980 to 1996. Christy et al. (1998) emphasize that they find a tropospheric cooling trend (-0.046 K decade()) from 1979 to 1997 with these MSU data, although their analysis of near radir measurements yields a near zero trend (0.003K decade()). Using an independent method to analyze the MSU Ch2 nadir data separately over global ocean and land, we infer that the temperature trends over both these regions are about 0.11K decade(), during the period 1980 to 1996. This result is in better agreement with trend analyses based on conventional surface data.
Sulfate can be deposited to water as both a gas (SO₂) and particulate(SO₄²()) phases from the atmosphere. To determine the relative importance of these two types of deposition, a circular water surface sampler was used to measure the dry deposition flux of atmospheric SO₂and sulfate containing particles in Chicago, IL, A sharp edged greased surrogate surface was used concurrently to measure the dry deposition flux of atmospheric sulfate containing particles. The total sulfate fluxes to the water surface sampler were consistently higher than the fluxes to the greased surface due to gas phase (SO₂) dry deposition (SO₂is quickly hydrolized and oxidized to SO₄²() in water). For each sample the calculated SO₂flux was calculated as the product of the individual SO₂gas phase mass transfer coefficient calculated using two different models multiplied by the ambient SO₂concentration. One model was empirical and accounts for both natural and forced evaporation and the other model was a resistance model developed by analogy to electrical or heat flow through a series of resistances. The SO₂fluxes measured directly with water surface sampler were compared to the modeled values and agreed well with those predicted with the two models.