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Frost heave experiments were performed for two different types of materials with saline pore water. The used materials were weathered soil and glass beads. Significant salt redistribution occurred during the upward freezing of saline glass beads from 0.5 cm/day to 2 cm/day. However, water content did not change during the experiment. On the contrary significant water redistribution occurred from the unfrozen zone to frozen zone during the upward freezing of saline weathered soil independently of freezing rates. However, salt contents both in the frozen and in the unfrozen zone did not change during the experiment. Also the salt redistribution was observed just beneath the ice lens at an extremely low freezing rate for weathered soil.
This study was carried out to investigate the generation and physico-chemical composition of solid wastes in the Kyeongbuk area. As a result, the generation rate of municipal solid wastes(MSWs) in the Kyeongbuk area have been lower('96 : 43,757ton/day → '01 : 42,384ton/day), but recyclable wastes of them have been higher ('96 : 10,592ton/day →'01 : 12,828ton/day). The annual generation rate of MSWs in the country was 0.96kg in 1996, 0.92kg in 2001, respectively, it has maintained below 1.0kg, but it was 1.03kg in 1996, 0.94kg in 2001 in Kyeangbuk area, respectively. In MSWs, food wastes in the country and the Kyeongbuk area are 8,510kg and 493kg, and separation rate of food waste are 37.8% and 59.4%, respectively. Totally the generation rate of MSWs was decreased, but recyclable products of MSWs was increased. Three components, heating value, elements analysis in 2001 was similer to 1996's results.
Many researches about the combustion process gas temperature and velocity in a constant volume combustion chamber have been conducted. The temperature and the distribution of velocity in the combustion chamber have a large influence in the combustion process. Temperature distribution and their histories of jet flame in a constant combustion chamber were measured by a laser rayleigh pyrometer , as a fundamental study of the combustion process in a spark ignition engine. It makes this study get the important data of temperature histories and flame state of jet flame.
The results obtained by an investigation of junior college students leisure time activities from the viewpoint of social sports are as follows: 1.Quite a few students have positive recognition on the necessity of leisure time activities(4.32), and on the participation in social sports as leisure time activities(3.89) 2.They also think that the participation in social sports in their leisure time is very helpful for their spiritual health (3.86), physical health(4.10), and self-development(4.00) 3.Quite a few students want to participate in social sports activities if they are given opportunities, but their real percentage of participation is low(2.79) 4.They think negatively of the sports facilities(2.29), and the number of sports instructors(2.26), in their neighborhood. 5.It is shown that the frequency of education experience on the leisure time activities is 2.52
We studied the optimum condition of electroless nickel plating for brazing and homogeneous plating on pure titanium by considering the pretreatment process, bath temperature and pH. When we performed the 35% HQ boiling process at 85℃ as a pretreatment, we were able to remove the passivity oxide film and achieve the homogeneous nickel deposition layer on pure titanium. The phosphorus content in the layer was decreased by increasing pH(adjusted by NH₄OH and NaOH). As a result, the optimum procedure of electroless nickel plating on pure titanium is to pretreat the specimen in 35% HQ solution at 85 C, catalyze in 20㎖HCl/250㎖ solution and plate at 85℃ (bath temperature) and pH 8.5.
Many reasearches about the combustion process, gas temperature and velocity Ma constant volume combustion chamber haven been conducted. But it was not easy to explain the combustion process in the combustion chamber because it is very complicated in the combustion zone. This chamber had a hexagonal combustion chamber and had six ignition plugs. Test mixture gas was a propane-air mixture gas and was made in mixing chamber. Flame propagation was observed by a high speed video camera. Combustion characteristics such as rate of release , burning period and pressure in chamber were revealed to varying the initial temperature and charging pressure in combustion chamber. In the case of rate of heat release and burning period become short according to high of initial temperature.
The purpose of this research was to identify nursing interventions performed by the ICU nurses from 2 university hospital in Taegu. For this research, I used the Nursing Intervention questionnaire developed by the Iowa Intervention Project and translated by korean specialists and professor concerned to the same field. In order to obtain the data, a special group of professor, head nurse, charge nurse, researcher was instituted. The special group work validataed 205 nursing interventions with agreement of more than 50% becuse the NIC(433 nursing intervention) survey process was too time-consuming and not appropriate for all labels. The data were collected from June 1 to 30, 1999 and analysed with SAS program. The obtained results are as follows; (1) 94 interventions were performed at least daily. (2) The most frequently used nursing interventions were Parenteral Medication Administration, Aspiration Precautions, Pressure Ulcer Prevents, Positioning, Airway Management, Cough Enhancement in rank. In conclusion, this research using NIC has helped to figure out the component to the ICU care in korea. The use of this results will contribute to enhance quality assessment and improve standard of ICU nursing.
There are various theories for the structural elements and principles in the architectural design. As the space perception and the practial function are taking serious view in the contemporary architecture, I deduced the constituents from the spatial analysis by Bruno Zevi. The results are as follow. 1. The structual elements line, plane(surface), form, space, texture and tactile sensation, light and darkness, color. 2. The structural principles unity, variety, style, scale, personality, truth, mood. lg
This study intends to examine the relationship between the childbirth education and the satisfaction on labor and delivery, and to find out the effects of childbirth education on the childbirth satisfaction of primiparas. A total of 50 primiparas were selected as the subjects of this study: 24 primiparas who have attended the childbirth education were selected for experimental group among those who gave birth to their babies at the delivery room of the Medical Center of Y University and P Hospital located in Taegu City between September 1 through December 30, 1996; and 26 primiparas who gave birth without childbirth education were randomly selected for the control group. For the experimental group, an experimental treatment was given to them once a week for five weeks, and in order to examine the relationship between the childbirth education and childbirth satisfaction, the Global Self Esteem Scale, Labor Agency Scale, Delivery Agency Scale, and Labor/Delivery Evaluation Scale of the experimental group and control group were used to measure the degree of perception of control and labor experience during the postpartum period. This study design was a quasi experimental study of posttest design for non-equiva-lent control groups, and the data was analysed through frequency, percentage, and factor analysis by using SPSS/PC, and t-test was used to identify differences between experimental group and control group. The results of this study are summarised as follows. (1) The childbirth education was effective for the control perception during the labor and delivery of primiparas, since there was significant difference between the control perception of labor and delivery of those who received childbirth education and those who did not. (2) Those who received childbirth education had a significantly higher score for the childbirth experience than those who did not, and therefore the childbirth education was effective for the childbirth satisfaction of primiparas. (3) But the childbirth education had no effects on self-esteem since there was no significant difference between the self-esteem score of those who had childbirth education and those without it. Through the above results it can be concluded that those who had the childbirth education have higher control perception during labor and delivery and satisfactory child-birth experience, and the childbirth education was effective for more childbirth satisfaction.