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        • Chaucer의 英語와 韻律

          白基德 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1962 영어영문학연구 Vol.3 No.-

          Chaucer의 영어를 Anglo-Saxon어와 기타 다른 중세영어의 방언과 비교해보면 언어변화가 비교적 단순하며 거의현대영어와 흡사한 점을 찾아볼 수 있으나 그렇다고해서 현대작품을 읽듯이 쉽사리 Chaucer의 작품을 읽을 수는 없다. 그 한 예로써 중세영어의 발음이나, 문법적 어형은 15세기부터 19세기중엽에 이르기까지 Chaucer를 극찬한 바 있는 수많은 시인이나 비평가들이 그의 영어의 발음이나, 문법적 어형은 불규칙적이며, 조화를 이루고 있지 못하다 고생각하여 발음, 어형에 상당한 변화를 이뤄왔기 때문에 오늘날엔 그 형태를 찾아볼 수 없다. 그래서 현대독자들에겐 그의 시를 음미하는데 발음과 문법적 어형, 음률 등에 관한 기초적인 지식을 습득할 필요가 있는 것이다. 그래서 본란에서의 Chaucer영어를 이해하는데 다소나마 도움이 될 수 있는 참고자료를 취급했다.

        • The Ending of The Red Badge of Courage

          Oh,,Jin-Sook 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1982 영어영문학연구 Vol.6 No.-

          When we regard The Red Badge of Courage as a so-called Bildungsro-man or an initiation story, the question whether the character concerned is really developed or matured or initiated arises naturally Therefore the ending of such novels is more important than for any other kind of novel Donald Pizer also refers to this point in his bibliographical essay on Crane in Fifteen American Authors, he indicates that criticism of The Red Badge of Courage has been so varied in focus and method that it is difficult to shape a discussion of its major tendencies, and adds that one problem in particular, however, which has occupied almost all critics is that of Crane's relationship to Henry Fleming at the close of the novel1). Does Crane wish us to accept Henry's estimation of himself as a "man", or is his characterization of Henry ambivalent, or is Crane once again ironically depicting Henry's capacity for self-deluslon? To discuss the assertions concerning the ending from those various perspectives, examining Crane's technique of irony is the purpose of this paper.

        • Magi, Simeon. Pericles의 問題 : Eliot의 Ariel Poems 一考

          李商燮 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1962 영어영문학연구 Vol.3 No.-

          Eliot의 Collected Poems 1909~1935에는 Ariel Poems라는 소제목하에 'Journey of the Magi, 'A song for Simeon,' 'Animula,' 'Marina'등 네 편의 시가 수록되어 있다 제작년대는 1930년경, 그러니까 Eliot이 영국교회에 귀의하던 당시이다 따라서 종교적 색채가 짙은 작품들이다 'Ariel'이란 시제부터가 '제단'이라는 뜻을 가지고 있다. 그러나 이 시들에다 종교시라는 제한적인상을 주는 이름은 붙이는 것은 좀 위험하다 종교시는 교훈시와 더불어 재미없는 설교를 담고 있을 뿐인 pseudo-poetry로서 백안시 당할 염려가 있을 뿐더러, 이 작품들은 엄격히 말해서 종교시도 아니다. 이 작품들은 성실하지만 유약한 인간이 겪는, 거의 주체할 수 없을 정도로 강열한 정신적 체험을 말하고 있다. 그것은 지극히 인간적인 체험으로서 오히려 선종교적 체험이라고 할 수 있다. Eliot의 시인적명성이 의존되어 있는 'Prufrock'에서 'HoIlolw Men'에 이르는 작품들은 모두 현대인의 조잡, 사말, 무가치함을 주제로 하며 현대의 depression에다 날카로운 표현을 주었다. 그러나 주제가 그러니 만치, 가슴이 "후련"하든가 "소박하게 아름다운" 느낌을 주지는 못한다 그에게서 그런 시원한 시, (Eliot 특유의 "시원함"말이다) 또는 아름다운 시를 발견하려면 'Ash Wednesday'나 'Ariel Poems'로 와야 한다. 그 뒤의 Four Quarters의 단계로 넘어오면 또 다른 새로운 종류의 depression이 생긴다. 초기의 depression의 시만 읽으면 Eliot의 '크기'를 무척 틀리게 이해하기 쉽다. 그러한 의미에서도 'Ariel Poems'는 잘 읽어둘 필요가 있다. 더욱이 초기작품들은 어딘가 모르게 'Ash Wednesday'와 'Ariel Poems'의 정신적 자세를 지향하고 있다고 생각된다. 예컨데 Think at last We have not reached conclusion, when I stiffen in a rented house 라 말하는 'Gerontion'의 늙은이는 지금의 상태가 아닌 어떤 참다란 결말을 희구하고 있는 것이다. 이와같은 어떤 가치있는 정신적변화에의 희구는 그의 초기시 전체에 암시되어 있음을 본다. Eliot은 depression에서 시작해서 depression으로 끝나는 허무주의자는 절대로 아니다.

        • On Hawthorne's "Neutral Territory"

          Kim,,Tae-Sung 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1977 영어영문학연구 Vol.4 No.-

          Through his revealing prefaces to his works, Hawthorne sought to help his readers better understand what he presented in his works, as did Henry James, about thirty years his junior A highly conspicuous artist, James formulated a "Poetics" of the novel Hawthorne was also very conscious of what he was writing about and how, which is to be noticed in his prefaces. In his famous essay, "The Custom House," which serves as the preface to The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne refers to the locus of work as "a neutral territory somewhere between the real world and fairy land, where the Actual and the Imaginary may meet "1) This remark may apply to his works in general He could not accept the "real" world simply as it was His mind's eye was looking for something more than that something more enduring, more meaningful, more real. This perspective of his suggests the idea of the preeminece of spirit over mater. The idea was the central factor in the intellectual atmosphere of his time For Emerson, "Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact" Puritans, if Hawthorne did not find himself in full agreement with them, saw the hand of God in all manifestations of life.

        • JOE CHRISTMAS : A MODERN TRAGIC HERO

          UM,,MEE,SOOK 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1978 영어영문학연구 Vol.5 No.-

          I will examine closely the tragic nature of Joe Christmas. Aristole gave a definition of tragedy as follows; Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative: through pity and fear effecting the proper catharsis, or purgation of these emotions. 1) And he described the concepts of pity and terror as follows; Pity is the feeling which arrests the mind in the presence of whatsoever is grave and constant in human sufferings. Terror is the feeling which arrests the mind in the presence of whatsoever is grave and constant in human sufferings and unites it with the secret cause.

        • The Theme of Self-Realization in Measure for Measure

          Chand,,Kee-won 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1982 영어영문학연구 Vol.6 No.-

          Ⅰ. Measure for Measure is a play which has given rise to an extraordinary diversity of critical opinions and interpretations It can be read as being "dark, serious and ironical,"1) or it can be read as showing a restoration of order, ending on a note of mercy, reconciliation and love Coleridge comments on the play "The play is to me the most painful part of his genuine works The comic and tragic parts equally border on the hateful-the one being disgusting the other being hateful."2) But contemporary critics admit this play as a genuine work of Shakespeare Furthermore, many critics argue that in Measure for Measure Shakespeare has dealt with sin and its forgiveness in a spirit of exalted Chnstianity.3) Though the play raises many problems as a `problem play,' I would like to examine this play in terms of the theme of mercy and forgiveness When we consider the play along this line of thought, we find that some characters of the play attain self-realization in the course of the action Ⅱ. The whole action of the play stems from the Duke's decision to experiment with the properties of government. He subjects Angelo, Isabella, and the entire city of Vienna to a test, the purpose of which is to determine the best means of regulating man's sinful nature6) As many critics have pointed out, the role of the Duke is very ambiguous sometimes as Providence, sometimes as a type of the good ruler, in Act III he appears as one in disguise, and acts as instigator and director of the action. In this essay, I will consider the Duke as a judge of all test which reveals man's concealed nature and helps the characters to attain selfknowledge. Ⅲ. As I have argued so far, each case of self-realization is attained through inner acceptance of God's mercy and social involvement and through realization of the-commom bond of humanity. In the final scene of public trial, the Duke "like power divine"(V.i 367) sits upon the scat of judgement, and prepares to deal with the corruption which he has seen "boil and bubble" (V.i. 316) in Vienna. When Angelo's flaw is made public, Angelo is brought to his knees in repentance, and says "Immediate sentence, then, and sequence death/ Is all the grace I beg" (V.i 371-372) Seeing his trespasses in the light of day, Angelo cannot bring himself to asking for mercy or grace. He feels that he must die for his sin.

        • The Revenger's Tragedy : A Study in Irony

          Yoon,,Kye,Won 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1983 영어영문학연구 Vol.7 No.-

          The world The Revenger's Tragedy reveals is filled with death, horror, and various evils The characters are for the most part embodiments of passions and they seek after various revenge for their own reasons Their blind passion and lack of self-knowledge that lead them to destruction show us the tragic side of human life And the examples of Castiza and Gratiana reinforce this tragic perspective, because "goodness" is so difficult to attain We are somewhat convinced with the lightness of the mood in Vindice's words in the final scene We have enough, I'faith, we're well our mother turn'd, our sister true, We die after a nest of dukes-adieu (V iii 122-4) However, we cannot feel deep sympathy with Vindice's blind passion and lack of self-knowledge In conclusion, I will cite Fredson Bower's view of this play "Emphasis on scene and strong situation-the testing of Gratiana, the murder of the duke, the ghastly even though theatrically arranged irony, the unfathomed lust and brutality of the characters-these make the play

        • KCI등재

          Speaking Mouth, Writing Hand: The English-Language Autobiographies of North Korean Defectors and the Concept of Author Vocal-Writing

          조은아 연세대학교 영어영문학과 BK21 Plus 사업단 2020 Situations: Cultural Studies in the Asian Context Vol.13 No.2

          Since the turn of the new millennium, the genre of North Korean defector autobiographies has received widespread attention in the English-speaking world. Remarkably, these English-language publications typically do not first go through a process of translation from their subjects' first language to their target language. This paper consists of two parts. The first takes up the question of whether it is possible to define a work about the experiences of North Korean defectors as an autobiography if the author is not the defector himself or herself. In examining this question, the paper juxtaposes these North Korean defector autobiographies against related genres such as autobiography, ghostwritten autobiography, authorized biography, and unauthorized biography, as well as Gulag memoirs and memoirs of Communist disillusionment. The second part of this paper explores the publication process of these North Korean defector English- language autobiographies involving cooperation between various parties, including defector authors, translators, transcribers, and English- speaking authors. Focusing on the distance between the English-writing authors and the defector authors whose first language is not English, this paper sets forth the meaning of what can be called North Korean defector vocal-writing.

        • Ivy Day in the Committee Room

          봉준수 연세대학교 영어영문학과 1983 영어영문학연구 Vol.7 No.-

          "Ivy Day"에서 Joyce가 나타내려고 했던 Dublin의 정치적 마비상태는 강력한 지도력을 가지고 있었던 Parnell의 부재(不在)를 의미하고 있다. 즉, Parnell이 정치를 이끌었던 옛 시절과, 구심점을 찾지 못하고 혼란에 바진 Parnell의 사후(死後)와의 대조가 암암리에 나타나고 있는 것이다. 이와 같은 과거와 현재의 대조는 구체적으로 늙은 세대와 젊은 세대의 대조로 나타난다. 이 경우 젊은 세대는 별 희망을 걸어 볼 수 없는 상태이며, 또한 지나간 세대에 비하여 못한 것으로 나타나고 있다. 그 첫 번째 예는 다음과 같이 Old Jack이 멋대로 술을 마시고 돌아다니는 자기 아들을 탄하는 대목에서 발견된다 - Ah, yes, he said, continuing, it's hard to know what way to bring up children. Now who'd think he'd turn out like that! I sent him to the Christian Brothers and I done [sic] what I could for him, and there he goes boosing about I tried to make him someway decent. (p. 131) 게다가 Old Jack은 바로 이러한 세대간의 대조가 나타내고 있는 한가지 사실을 정확히 언급한다. 곧 세대간의 위계질서의 붕괴이다. "What's the world coming to when sons speaks [sic] that way to their father?" (p 131) 이렇게 빗나간 아들을 가진 Old Jack은 그가 Committee Room에서 함께 하는 다른 젊은이들에게서도 정당한 대우를 받고 있지 못하다. 이는 Mr. Henchy가 Committee Room으로 들어왔을 때 충분히 엿볼 수 있다 - Sit down here, Mr. Henchy, said the old man, offering him his chair. - O, don't stir, Jack, don't stir, said Mr. Henchy He nodded curtly to Mr. Hynes and sat down on the chair which the old man vacated (p 134, 이탤릭體는 글쓴이의 것) 이처럼 세대간의 위계질서는 무너져 있다. 또한 Joe Hynes와 이미 고인이 된 그의 아버지 Larry Hynes와의 대비도 과거에 못미치는 현재라는 의미를 포함한다. Joe Hynes가 잠시 Committee Room 에서 나가자, Mr. Henchy는 그와 그의 아버지를 비교하면서 이렇게 이야기 한다. - His father was a decent respectable man, Mr. Henchy admitted Poor old Larry Hynes! Many a good turn he did in his day! But I'm greatly afraid our friend is not nineteen carat. (p 136) 이처럼 새로운 세대는 지나간 세대에 비교하여 바람직하지 못한 모습으로 그려지고 있다. 이는 Queen Victoria와 Edward 7세의 관계를 살펴보아도 찾아 볼 수 있다. 지나치게 대담한 표현이어서 출판시 문제가 되기도 했던 그 부분은 다음과 같다. Here's this chap (Edward 7세) come (sic) to the throne after his old mother [Queen Victoria] keeping him out of it till the man was grey He's a jolly fine fellow. He's just an ordinary knockabout like you and me He's fond of his glass of grog and he's a bit of rake, perhaps, and he's a good sportsman (p 144) 이렇게 가벼운 필치로 그러지는 Edward 7세는 과거 전성기의 영국을 건설한 Queen Victoria와는 사실 비교가 되지 아니한다.

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