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      • Beethoven "32변주곡(WoO 80)"의 에튜드(Etude)적 성격에 관한 연구

        나광자 부산대학교 예술대학 2005 藝術論文集 Vol.19 No.-

        Ludwig v. Beethoven(1770∼1827) is regarded as one of the greatest composers, especially, in the variation form as well as in the sonata form. Due to the quality and quantity in the large scale, however, only a few pieces of his variations, Including 32 Variationts(n C minor, WoO. 80), are known. 32 Variations, which is frequently performed at piano recitals, is acknowledged as one of the most famous masterpieces m his middle period's works. In that piece, he revealed all various possibilities of the theme in terms of the musical creative technique, extensive fantasy, experimental character and so on. The structure is clear and concise, and it is composed to bring out students musical expressions and basic techniques. It provides also a proper teaching material to help students understand piano music. Therefore, it is recognized as a textbook for studying piano. Beethoven composed 32 Variations from 1806 to early 1807, the second period of his works. The theme is based on the chromatic descending basses and it is composed in the chaconne form which was prevailed in Baroque period. He showed remarkable creativity by making up 32 variations with the theme of only eight bars; among his variations, It is hard to find out a piece with such a short theme. Generally. variations with short themes are consists of groups in which consecutive sections share similar musical characteristics. In fact, two or three variations can be formed into one. They maintain characters of theme constantly and create musical inspiration at the same time. therefore, they express more dramatic and musical energy. Beethoven overcame the conservative definition of variation which was popular at that time. With this 32 Variations, he tried to renovate the style of variation in terms of academic and artistic views. For this reason, it is considered as one of the necessary repertoire for the pianist; it provides various musical expression and techniques in respect of not only performing but also learning effect. To know composer's musical world and performing technique, it is most effective way to study his variation. Particularly Mozart and Beethoven's variations deserve to be required etudes in some senses. Beethoven didn't compose the etude for the artistic purpose as Chopin(1810∼1849) and Liszt(1811∼1886) did in their Romantic pieces; In fact, Liszt composed No. 6 of Paganini Etude in variation form. He is regarded as the one who changes the concept of the variation to acquire piano techniques with musical sense. In short, the following single sentence summarizes the conclusion: Beethoven's 32 Variations is the etude in the variation form of Classicism, which allows a pianist to express his basic techniques and maximum performing abilities within 10 minutes.

      • J.S.Bach(1685~1750)의 '平均律曲集'의 樣式的 考察

        김인일 부산대 예술대학 2001 藝術論文集 Vol.15 No.-

        It is a hard planning for simple classification about J.S.Bach's Well-tempered Clavier because have a universal character of music in style that great musical works. But we must to do operation for analytic research and branch from Well-tempered Clavier as a larger keyboard work. So it's supplies as much helpful information about performance to an audience or study this music. Musical preferences also favor a clean, mathematical and metronomic realization - a safe but somewhat noncommittal solution to the communication of Bach' artistry. On a different level, then, is the enjoyment of incorporation the often neglected elements of rhetoric, musical construction of variety styles, the structures of the strong and weak within a given pulse and meter, and the fingering techniques of the time-shifting and sequential fingering rather than consecutive scale fingerings-. We can see about musical aspect and style for tuning method, a style or mode of a nationality and the trend of the times, and through the instrumentality of musical performance of J.S.Bach life days. These components, which are strongly interrelated and directly influence choices of articulation and flexibility of rhythm, often answer automatically questions of stuly, especially when they are understood as basic elements of the musical language. There a many technical approach for compositional setting of Prelude and Fugue Works. For example J.S.Bach had application larger episodes for Fugue, and used to motive of episodes as the same rank from thematic materials. He used to many dance style music in his works of Well-tempered Clavier, it is a different style playing Well-tempered Clavier from Tempo, Phrasing, Articulations and so on.

      • 영산회상의 해금 시김새에 관한 고찰

        宋權準 부산대학교 예술대학 1989 藝術論文集 Vol.5 No.-

        Through all classical music (Chongak) for Haegum(two stringed fiddle) 17 kinds of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used, 12 sorts of these were used in Yongsanhoesang. All ornaments can be classified three groups according to style. The first group is fore-ornament, the second group is back-ornament, and the third group is peculiar one. Each of ornament appears individually in every 9 tune of Yongsanhoesang(sangyongsan, chungyongsan, seryongsan, karakdori, sanghyonhwanip, hahyonhwanip, yombulhwanip, taryong, kunak) In slow tune various ornaments appear affluently, in quick tune they appear in contrast with slow one. Each of ornament has a special function. For example, ornament ㅅ is used for continuance of same tone and ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase. The function of ornament 9 same with string instrument and ornament □□ is similar to other wind instrument. The remarkable fingering of all ornament is same as follow. In case of fore-ornament, the fingering of index finger-ring finger-middle finger and index finger-ring finger-index finger were applied. In case of back-ornament, the fingering of middle finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger and index finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger were applied.

      • 한국음악 선율의 多音性(Mehrstimmigkeit)연구 : 영산회상에 기하여

        송권준 부산대학교 예술대학 2003 藝術論文集 Vol.17 No.-

        Recently the issue, of special feature of melody line in Korean traditional music, was proposed. As a new idea "mehrstimmigkeit" was proposed instead of "heterophony" of melody line in Korean traditional music. As a result on study of mehrstimmigkeit of Yeongsanhoesang 靈山會相, the representative instrumental music, there are three types of mehrstimmigkeit. The three types are two-tones, three-tones, four-tones type per one beat in five instrumental melody, Daegun 大琴·Piri??·Haegum奚琴·Gayaeum伽倻琴·Geomungo玄琴. The melodies of mehrstimmigkeit form 41% of all in Yeongsanhoesang. And two-tones type of mehrstimmigkeit form 31%. three-tones type 9.4%, four-tones type 0.6% of all. The most colorful tune among 9 tunes Yeongsanhoesan is Sanghyeondoduri. On the contrary the most monotonous tune is Garakdeori. The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in two-tones type is "wind melody:string melody", for instance "Daegum·Piri·Haegum:Gayagum·Geomungo" The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in three-tones type is "wind melody(Daegum·Piri·Haegum): string melody(Gayagum):string melody (Geomungo)". In four-tones type there are a few types but no peculiarity. The "mehrstimmigkeit", a special feature in Yeongsanhoesang melody line, explains Hwa-I-Bu-Dong和而不同(means harmony of dissimilary) in Korean traditional music.

      • 朴相根 伽倻琴 散調에 關한 硏究

        金南順 부산대학교 예술대학 1986 藝術論文集 Vol.3 No.-

        Sanjo, belonging to Minsogak genre, is a solo of instrument of korean traditional music and is a type of music which require a high degree of technique. Studies on Gayagum Sanjo reported by far mainly deal with external factors of sanjo. And, although PARK-SANG-KEUN Gayagum Sanjo is performed most widely and frequently among a variety of Gayagum Sanjo, studies on it have hardly been made. In case that performance without detailed studies goes on, an essential part of theory is subjected to change increasingly. This study, based on an investigation of external factors and structure, is devoted to find internal factors, i.e., abstractional spirit of music by analyzing contents of melody. It then follows that an attempt to catch structural factors of PARK-SANG-KEUN Sanjo by using internal factors and to suggest fundamental basis for analyzing contents of it is made. Results of this study are summarized as follows. 1. All movements of Sanjo contains Gaemaenjo, and modes of Woojo, Pyungjo, Kyungjo, Gangsanjo added into each movement give a full of variety to the emotional expression of Sanjo. 2. Musical mood of each mode on PARK-SANG-KEUN Sanjo is defferent from each other. The reasons are as follows : a. Function of 12 strings has differences according to each mode. b. Vibrato pattern of each tone in mode is different from each other. c. Even in the same mode, pattern of Vibrato is varied according to the speed of performance. 3. PARK-SANG-KEUN Sanjo comprises Jangdan(長短) of Jinyangjo, Chungmori, Chungchungmori, Gudgeuri, Jajinmori, Hwimori. Rhythm pattern of Drum used on Sanjo has an identical root of thythm from Jinyangjo to a final movement of Hwimori. The details are as follows : A unit of each rhythm pattern is 12 beats which is composed of 4 of 3 beets, and it has an accent on first and ninth beat. And beats of drum also have not to be omitted on first and ninth time.

      • Franz Liszt 성장기의 피아노 학습

        김인일 부산대 예술대학 1999 藝術論文集 Vol.14 No.-

        We need a sample case for genius piano students as an early stage piano educations. Franz Liszt was most famous pianis with a legend, composer, and conductor as throughout music history. His piano studing was very distinctions method and surrounding with musical events from planning object of his father Adam Liszt. It is very similar from Mozart's piano studing in last century but has no likeness with piano praticing method or dealing of Etudes. Franz Liszt has a clear motivations for a virtuoso level pianists, and has much indirection musical events for progress genius piano student. And he has most famous piano teachers like Carl Czerny(1791-1857) and Salieri(1750-1825) as an excellanat teacher of composer. He has much occasion for improvisetions by Czerny, it is very useful method for piano praticing with musical imaginations. So we have new method example for good piano praticing for talented students, that is must to do well controled motivations and clear objections from teachers or musical surroung material. And have to piano studing with actual events like public piano concert or actual concert tarvel like Mozart and Franz Liszt. We have new conception as pianist for next millennium, that is must to do multiple capacity and skillful keyboardist as Baroque musician and Franz Liszt. For well control piano works from base on much musical materials with source of structure, harmonic frame, composers idiom and other cultural events. Genius piano student is very important in our nation and at this decade because it is a paradaim as new pianist type of new era, and for new cultural industry.

      • 靈的洪水 노아의 때를 表現한 聖畵의 作品世界 : 靈的 禁食 Spiritual Fast

        金永吉 부산대학교 예술대학 1992 藝術論文集 Vol.8 No.-

        And jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to show him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said unto them, "See ye not all these things? Verily I say unto you, there shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down." And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, "Tell us, when shall these things be? And what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?" And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you. For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled; for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be faminines, and pestilences, nd earthquakes, in divers places. All these are the begining of sorrows. Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many. And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come. When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whose readeth, let him understand:) Then let them which be in Judæa flee into the mountains: Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house: Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his colthes. And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day: For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened. Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it no. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. Wherefore in they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth; behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not. For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered to gether. Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angles with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors, Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angles of heaven, but my Father only. But as the days of No'-e were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marring and giving in marriage, until the day that No'-e entered into the ark. And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming fo the Son fo man be. Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. But know this, that if the good-man of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up. Therefore be ye also reday: for in such and hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh. Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season? Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. But and if that evil sevant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming. And shall begin to smite his fellowservcants, and to eat and drink with the drunken ; The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

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