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There are many types of lateral structural resisting systems (framed system, braced system, shear wall system, Tube system, core system, etc), which are basically based on structural subsystem. There are three primary types of 2D or 3D vertical subsystems in buildings (1) Wall subsystems; (2) Vertical Shafts; and (3) Rigid Beam-Column frame. Wall are very rigid subsystem in their plane and may be made up of solid concrete panel, braced timber, steel trusses, and so on. Shafts are stiff 3-D tube structures and are usually made up of four solid or trussed walls for ventilation and services. they can carry vertical loads and serve as excellent horizontal-force resisting elements. they also have some problems, which are space planning inflexibility, disagree between horizontal stiffness center and inertia center, construction problems and soon. Rigid-frame subsystems are very good for space planning flexibility, but vertical resisting stiffness is very small. This study is a structural model analysis for rigid frame with P.C panel to increase lateral stiffness for rigid-frame subsystem. we modeled exterior spandrel beam bolted with P.C panel which is acting as shear wall action. The analysis results showed vertical stiffness increasement. if we apply this method to rigid-frame at inter and exterior wall, we can esealy large increament of the lateral stiffness of the rigid-frame.
Recently thermal properties of rocks have been highly concerned in geothermal energy development and in many field of engineering. An experimental apparatus based on the transient hot wire comparison method was built for measuring the thermal conductivity of both plate and curved surface. A new method was developed for deforming the time range necessary for calculation of the thermal conductivity in order to measure it accurately. The range is determined by using the second derivative of hot wire temperature with respect to logarithm of time. The thermal conductivity of samples was measured in an airconditioned room. The thermal conductivity of metal materials is able to be measured both in the plate and model in the curved surface model within ±17% accuracy and in case of none-metal material is able to measured with in ±7.5% accuracy. Therefore, we can be easily obtained a new measuring method of thermal conductivity of curved curved surface in coring material.
A study was made on geological correlations of the NOAA/AVHRR data and their geothermal applicability for the Kyungsang area. Following the paper on the land surface temperature and the thermal inertia for the Kyungsang area by Park et at(1993), the emissitivity and TISI(Temperature Independent Spectral Index) have been studied for the same data. Even though it is difficult to find out close relationships to the regional geology, it was confirmed that the emissivity and TISI images are of great use even with noise effects due to weather condition or topography which might not be possible to remove easily.
Korea and Japan introduced to apply district planning for the first time at the same time in 1980. The district planning of Japan has been going through the process of continued complements. However, that of Korea has been changed into Urban Design in 1980, into Detailed District Planning in 1991 and into District Unit Planning in 2000. The comparative study on district planning of Korea and Japan shows that there is more strengthened device in order to work a reflex of the will of residents in Japan, and that control elements and incentive in planning in Korea are more concrete and comprehensive than those of Japan. After this, the establishment of detailed executive program in planning and the continued monitoring of operation process are required.
As the result of this study, first, this study suggested the new residential pattern for the elder to make their matured social experience work and to stabilize their aged life, preparing the aging society. Second, this study suggested the development of independent silver town. This has the basic frame to attempt to support them economically by securing the auxiliary facilities within the complex and returning to the profitable business. Establishing the union between the residents in the complex can work as the means of a self-governing activity and the communication between neighborhoods. And, as the policy suggestion derived from this study, first, the necessity of developing the aged facilities located in the suburban is presented. The development within the greenbelt with this condition can be an example. Second, new establishing policy for the elder is needed. Because the expenditure of Korean government is confined to the free old-age facilities, in the case of constructing silver town, the difficult in the cost of construction will accrue. So, leading companies' turning to public-welfare service, and complementing and deciding the law through the political supports of government are needed seriously.
Urban management and C.B.D continuance's problem as a result of the extension of the city area and the existing commercial area's shrink due to city spatial structure lead to a lot of problems including doughnut phenomenon. The purpose of the this study is to figure out ways toward the strategies of commercial area prosperity that acts up positively to the multiple C.B.D by the change of urban spatial structure. The strategies of the commercial area prosperity in existing C.B.D were presented by dividing the recover of city function and the self-efforts for shopping facilities. To recover city function, first is to secure a settled population in hinterland. Second is to extend and complete of C.B.D function. Third is to improve that attractive element of C.B.D
This study was performed to prepare the coagulant using waste oyster shell. Waste oyster shell contains high CaO(55.4% by weight). Waste oyster shell was calcined to improve the purity of CaO at the calcination condition of 900℃ for 2 hours, and then crushed 0.074㎜(200 mesh) size by ball mill. Calcium hydroxide(Ca(OH)₂) was prepared with calcined waste oyster shell powder by hydration reaction. According to comparison experiment of calcined waste oyster shell powder, manufactured calcium hydroxide(Ca(OH)₂) and used hydroxide(Ca(OH)₂).
This study is to propose the method to classify to comprend landscape using landnames, spatial terms, because the existing method of landscape classification is not able to comprend the vernacular landscape, First of all, this study can be showed the points of the existing method of landscape classification and the necessities to comprend landscape using landnames, spatial terms. And it orderly showed the method to classify and to comprend landscape using landnames, spatial terms. The results are as follows: 1. Collection of named landscape 2. confirmation of real landform of the named landscape 3. Identification of landform of the named landscape 4. Subscription of landform of the named landscape In addition to this process of the method to classify of landscape, it pointed out the limitations.
The citizen participation becomes very important process in urban planning. However, there is a limitation on the participatory process in urban improvement project in Korea. The purpose of this paper is to suggest various methods of citizen participation. In detail, this paper investigates current participatory process, and its limitation according to practical and regulatory aspects. In addition, it suggest various participatory methods by reviewing other country's citizen participation process. There are considerable variations in the way in which the participatory processes have come into urban improvement projects: 1) public hearing in the middle of planning process, 2) revised public check or inspection, 3) someone' charge for community needs, 4) workshop, 5) citizen's agreement, 6) citizen's agreement 7) citizen's charter and so on.
The concern for a cleaner environment together with the need to conserve and reuse our resources has created a challenge for which sanitary engineers, working with environmentalist, will be called upon to find new solutions over the next few years. The result of the study of development of the River's waterfront run as follows. 1. The introduction of the water facilities (which is) utilized in the neighborhood by adjacent citizens and the development of the water site (which is) equipped with facilities for environment must be actually progressed. 2. The concerned authority's favorable complation of the budget must be made up to construct the facilities as the district. 3. Close investigation on the coast and arbores and so on, must be progressed to develop the river in a manner (which is) close to nature.