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The thrombosis is the category of blood stasis(瘀血). Blood stasis is a pathologicial state resulting from the reverse or impeded flow of blood in the body or the stagnation of blood flow in local parts as well as abnormal blood outside of the vessles which remains in the body and fails to disperse. Hwao-tang has been repported to have a hypolipidemic effect in patients with hypercholesterolemia, and in highcholesterol-induced experimental models. The present paper reports the effects of HOT on atherosclerosis using a spontaneous experimental model, Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits. We have also investigated the pharmacological effect of extracts obtained from HOT on collagen-and ADP-induced blood platelet aggregation, thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen and fibrinolysis in in vitro experiments. In conclusion, the protection of extracts of Korean herbs' HOT on the ischemic infarction induced artificially might be involved to their inhibition of thrombotic action.
The textual comments on Shanghanlun and Jinguiyaolue were found in Hyangyakjipsung-bang, the representative medical book in the early period of Choson Dynasty. In all 57 chapters of the book, 17 chapters are related to those comments, and only one comment is quoted from all chapters except the chapter of "Shanghaniun" and "Jinguiyaolue". As classified the comments by citation order, Jinguifang had 14 comments, Zhangzhongjing had 7 comments, Zhangzhongjing had 4 omments, and Jinguiyuhan had 1 comment. Comparing to the present version, 16 comments were qouted from Jinguiyaolue and 7 comments were quoted from hanghanlun and 1 comment was quoted from Jinguiyuhanjing, but the source of 2 comments were not identified. Especially the 1 comment from Jinguiyuhanjing not only shows the importing date of the book into Korea, but also proofs the importance of the book which can refute the supposed source of the book as a reprint by Chenshijie in China. This results showed that Zhangzhongjing's books, which has imported before the early period of Chosun Dynasty, had an influence on Korean Medicine. As a result, further research on the medical books in the early period of Chosun Dynasty excepting Hyangyakjipsung-bang will be necessary.
This research was done to make the effective prescription and cope with various senile dementia. So Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with ibotenate to make a damage on learning and memory functions. At first acquisition test and retention rest were done in the Morris water maze. And to evaluate the effects of the sample drug(TBM) on choline acetyltranferase and acetylcholine esterase, immunoreactive measurement and enzymatic activity measuring were carried out. The ibotenic acid were injected to hippocampus CA1 and CA3 area. The results were as following. TBM improved the learning ability in the acquisition test and memory function in the retention test significantly. And TBM increased the level of ChAT which is synthesizing acetylcholine in CA3 area, and at the same time it increased the level of AChE which is resolving acetylcholine. These results show that TBM improved the cholinergic catabolism and anabolism, and the increment of metabolic activity of cholinergic system. In other words, it contributes to the recovery of damaged learning and memory function by ibotenic acid. So it can be concluded that TBM will be helpful to cholinergic brain damage induced by primary or senile reduction of acetylcholine secretive activity
Jaeumgenby-tang(JGT) have been used in oriental medicine for many centuries as a therapeutic agent of vertigo caused by deficiency of qi(氣) and blood(血). Effect of Aurantii Fructus(AF) take off the phlegm by promoting the circulation of qi, Gastrodae Rhizoma(GR) has effects treating for headache, vertigo by calming the liver and suppressing hyperactivity of the liver-yang(陽). And, I designed to investigate whether injection of JGT adding AF · GR extract(JGTAG) affects cytotoxicity in vitro, cerebral hemodynamics [regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF), pial arterial diameter(PAD), mean arterial blood pressure(MABP)] in normal and cerebral ischemia rats by MCA occlusion method. The changes of rCBF and MABP were determinated by laser-doppler flowmetry(LDF), and the change of PAD was determinated by video microscope and width analyzer. The results were as follows in normal rats ; JGTAG was not cytotoxicity in brain cells. And JGTAG was significantly increased rCBF, PAD and MABP. This results suggest that JGTAG increased significantly rCBF by dilating PAD. And the results were as follows in cerebral ischemic rats ; The changes of rCBF and PAD were increased stably by treatment with JGTAG(10mg/kg, i.v.) during the period of cerebral reperfusion, and pretreatment with propranolol and indomethacin were increased JGTAG induced increase of rCBF and PAD during the period of cerebral reperfusion. We suggest that JGTAG has an anti-ischemic effect through the improvement of cerebral hemodynamics.
To the protective effect of Radix Curcumae Arornaticae (RCA) on the damage of cardiac endothelial cells by xanthine oxidase (XO)/hypoxanthine (HX)-induced oxygen free radical, Neutral Red (NR), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and DNA synthesis assay were used in the presence of RCA extract. The results of these experiments were obtained as follows ; Cardiac endothelial cells treated with XO/HX showed the showed the cytotoxicity such as decreases in viability and DNA synthesis, a increase in lipid peroxidation. Cardiac endothelial cells pretreated wth RCA extract protected the increase of lipid peroxidaton by XO/HX. Cardiac endothelial cells pretreated with RCA extract inhibited the decrease of DNA synthesis by XO/HX. These results show that XO/HX elicits toxic effects in cultured cardiac endothelial cells derived from neonatal rat, and suggest that RCA extract is very effective in the prevention of XO/HX-induced toxicity.
Cancer, which is expressed in various forms, is one of the leading causes of human death. Soamsan (SAS) is composed of ten medicinal herb, the prescription was made according to the principles of Oriental traditional medicine based on the concept of synergic effects and interaction of among the components. SAS has been used for the cancer therapy, but the mechanism of it's effect is not well known. In the present study, the cytotoxic effect of the SAS water extract on cancer cell lines was investigated by the method of MTT in A549 cell lines and the anti-angiogenic effect was shown in the assay of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the cornea of rat administerd orally with SAS water extraction. The viability of A549 cell lines was not affected by the whole extract of SAS but the n-Hexan fraction of SAS water extract showed strong cytotoxicity which was not seemed to be done by the apoptotic mechanism. SAS water extract showed inhibition effects of angiogenesis induced in the cornea of rat and CAM assay. As the above results, it is suggested that SAS can be a candidate for new prescription for cancer therapy.
인체 전립선 암세포주인 DU145 및 PC-3 세포의 성장에 미치는 참나무 목초액의 영향을 조사하였다. 참나무 목초액이 함유된 배지에서 자란 암세포들은 처리시간 및 농도 의존적으로 성장이 억제되었으며, membrane shrinking 및 rounding up 현상을 관찰할 수 있었다. 그리고 apoptosis가 유발된 세포에서 특징적으로 관찰되는 chromatin condensation 현상을 유발하였고 DNA flow cytometry 분석결과 apoptotic sub-G1기에 해당하는 세포들의 빈도가 처리 농도 의존적으로 증가하였다. PARP 및 β-catenin 단백질을 조사한 결과 DU145 세포에서는 두 단백질 모두에서 apoptosis 유발 특이적인 분해 현상을 볼 수 있었고 PC-3 세포에서는 β-catenin 단백질은 변화가 없었으나 PARP 단백질에서 분해현상이 나타났다. Bcl-2/Bax family의 경우는 DU145 세포에서 Bax의 발현이 증가되었고 PC-3 세포에서는 Bax의 발현증가 및 Bcl-2의 발현감소가 관찰되었다. 이러한 결과는 참나무 목초액에 의한 인체 전립선 암세포의 성장억제가 apoptosis 뿐만 아니라 세포주기의 억제도 관여를 한다고 추정되어지며, 세포주기인자들에 관한 연구도 추진되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. We investigated the effects of Oak smoke flavoring (OSF, Holyessing) on the growth of DU145 and PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. OSF treatment resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition in both DU145 and PC3 cell lines. The anti-proliferative effect of OSF treatment was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death which was confirmed by morphological change such as membrane shrinking, rounding up and chromatin condensation in DU145 and PC-3 cells. DNA flow cytometry analysis confirmed that OSF treatment increased population of apoptotic sub-G1 phase. Furthermore, we observed an increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bax expression and a decrease of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 by OSF treatment in a dose-dependent manner. OSF also induced a proteolytic cleavage of specific target proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and β-catenin proteins. The present results indicated that OSF-induced inhibition of human prostate carcinoma cell proliferation is associated with the induction of apoptosis.
In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of the Lycii Fructus water extracts (LFE) against CCI_4-induced hepatotoxicity and the mechanism underlying these protective effects in the rats. The pretreatment of LFE has shown to possess a significant protective effect by lowering the serum alanine and aspartate aminoteansferase (AST and ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This hepatoprotective action was confirmed by histological observation. In addition, the pretreatment of LFE prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and the depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase activity in the liver of CCI_4-injected rats. The LFE also displayed hydroxide radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 83.6 μg/ml), as assayed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique. Moreover, the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) mRNA, as measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was significantly decreased in the liver of LFE-pretreated rats when compared with that in the liver of control group. Based on these results, it was suggested that the hepatoprotective effects of the LFE may be related to antioxidant effects and regulation of CYP2E1 gene expression.
This experimental study was designed to investigate the effects of Seunggijoui-tang on the weight of obese rats induced by high fat diet. A series of experiments have been conducted in order to measure the effects of above the body weight, serum and fat cell. The measurements have been performed on; (1) the increasing amount of body weight; (2) the quantity of total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, total lipid, phospholipid, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in serum; (3) the size of the epididymal fat cell and the fat drops area in hepatic lobule. In the SG Ⅰ (Group fed high fat diet and administered 42.5mg/100g extract of Seunggijoui-tang during 8 weeks), the weight decreased significantly throughout the whole research period. In the SG Ⅰ & SG Ⅱ (Group fed high fat diet and administered 85mg/100g extract of Seunggijoui-tang during 8 weeks), the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, total lipid, phospholipid, LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in comparison with control group. In the SG Ⅰ , the serum free fatty acid decreased significantly in comparison with control group. In the SG Ⅰ & SG Ⅱ, the serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in comparison with control group, but this result showed no efficacy. In the SG Ⅰ , the epididymal fat cell decreased significantly in comparison with control group. In the SG Ⅱ, the fat drops area in hepatic lobule of rats decreased significantly in comparison with control group. Based on the above result, it is assumed that the clinical application of Seunggijoui-tang can help the treatment of obesity.
This study was performed to investigate the anti-depression effect of herbal extracts (Rehmanniae Radix Preparat, Corni Fructus, Lycii Fructus, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Nelumbinis Semen) in the chronic mild stressed rat. After adaptation period for 2 weeks, each herbal extract was administered to the rats divided 5 groups. For comparison, St. John's wart was administered to another group in the same environment. The chronic mild stress was induced to rats by overnight illumination for 2 days before the forced swimming test. Struggling time, first latency and rest duration were calculated during the forced swimming test to evaluate the anti-depressant effect. The results were as follows: 1. In the result of evaluation of the struggling time, there was no significance in Pinelliae Rhizoma (-1.1%), Comi Fructus (-3.9%), Rehmanniae Radix Preparat (15.2%), Lycii Fructus (4.9%), St. John's wart (25.2%). There was a significant increase only in Nelumbinis Semen (43.9%) (P-0.0037). 2. In the result of evaluation of the first latency time, there was no significance in Lycii Fructus (-21.37%), Rehmanniae Radix Preparat (38.4%), Pinelliae Rhizoma (65.5%), Corni Fructus (29.2%), St. John's wart (75.8%). There was a significant increase only in Nelumbinis Semen (90.2%) (P=0.0116). 3. In the result of evaluation of the first rest duration, there was no change in St. John's wart, and Decrease was shown in Pinelliae Rhizoma (62.4%), Corni Fructus (31.6%) Rehmanniae Radix Preparat (63.1%), Lycii Fructus (12.4%), Nelumbinis Semen (59.0%), but there was no significance in all. 4. Nelumbinis Semen is considered to have a superior anti-depression effect than the other herbal extracts, and to have a superior anti-depression effect than St. John's wart being used commonly.