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工場새마을運動은 1970年代初부터 始作된 農村새마을運動으로부터 點火되어 1974년부터 推進되기 始作하였다. 이 工場새마을運動은 1973年末 石油波動과 資源波動으로 因해서 景氣가 急激히 下降하는 時點을 擇해 點火되었으며 全體企業人과 從業員들의 不掘의 意志와 努力으로 物資節約, 에너지節約, QC運動 等을 通해서 不況을 克服하고 企業體質을 强化하는 轉機를 만들고자 하였다. 즉 工場새마을運動은 韓國 固有의 企業倫理觀을 바탕으로 하여 企業主는 家長과 같은 位置에서 어버이精神을 具顯시켜 나가고 종업원은 한 家庭의 構成員이라는 立場에서 企業主를 爲하고 나아가서는 企業의 發展을 爲하여 스스로 해야 할 일을 찾아 實踐에 옮겨가는 過程에서 企業은 成長하고, 企業의 社會的 責任을 다하게 된다는 것이다. 따라서 工場새마을運動은 企業의 社會的 責任에 대한 새로운 認識, 勞使間의 紐帶强化, 豊饒로운 民主國家의 建設을 指向하고 있으며 새마을 敎育, 人間關係의 改善, 福祉制度와 施設의 擴充, 夜間敎育, 生産性增大를 爲한 各種 勞力 等이 項住되어 왔다. 本 硏究는 이러한 工場새마을運動의 實態를 正確하게 把握하고 보다 바람직한 發展方向을 模索하기 爲하여 各種 統計資料 및 硏究論文 等의 文獻을 통하여 經驗的인 硏究를 試圖하였다. 이와같은 硏究의 結果로 다음과 같이 要約할 수 있겠다. 첫째, 工場새마을運動은 政府(政檔)의 變化에 關係없이 되어야 할 것이다. 둘째, 이미 實施된 프로그램이 成功的이었기 때문에 새마을指導者 및 中堅幹部에 對한 訓練과 새마을 敎育을 實施할 施設과 프로그램이 擴充되어야 한다. 그리고 現在 새마을精神의 涵養에 重點을 맞추고 있는 敎育內容은 QC, 時間과 動作硏究 等과 같은 生産性向上의 方法을 强調하는 것으로 바뀌어야 한다. 셋째, 費用 對 利益의 硏究와 같은 施行錯誤의 浪費를 避하기 爲한 方法을 模索하기 爲해서 이 運動에 對한 보다 더 깊은 硏究가 必要하겠다. 넷째, 勤勞條件과 福祉態의 改善을 通해서 經營者는 企業利을 勤勞者에게 보다 더 많이 돌려야 한다는 것이다. 다섯째, 計劃의 立案과 實行에 實者를 보다 더 많이 參與시킴으로서 工場새마을運動에서 意思決定의 樣態를 위에서부터 아래로 修正하여야 할 것이다. 여섯째, 生産性增大의 2가지 要因中에 韓國에서는 勞動能率보다는 合理的인 經營面을 더욱 改善하여야 할 것이다. 일곱째, 勤勞意欲을 높이기 爲하여 被雇傭人들의 株式所有를 制度化시켜야 할 것이다. 여덟째, 各己 工場에서 된 多樣한 새마을事業은 嚴格한 評價가 加해져야 하며 그리하여 租稅惠擇, 政府補助金, 低利融資와 더불어 McGregor 가 提案한 것과 같은 補償制度가 公平하게 實施되어야 할 것이다. 아홉째, 都市새마을運動에 있어서 現實參與를 通하여 企業의 社會的 責任을 遂行하므로서 生産性을 보다 擴大시킬 社會的 與件을 마련하여야 할 것이다.
This study intends to explain the aspects and situation of social welfare in factory which is classified to ordinary factory, prized factory and non-prized factory, through the Factory Saemaul Undong by the method of questionaire. As in well known, the history of Saemaul Undong is not long, so there are many problems in its process. Furthermore the concept of factory Saemaul Undong is not defined clearly, and it is to be developed by diverse study within near future. Factory Saemaul Undong is an operation base of urban Saemaul Undong, and it must be developed to fit factory's character and skill. The genuine object of Saemaul Undong is a better-life movement which came from emplyer-employee's cooperative spirit, environment improvement, strengthening employee's social well-being, productivity elevating, reduction of cost price, and neighbor-helping movement. From the viewpoint of social welfare aspects, the conclusions of this study are as follows: First, there are supplementary relations between factory Saemaul Undong and social welfare, and the weight of social welfare in factory Saemaul Undong is 25%, but the real situations of that are generally not sufficient. So it is urgently needed to promote the level of poor sides. Second, there are two aspects of social welfare in Factory Saemaul Undong. The first one is establishmental aspect, which includes domitories, apartments and company houses, dining room, resting room, library, stall, bath room, washing room, medical treatment facilities, physical exercise and amusement facilities. The another is systematic aspect, which includes payment system, bonus system, saving system, vacation system, special night time class system, research aid funding system, factory bus system, medical insurance system, retirement allowance system, employees' stock-buying system. But some aspects of the above-mentioned are too formal, so it is necessary to make those aspects internalized and subtantialized with mutual understanding between employers and employees. Third, the level of prized factories is very high from the viewpoint of social welfare compared with general factories and non-prized factories. But the high level is caused by the conclusion that prized factories are generally large companies which have necessarily all those aspects. Ordinary and non-prized factories' levels are showing just similarly. Fourth, the insufficiency of social welfare situations in Factory Saemaul Undong is due to the poor law system, the lack of understanding and concern of the employers, their conomic burden, and the company's characteristic geographical circumstances. The way of solving those problems is to activate factory Saemaul Undong by means of supplementing the Labour Standard Law, strengthening employers' Saemaul education, making factory environment sound, and promoting interrelation between factories. Fifth, factory Saemauel Undong is a method and a process to promote social welfare in factory, therefore the expansion of social welfare devotes to activating Factory Saemauel Undong.
It is very important to appraise reasonablly outcomes of the Sae-maul Undong. To understand moot point in the movement belongs to endeavouring to prosper the movement. That is to say, in order to expect better results of the movement, it is natural that the moot point must be understood in present time. The view that the movement is in need for exact criticizing and is faced with starting point for change, is raising it's head very powerfully. Generally speaking, the moot point of the movement are as follows: The first, in pulse of the movement it was based upon more of a political aspect or policy than a community development or organization theory. The second, there are a tendency to generallize process and method of the movement excessively. The exfort to individualize in case by case is in want. The third, the economic power of the nation was extended by the undertaking for increase of the income, but there are a tendency to overestimate the fruit. The forth, environmental improvement undertakings are propeled very unreasonably and unscientifically. The fifth, stream of the movement is cut off many stage because of concreteness of the goal. In the future, the movement shall are prosperous more and more. But the power of propullsion are not based upon government or public agency but community itself. It is expected to promote a spirit of cooperation through propulsion of the Sae-maul Undertakings, and regional residents shall want to develop the community in themselves.
1. Purpose of study The purpose of this study can be summed up in the following three investigations: 1) To define conceptual connections between the modernization, the community development (CD), and the Saemaul Undong, by means of comparative analysis of concepts, theories, and goals of the three movements; 2) To evaluate achievements made so far by the Saemaul Undong, a Korean model of CD, and to show a desirable direction for its future, by examining processes of its evolution up to the present day from the viewpoint of modernization theory; 3) To present a most efficient model of Korean CD, and to suggest practical measures for carrying the model, into practice in terms of concrete and detailed case studies of the Saemaul Undong. 2. Motivation and method of study The undertaking of this study is motivated by our recognition of the fact that, contrary to men's earnest wish for creating a more humane and more comfortable life, the more enlarged and expanded modernization has got, the less humane and comfortable the life has grown. The CD is an effort for modernization, and the Saemaul Undong is a Korean type of CD. Both "community" and "maul" literally mean a society of Gemeinschaft; the two similarly represents a society of common sympathy and warm hospitality. However, neither the Community Development nor the Saemaul has promoted common pleasance and sympathetic feeling; conversely, both have rather increased the loss of sympathy and the absence of humanity. This study is designed to offer a way to restore the lost humanism in a modernized society. If a true modernization aims at a balanced realization of its two basic principles, humanism and rationalism, the practical policy for modernization of most countries tends to place far greater emphasis upon the latter principle, consciously or unconsciously neglecting the former. The result is the dominance of material and quantitative development of technology and economy, which necessarily leads to a limitless expansion and strengthening of urbanization and bureaucratization. In short, the consequent effects of the one-sided modernization, CD, and Saemaul Undong have been to almost completely get rid of the possibility of realizing the humanist principle of humanitarian democracy by replacing a Gemeinschaft with a Gessellschaft. As is now well-known, to pass through this serious crisis of dishumanization, governmental efforts have been made to develop or reconstruct a humane community in recent Europe, America, and Japan. In view of a profound impasse the Korean Samaul Undong is now facing, this study attempts to propose some countermeasures by which to cope with the critical situation. 3. Contents study This study comprises three major observations; examination of the definitions and main theories of modernization and C.D.; analysis of the processes of evolution and achievements of the Saemaul Undong, and revaluation of them: and the author's proposals of tentative model of desirable self-governing cmmunity development which are based on investigations into concrete cases of the Saemaul Undong. 1) The definitions and theories: The term modernization is usually used in following three ways; a uniquely western historical process, a social system in a particular stage of historical development, and a universal general concept. While the historical concept defines modernization as a peculiarly Western phenamenon of social development, the social system concept qualifies it as a specific process which occurs in a specific stage of history. However, either of them is not relevant to the analysis of modernization in the developing country including Korea. The only adequate category seems to be general concept, which is applied to in this study. The universal general concept of modernization defines the term as neither a Western phenamenon nor a process in a series of evolutionary stages but as a human effort to realize a harmoniously balanced development of scientific industrialization and democratized humanization. In its ideological orign, the conception of modernization pursued for not only material but also spiritual improvement of human life. Contrary to its initial intention, the actual practice of modernization has often produced a partial modernization of industrialization without liberty or democracy without humanization. Also despite the fact that the original concept of "community" included in it both senses of locality and communal sentiment, the modernized CD has almost failed to substantiate the two senses in an integral unity, particularly owing to a very rapid spread of traffic and communication and the consequent expansion of the life sphere of community. While it is difficult for R.M. Maclver's comprehensive concept of community to easily comprehend in it the "communal" community, the limited ecological and functional concept of H.F. Kaufman, NakaMura, and others tends to disregard the importance of locality. In the light of the deffects which can be found in the two major theories of the twentieth-century, the community is defined in this study as a limited concept of local community. In this local community, which is based on a small geographical boundary, that is, a village, the residents know one another very well, share common feelings and behaviors, and settle their problems by means of compromise and consensus. The local community constitutes the lowest but the mot efficient unit for CD as a practitioning arena of democratic self-government. 2) The Saemaul Undong is a korean type of modernization movement which has brought about an epoch-making innovation in modern Korean history. To embody three great spiritual principles - diligence, selfhelp, and cooperation - the movement aims to accomplish three great goals - the enlightment of spirit, the increase of income, and the social development. This Korean type of CD, which during the one decade of the 1970's had been launched and propelled under the governmental initiative, has attained surprising achievements and made great contribution to national as well local developments of our country. Moreover, it provides the nation with a national spirit which it has lacked for long. As is widely known, the national spirit, such as the Frontier Spirit of the United States, the Puritan Spirit of western nations, and the Yamato Spirit of Japan, has worked as a driving force for a nation's development. The formation of the Saemual Spirit indeed means the emergence of an objectified national spirit of modern Korea. A series of case studies shows that if a decade of years of the Saemaul Undong to a great extent have elevated the standard of living in rural communities and enlightened the attitude and behavior of village residents, some half of them, overwhelming portion of which consists of younger generations, dislike to remain in the country area. Above all, the reluctance of able young farmers to settle down on the farm threatens to impede a successive progression of the movement since of average village resident still lacks a sufficient amount of self-governing ability. 3) Proposals for a tentative model: The division of CD into three possible models and the subdivision of the second model into two types can be made in accordance with leadership relation between government and people: the government-initiating model which is relevant to the under developed country; the type A of the government-people-cooperating model which gives more leadership to the government and the type B of it which gives more leadership to the people; and the popular self-governing model which is relevant to the developed country. Of the four, the most desirable is the third model, which may be applicable to a few more advanced villages and towns as an experimental example, and which should be extended to all other local communities as soon as possible. But the most relevant to most of Korean communities at the present moment seems to be the type B of the second model.The final goal is the third model, but the type B of the second model is a necessary transitional prerequisit for arriving at the ideal situation. To hasten our departure from the first model and the type A of the second model, both of which occupied a far more dominant place in the 1970's Saemaul Undong, following strategic measures will be required; energetic vitalization of organized development of community, systematic enforcement of improvement of social environment, nation-wide expansion of citizenship education for voluntary community consciousness, constructive activation of residential consensus, and adequate operation for ceaseless persistince of community development of governmental administrative power.
The nature and content of Factory Saemaul Undong, according to the viewpoint, are devided from many framework. The promotion of a spirit of community are very important conception in Factory Saemaul Undong. Today those who are living in urban areas feel uneasy emotionally because of he disappearance of human to human in relationship. This paper aims at the enlightenment of a spirit of a community in Factory Saemaul Undong, thata re propeling in our nation. There are many problems in Factory Saemaul Undong seeing at viewpoint of a spiit of community. So, in order tr enlighten the Factory Saemaul Undong, it is necessary that as follows: First, through the application of socialization theory in Factory Saemaul Undong, the institution, system and facitities should be generalized. Second, in the individual level it is necessary that the Saemaul education change the consciousness. Third, the operator of company must recognize the socia lrespect of company. In future we are concerning the society that there are love and humanity, and we are necessary the development of a spirt of community.
The object of this study is to seek the device of effective propulsion of cooperative-work in Sae-Mauel Undong[New Village Movement]. The frame of this study is composed of bibliograplical study and research based upon the theoretical background. The bibliographical study depended on social work literature related to community development and statistic resources of the government office, and then research was realized through case study in the Gu-Dam bridge construction work. The conclusion of this study as follows: First, the unit of Sae-Mauel Undong shall be larger in the scale because of attributes of the Movement. Therefore, cooperative work in which two villages and over participated is very important. This cooperative-work aims at development of Community consciousness- we feeling, or village who has taken the community cousciousness is able to deploy the cooperative-work. Second, but in the present time the Sae-Mauel Undong has hold many problems, that is to say, administrative problems, for what, problems of propulsive committee. The cooperative-work is propelling uniformly and unscientifically. Third, it is better to devide cooperative-work into two region. One is the work aiming at development of community consciousness for villager who haven't cooperative sprits, the other is the work for reinforcement of the consciousness for village who has more or less the cooperative sprits. In case of former, community development theory is looked upon as proper, and in latter, community organization theory is considered to be proper. Forth, when the community organization theory is applied to the cooperative-work the professional community worker should participate.
A. Summary The present attempts theoretical approaches and analyses of substantial data as follows: 1. Theoretical Approaches 1) The most important factor to powerfully develop the Saemaul Movoment is a competent leader who is equipped with a positive vision and strong will. 2) In case that an external leader directly Interferes in any Saemaul Plans,there may be a hard negative reaction from inhabitants of the community. 3) The leader's function isto grasp the situations and conditions of the community, to find out necessary issues, to plan projects, to spur the inhabitant's will to live better, to introduce aids from outside, and to estimate and report and keep the results of the project. Accordingly he must be a co-ordinator as well as a leader. 4) The movement needs a steady systematic contrivance to effectively grow capable leaders of the drive. And it is desirable to establish a prize awarding system to excite leaders' morale. On the contrary, if they are overloaded with administrative duties by the authories, their morale may come down. 2. Substantial Data Analyses Among all the awarded leaders, people in the forties of age are about half in number, and the average age ins 43.5.And the number of the leaders who have had high school education or over is about half. About 45% have the career as a leader for more than seven years. The comparison and analysis of the outcomes of the questionaires given to the leaders divided into two groups-awarded and non-awarded-shows the types and characteristics as following. 1. Types of Leadership 1) From the viewpoint of the leaders' recognition of responsibility, the (9.9) type covers 90% or so. That is, about 90% of them have tried to carry more effectively their responsibility through immediate communication with the inhabitants and their participation in the decision making. 2) In the process of decision making, the (9.9), the (1.9), the (5.5) types are equally distributed. In other words, in a third of all cases, decision is made by a group of representatives from the inhabitants; in another third cases, by the inhabitants themselves;and in the last third cases, by the leader who makes allowance for the members' opinions. 3) When the leader's opinion is different from the members', decisions are made as shown in the (1.9) type and the (9.9) type in proportion of 30% and 50% respectively. And it is desirable the leader to make the members understand the situation when there are any differences in opinions during the course of pushing the project after decision making. 4) When opinions are oppositely different between the leader and the members, decision making of the (1.9) type is more often taken by the non-awarded group (63%) than by the awarded group (48.7%). In case of the (9.9) type, however, the awarded group (29.5%) is higher than the non-awarded group (23.5%). This means that the non-awarded belong to the community which has not awoke from the stubborn conservativeness. 5) In creatively pursuing an innovative development of the community and its inhabitants, the (9.9)type covers above 70%. This is paraphrased that the creative innovation can be achieved more easily by the leaders who understand well the village's real problem, who are able to persuade the members to understand the nature of the task, and who analyse and estimate the results. To sum up the above, the average type of leadership is the (5.9). That is, Saemaul leaders mostly have rather high interest in human relation,but comparatively low interest in achievement of the aimed program. Meanwhile the awarded are much more interested in the program accomplishment than the non-awarded are. 2. Characteristics of Leadership 1) In 'objectivity,' about 35~40% of all the Saemaul leaders are poor (10~20), about 56~61% are fair (30~40), but few are excellent (50~60). This phenomenon seems to originate from the closed social structure of the village. 2) In 'understanding,' avove 60% are fair. And in the 'excellent' zone, the awarded (34.7%)are higher than the non-awarded (20.4). 3) In 'flexibility,' a little higher percentage in the 'poor' zone is occupied by the awarded group (41.7%)rather than by the non-awarded (34.6%). Leaders with fair flexibility are 57.7% in the former group and 64.8% in the latter. Like this, the number of Saemaul leaders who have flexibility is comparatively small. Such result may have come from poor social mobility and the colsed social structure. 4) 'Communication' between Saemaul leaders and members is somewhat high. Since Saemaul leaders should play their role as a counsellor to the inhabitants, the above-mentioned phenomenon is worthy to welcome. 5) 'Use of authority' is comparatively high: 60%, fiar; 27%, excellent. In brief, the awarded leaders are higher in 'understanding' and 'communication' than the non-awarded, while the latter group is a little higher in 'flexibility' than the former, 'objectivity' and 'use of authority' are both similiar. B. Suggestions On the basis of the study above, we might make some suggestions: 1. To elect a Saemaul leader who is in the forties of age, and has had high school education or more. 2. To give equal chances for Saemaul training to the leaders of all the other parts in the community, in view of growing the potentiality of leadership for the Saemaul Movement. 3. To raise the leader's interest in 'goal accomplishment' through more practical education of Saemaul Spirit, in view of hiking the leadership up to the level of the (9.9) type. 4. To give the leaders more chances to broaden their social experiences in view of strengthening their 'objectivity' and 'flexibilty.' 5. For a leader to understand as many problems and troubles of the inhabitants as he cna. 'Understanding' is one of the most important factors to make a Saemaul movement successful.
The Sae-Mauel Undong is recognized that it is to develope community Consciousness [We-feeling], sprits of deligious, cooerative sprits and sprits of self-help in order to grow the wealth of this nation. The social welfare institutions in the Sae-Mauel Undong can be accepted in aspects of social welfare approach because they are to promote the well-being of all people. The social welfare institutions contain a public assembly hall, a public workshop, a public palyground for children, a public bath in the village. These institutions are very important because they elevate the cooperative sprits. Then, in the present time these institutions are excluded out or disregarded in the Sae-Mauel Undong. It is necessary in the Sae-Mauel Undong to obtain the construction of these institution. In future, according as the Sae-Mauel undong should be continued, the rural society shall be modernized. Therefore, there should be prepared of theprivisions for enrichment of community consciousness among villager, these institutions shall contribute to develope the community consciousness.
The community development of Korea had started as the spontaneous organization. with the characteristics of a united community, which had formed non-governmental conferences such as Du-re, Pum-a-ssi, and Gye in each small village. And later, Hyang-yak, another type of community developmental organization had been formed. The community development under the control of Japan, derived from hte link of colonial policy, had brought about the destruction of spontaneous organization which had been led by the civil organizations such as Agricultural Association, Monetary Union, and Industrial Cuild. After the Liberation, the community development has been spread out centering around the Central Community Development Committee, and continued throughout the National Rebuilding Movement and Rural Development Act. It was not untill in 1978 that New Town Mo. ement was executed. Thus, it might be said that the community development of Korea has been spread out by the spontaneous organizations. From the time when Korea had been under the control of Japan, however, having been carried out centering around the administrative office, it could not have reflected the basic needs of people. Accordingly we should recommend the spontaneous organization to prosper so as. to improve the community development. Then we could contribute much to the. development of community.
The main purpose of this review is the fundamental similarities and differeneses between community development and community organization. The results are following: 1. Both, community development and community organization may gradually take on a new look and wider meanings and are clearly similar in many respects. 2. Community organization is social invention designed to deal with the problems resulting from the industrial revolution and has been largely concerned with attempts to solve social problems and correct social imbalances within institutional structure, the status quo. But, community development is one means of inducing social change through grass-roots effort or grass-roots democracy. 3. Both, the community organization and community development may tend to flow together to effect some new systhesis under the name the one or the other. 4. But, in any case, the unique values of the community development approach must not be forsaken.