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          • 신라(新羅) 기악백희(伎樂百戱)의 종류(種類)와 전승(傳承) -구나무(驅儺舞)를 중심으로-

            전덕재 ( Jeon Deog-jae ) 단국사학회 2017 史學志 Vol.55 No.-

            본 논고는 신라 伎樂百戱의 종류 및 전승과 변용과정 등에 대해서 고찰한 것이다. 신라 기악백희에는 통일 이전에 제작된 憂息樂과 會蘇曲, 新羅五伎(金丸, 束毒, 月顚, 大面, ?猊), 蘇志摩利와 納蘇利, 處容舞와 無得戱등이 있었다. 이 가운데 處容舞, 大面과 ?猊, 高麗樂의 樂曲인 納蘇利와 蘇志摩利등이 驅儺舞의 성격을 지녔다. 9세기 후반에 신라는 당나라의 驅儺儀禮를 수용하여서 섣달 그믐날에 驅儺儀式을 거행하였고, 이때 大面과 ?猊등의 驅儺舞를 공연하였을 뿐만 아니라 金丸과 束毒, 月顚등의 다양한 백희잡기를 함께 공연하였다. 신라의 전통은 고려와 조선시대에 그대로 계승되었다. 處容舞는 驅儺舞의 성격을 지닌 大面이라는 舞樂에 處容의 일화를 결합하여 만든 歌舞로서 고려시대에 구나의례에서 공연되었을 뿐만 아니라 연등회와 팔관회 행사 등에서도 공연되었다. This paper considers the types and transmission of Silla Entertainment and Dances, its transformation process etc. There was Usikak and Hoisogok which was produced before unification, Geumhwan and Sokdok, Woljeon, Daemyeon, Sanye, Sosimari, Nasori, Cheoyongmu, Muaehee at Silla Entertainment and Dances. Among them, Daemyeon and Sanye, Sosimari, Nasori had characteristics of Gunamu(Dancing chasing a ghost). In the latter part of the 9th century, Silla hosted the ritual to chase ghosts of Tang and performed it on New Year's Eve, at this time, not only the performance of the dancing chasing a ghost such as the Daemyeon and the Sanye, but also the Geumhwan and Sokdok, Woljeon, the various Entertainment and Dances techniques together. The Silla tradition was inherited as it was during the Goryeo and Joseon era. Cheoyongmu was not only performed as a ritual to chase ghosts in the Goryeo period as a singing dance created by combining anecdotes of Cheoyong with the Daemyeon with the character of Gunamu, but also performed at the Yeondeonghoe and Palgwanhoe association event.

          • 6세기 전반 신라(新羅)의 대외관계와 백제관(百濟觀)

            김창석 ( Kim Changseok ) 단국사학회 2018 史學志 Vol.57 No.-

            6세기 전반은 신라-백제 군사동맹기의 후반부에 해당하며 552ㆍ3년 동맹이 파기되는 배경과 원인이 배태되는 중요한 시기이다. 신라가 내물왕 이래 고구려의 간섭을 받으면서 그 구속에서 벗어나기 위해 백제의 도움이 필요했고, 백제 역시 광개토왕 이래 고구려의 남진을 저지하기 위한 우군이 절실했으므로 433년 비유왕과 눌지마립간 사이에 군사동맹이 맺어졌다. 그러나 이 동맹은 475년의 漢城함락을 고비로 동요하기 시작했다. 신라는 이 사건으로 인해 백제의 취약성과 고구려의 건재를 목격했던 것이다. 백제의 내정이 불안해지면서 양국 관계는 점차 역전되어 493년 동성왕과 소지마립간 사이에 신라 우위의 혼인동맹이 맺어졌다. 이후 신라는 동남방의 안정과 교역의 이익을 위해 加耶로 진출하는 과정에서 백제와 대립, 상쟁하였고, 마침내 553년 한강 하류역을 백제로부터 탈취하고 新州를 설치함으로써 120년 동안 이어진 백제와의 우호관계를 끝냈다. Silla needed the help of Baekje to escape from its restraints due to the interference of Goguryeo since the reign of King Naemul. Baekje also desperately needed a ally to prevent Goguryeo from advancing south. As a result, a military alliance was formed between King Biyu and Nulji in 433. However, the alliance began to tremble with the collapse of Hanseong in 475. Silla witnessed the vulnerability of Baekje and the existence of Goguryeo in the wake of the incident. Relations between the two countries gradually reversed as the internal affairs of Baekje became unstable. In 493, the Silla-preeminent marriage alliance was established between King Soji and Dongsung. Since then, Silla has advanced to Gaya confederation for stability and the benefit of trade in the southeastern region. In the process, she fought against Baekje. Silla finally ended 120 years of friendly relation with Baekje in 553 by seizing the downstream area of the Han River from Baekje and setting up Sinju, a new province there.

          • 신라 민애대왕 석탑기 : 동화사 비로암 삼층석탑의 조사

            황수영 단국사학회 1969 史學志 Vol.3 No.1

            In August, 1966, the writer had the chance of investigation on two newly discovered Silla remains, the one is a broken stone bowl with inscription and the other four gild bronze square plates, in the private collection in Seoul. Among them the broken bowl had inscriptions of 38 lines on the round body of the bowl(each line 7 characters), and the bronze plate (H. 14.4㎝×W. 15.5㎝) had a incised trinity Buddha on it respectively that can be identified only by the different hand symbols of the main seated Buddha. Judging from these two pieces it was estimated that the broken stone bowl was originally placed in the middle of the bronze square box which unmistakenly was constructed by the four bronze plates, and these two were apparently rooted from the unknown stone pagoda of the same period. In the beginning of the inscription we can read the story of building a stone pagoda by the 48th King Kyongmun of Silla Dynasty in the 3rd year of his reign (863 A.D. Ham T'ong 3rd year) for the memory of the late 44th King Minai. Following the story it reads on the short life of the King Minai which is exactly same with the record of Samkuk Saki and Samkuk Yusa on him. Additionally it tells on the age of the King and the day of his death (Jan. 23, 839 A. D.) which are so far unknown. In the end of the inscription the names and titles of the officials and Buddhist priests who joined in the construction of the stone pagoda are incised. Among them priest Simji might be identified with the famous priest Simji who was known as the founder of Donghwa-sa Temple on the Mt. P'alkong, near Taegu. At the same the trinit Buddha on the each bronze plate was indentified as one of the Four Directions Buddhas. Through the investigation of these two remains the writer had traced the place of the discovery and the informations on them, and finally could get to the three-storeyed stone pagoda at Biro-am of the Donghwa-sa Temple on Mt. P'alkong. After that in November, 1967, the Government dismantled this three-storeyed pagoda for the purpose of repair. At this moment some remains of the sarira were discovered from the square hole of the first section of the stone pagoda and identified as the part of the above mentioned bronze box and its attached pieces. By this discovery it become clear that this Biro-am stone pagoda was originally built for the memory of the 44th King Minai of Silla Dynasty. The newly discovered pieces from the sarira hole were a gild bronze bottom plate and three small wooden pagodas. On the lotus throne incised in the center of this bottom plate was originally placed the broken sarira bowl, and the size of the square hole was exactly same with the bronze box of four plates. The method of enshrining the sarira box in this pagoda was peculiar in fixing the sarira box by using the resin around it. Here in Biro-am, one of the side temple of Donghwa-sa, a small main hall is located in isolated area and in front of the main hall this three-storeyed stone pagoda stands. In the center of the hall, a stone seated Vairocana Buddha of Silla period survived as one of the treasures of the country. With this stone Buddha, the year of stone pagoda is now estimated through the investigation of sarira bowl and its bronze box which are now collected by the museums in Seoul. These two ancient remains with its very important inscriptions will contribute to the study of Korean art history, especially the study of stone pagoda of the 9th century. At the same time it will serve the study of the late Silla period around the middle of 9th century.

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