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본 연구는 한류의 전파로 인해 터키에서 각색하여 방영한 드라마와 상영된 영화를 살펴봄으로 터키 영화 < 7번 방의 기적(7. Koğuştaki Mucize) >이 이루게 된 성공이유를 고찰하는 데 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 첫째, 터키 방송국에서 최초로 방영된 <대장금> 등의 한국 드라마들도 함께 살펴보았다. 터키에서 한국 영화가 개봉되기 시작한 것은 2004년부터다. <올드보이>부터 <기생충>까지 터키 개봉된 한국 영화들을 표를 통해 검토하였고, 터키에서 각색된 한국 드라마와 영화의 차이점을 살펴보았다. 둘째, 한국 영화 <7번 방의 기적>과 터키 영화 <7번 방의 선물>을 소개하였다. 본 영화들은 지적 장애를 가진 아버지가 억울하게 누명을 쓰고 사형선고를 받고 나서 딸이 몰래 교도소로 들어가서 함께 생활하는 이야기이다. 터키 영화 <7번 방의 기적>을 대상으로 하여 원작 영화인 <7번 방의 선물>과 비교분석해 보았다. 한국 영화를 각색하는 과정에서 터키 영화 <7번 방의 기적>은 한국 영화가 가지고 있는 장점을 흡수하고 터키 문화, 역사, 사회 등을 고려하여 적절히 각색함으로써 영화의 가치를 높이고 흥행의 성공까지 이루게 되었다. 원작 영화와 각색한 터키 영화의 차이점은 첫째, 시대 배경의 차이다. 원작에서는 1997년, 터키 영화는 1983년으로 시대 배경을 설정하여 현실성을 구현했다. 둘째, 장르의 차이다. 터키 영화는 코미디보다 드라마 장르에 가깝게 각색되었고 이것은 영화의 분위기에 적절히 작용했다. 셋째, 거주지 차이다. 원작 영화와 같이 공간 배경으로 도시를 적용한 것도 1980년대 터키의 모습 잘 그려냈다는 호평을 받았다. 넷째, 문화의 차이점에서 비롯되는 가족제도다. 원작에는 없는 할머니의 역할이 당시의 터키 가족제도를 보여주었다. 다섯째, 종교적 분위기의 차이다. 터키에서는 무슬림 사회로 원작과 달리 이슬람적인 분위기가 영화 전반에 드러난다. 여섯째, 감옥 형태와 분위기의 차이다. 한국의 감옥과 달리 터키 교도소에 맞게 각색하였다. 터키의 감옥은 한국과 달리 재소자가 재소자복을 입지 않고 이름 대신 쓰는 번호가 없다. 일곱째, 결말 차이다. 원작 영화에서는 아버지가 사형을 당하지만 터키 영화에서는 다른 사람의 희생으로 탈옥하게 된다. <7번 방의 기적>은 원작보다 더 현실적으로 다가왔다는 호평이 지배적인 반면 한편으로는 흥행을 위해 극적 감정을 지나치게 확대했다는 혹평도 간과 할 수 없다. 그렇지만 무엇보다도 터키에서 각색, 상영되던 기존 영화들의 흥행기록을 제치고 2019년 최고의 흥행작이 되었고, 넷플릭스를 통해 세계 여러 나라까지 상영된, 터키 영화로서는 국제적 성공을 거둔 가치 있는 각색 영화라고 할 수 있다. The purpose of this study is to examine the reasons for the success of the Turkish film < Miracle In Cell No.7 > by examining the dramas and films that were released and adapted in Turkey due to the spread of the Korean Wave. First, Korean dramas such as < Dae Jang Geum >, which was first showed on a Turkish TV channel was examined. Korean films have been released in Turkey since 2004. Korean movies which has been released in Turkey < Oldboy > to < Parasite > were reviewed through tables, and differences between Korean dramas and movies adapted in Turkish were examined. Second, the Korean film < Miracle In Cell No.7 > and the Turkish film < Miracle In Cell No.7 > were introduced. These films tell the story of a father with an intellectual disability who is unfairly sentence to death, and then his daughter secretly enters to the prison and lives with him. The Turkish movie < Miracle In Cell No.7 > was compared and analyzed with the original Korean movie. In the process of adapting a Korean film, the Turkish film absorbed the strengths of a Korean film and appropriately adapted it in consideration of Turkish culture, history, and society, thereby increasing the value of the film and achieving success at the box office. The differences between the original film and the adapted Turkish film are, first, the difference in the historical background. In the original film, 1997, and in the Turkish film 1983, the period background was set and reality was realized. Second, there is a difference in genre. Turkish films were adapted closer to the drama genre than the comedy, and this worked well for the mood of the film. Third, there is a difference in residence. Unlike the original movie, the Turkish movie has been settled in the village and it shows the portrait of 1980s Turkey. Fourth, it is a family system that stems from cultural differences. The role of the grandmother, which was not in the original, showed the Turkish family system at that time. Fifth, there is a difference in the religious atmosphere. Turkey has Muslim society, and unlike the original, an Islamic atmosphere is revealed throughout the film. Sixth, there is a difference in the form and atmosphere of the prison. Unlike Korean prisons, prison is adapted as Turkish prison. In prisons in Turkey, unlike in Korea, prisoners do not wear prison uniforms and do not have numbers to use in place of their names. Seventh, there is a difference in the ending. In the original film, the father is executed, but in the Turkish film, the prisoner escapes with the help of another people. While Turkish movie < Miracle In Cell No.7 > is reviewed by positive reviews. Because it is more realistic than the original but it has been criticized that there is an intense dramatic emotions for the sake of box office success. However, it has became the top-grossing film of 2019 and famous all around the world by Netflix.
從20世紀80年代到90年代傳到中國的后現代主義理論和批評在中國的文化批評和文學批評中産生了廣泛的影響, 活躍了批評文壇。 在接受過程中對后殖民主義理論的飜譯, 介紹, 評价鞏固了后殖民主義在中國理論和批評界的地位, 爲文學和大衆文化的批評提供了行之有效的方法論, 在國際化的時代, 喚起了對民族話語。后殖民主義理論首先在西方的漢學和中國學中起了重要的作用。 后殖民主義理論作爲現代文化政治理論和批評的整合, 與后現代主義解構權力中心的傾向一脈相承, 擺脫了結構主義和文本主義的傾向, 再生産了國際化和本土化的兩極話語。通過后殖民主義的接受, 中國的文學和文化批評把西方中心主義和民族國家的話語引入到了現代化的宏大敍事中。 通過后殖民主義理論的傳播與實踐, 反省了在西方文化覇權和多元主義時代, 如何重構中國的形象問題, 反思了如何認同東西方文化差異和共性, 如何樹立民族的文化身分的安全感和均衡性的問題。 爲此, 該論文分析了接受后殖民主義理論的中國社會文化的背景, 闡述了會殖民主義理論在中國接受過程, 以及后殖民主義理論與中國文化批評的關系。
本論文主要考察了近代以及近代性和現代主義文學槪念(定義), 也談論了其槪念的相互關系, 最后談論了現代主義文學在韓國文學中的特征。 近代以及近代性這個槪念在韓國文學中仍然有爭議, 與타關聯的現代主義槪念的理解也如此。 近代以及近代性, 現代主義槪念是不是自生的。 1930年代的韓國文學中出現的現代主義思潮是通過日本接受的西歐的東西。 現代主義思潮在西歐先興起, 西歐的現代主義文學具有非常濃厚的文明批判意識。 而韓國的現代主義文學把西歐的文明作爲追求的對象, 因此不像西歐的現代主義文學缺乏文明批判意識。 但是殖民地下的知識分子的彷徨和苦悶的描寫, 富有特定時代的氣息。 這成爲韓國的現代主義文學的特征。
이 논문의 목적은 문학인 묘지와 시비를 지역문화콘텐츠로 개발함과 동시에 구체적인 코스를 소개하며, 지자체에 제언하는 형식이다. 용인 지역에 흩어져있는 문학인들의 묘지와 문학 기념물을 시대와 지역에 따라 문화공간 콘텐츠를 만드는 방법에 대해서도 생각하게 한다. 특히 국내외에서 알려진 기억 공간으로서의 공원묘지를 소개하고, 용인 지역에 남아 있는 문학인들의 묘지와 기념물(시비)을 어떻게 지역문화콘텐츠로 발전시킬 수 있을 지에 대한 기초 연구 자료를 제공하고자 노력했다. 용인 지역에 작가의 묘지들이 집단화되어 있는 이유와 공원묘지의 기원, 그리고 현재 상황에 대해서도 살펴보았다. 또한 문학계의 묘지와 기념물을 문화 콘텐츠로 홍보하고 발전시키는 방법과 기념비의 구체적인 배경, 종류 및 의미, 문화콘텐츠의 예를 소개한다. 이 연구는 묘역과 기념비가 문화콘텐츠가 되기를 희망하고 있다. 작고한 작가의 문학적 세계를 연구하는 것은 과거, 현재, 미래를 연결하는 가치 있는 문학 자산이기 때문이다. 또한 본고에서는 용인 지역에 산재한 문학인들의 묘를 ‘야외 문학박물관’으로 지정하고, 1∼4코스의 문학순례길을 만들어 활용할 것을 제안하고 있다. 작고 작가에 대한 인식과 용인에 집중된 작가 수에 초점을 맞추면 ‘옥외 문학박물관’이 될 수도 있기 때문이다. 이 논문은 용인시가 단순한 참배의 의미를 뛰어 넘어 유명한 문학인들의 묘지를 관광 상품으로 개발할 가능성이 있기 때문에 문학 순례길을 제정하고, 운영해야한다고 제안한다. ‘용인문학 순례길’은 아직 제안 수준에 불과하지만 용인 지역에 흩어져있는 문학적 자산을 지역문화콘텐츠로 활용하는 연구의 단초가 될 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a literary men’s burial ground, to dispute into local cultural content, introduce specific courses simultaneously and make suggestions to local governments In particular, literary graveyard and monuments scattered around the Yongin area make people to think about means to create cultural space contents based on the times and regions. Especially, it introduce the park’s cemetery as a known memory space home and abroad, and provide methods aboout basic research data to develop the graves and monuments of the remaining writers in the Yongin area into local cultural content. Also I looked at the grounds why the writers’ graves are grouped in Yongin, the origin of the cemetery parks, and the current situation. It also presents the method of promoting and developing graveyards and monuments in the literary world as cultural content and the specific background, type and meaning of monuments, and examples of cultural content. The study hopes that the graves and monuments will become cultural contents. Studying the literary world of the late author is, because, a valuable literary asset that attaches the past, present and future. The study, furthermore, proposes designating the tombs of writers scattered in Yongin as “Outside Literature Museum” and create a one to four-course literary pilgrimage route to utilize it. This is because if it focus on the number of artists who are concentrated in Yongin and recognition, it could become an “Outdoor Literary Museum.” The paper suggests that Yongin City should establish and operate a pilgrimage route for literature, as it is possible to develop a graveyard for famous writers beyond the mere meaning of worship. Although the “Literary Pilgrimage Route for Yongin Literature” is still only at the proposed level, it could be the cornerstone of research that utilizes literary assets scattered in Yongin as local cultural content.
Yoon, Suk-Joong(1911-2003) was born in Supyo-dong 13, Jung-gu, Seoul, Korea. He began his literary world, being accepted for 《New Boy》 in 1924 and 《Children》 1925. He published his complete works of thirty volumes from Woong-jin publishing company 1988 and collected 5 volumes as a series of 『Homeland』. This dissertation focus on the difference between the nostalgic space in『Homeland』 and Supyo-dong where he was born and grown up. Yoon, Suk-joong’s father lived with his step-mother, doing virtue to neighbors in Yulmok-ri, Eumam-myeon, Seosan-city, but drawn into the Korean War and passed away. Yoon’s family became victims of the war and he turned his back on Seosan. Yoon’s works in Vol.5 『Homeland』entered upon a new phase since the Korean War. Hometown on his former works such as 「Road」, 「A zelkova in our town」, 「Homeway」 「A child living in a country」, 「Homeland」, 「Geese」 means allowed space whenever you want to go. In contrast, hometown in latter works suck as 「Goodbye, my hometown」, 「Homesky」, 「Missing Hometown」, 「Hometown」means space not allowed to go. Also, commonly set up-nostalgic space is the object of yearning and the place with sunset, a pass beyond a pass, a well and ridgeway and children driving cows. Hometown is just a birthplace as a common statement. However, it can be a intensive place full of precious values in a literary aspect. Past studies regarded hometown as a common place or home town baring in mind, but it actually has country mood rather urban mood like Seoul. Though countryside looks similar, taking the truth that a work come out from writer’s experience into consideration, the nostalgic space in 『Homeland』 is Yulmok-ri, Eumam-myeon, Seosan-city, the place where his father lived and precious values left by mom existed.
With the recent activation of the cultural contents industry, contents, which can create various added-values with a topic or a material, are being actively developed. Therefore, OSMU (One Source Multi Use)-one original work or one material is changed into various genres to make contents-is being applied. Starting from a literary work having solid epic, it has been spread to movies, dramas, or regional festivals a lot, and comic books that have epic like literary works are also used as the original source of OSMU. ``Grand Chef``, a comic book by Heo Young-Mahn, has a large circle of readers and uses various story materials, so it has led the expansion of OSMU that was restricted to literary works only. The cartoon, ``Grand Chef``, which is the original work of the film and the drama, is being published in a series now, and in 25 separate volumes published so far, about 100 stories are included, so it is quite difficult to use all of them as video contents that have some restrictions in time and production environment. Therefore, the film and the drama selected some proper episodes suitable for their characteristics, and then, created another story having consistency. In this process, there were some changes in the characters and the story was changed to be focused on ``a battle``, not an episode, through which dramatic tension became induced. In addition, the infortainment-like properties of the original work were used on Internet homepage. This paper intends to analyze the case that the comic book, ``Grand Chef``, was made into the story of the film and the drama respectively, and further, it intends to research the way of comic book-used OSMU.
The “Promotion” and “Reality” of North Korean Cosmetics during the Era of Kim Jong-Un This study set out to investigate the North Korean regime’s percep tions of cosmetic production by raising questions such as “What mean ings do cosmetics have for women in North Korea?,” “Why does the regime of North Korea encourage the production and development of cosmetics?” and “How is the North Korean society changed by the use of North Korean cosmetics?” The study aimed to figure out the ways that cosmetics were promoted to people in North Korea so that the regime of North Korea would achieve the political rhetoric of “improvement of people’s life.” The investigator conducted an interview with female North Korean defectors that experienced the era of Kim Jong-un, thus examining the “reality” of their perceptions of North Korean cosmetics promoted by the regime. Considering that the act of make-up itself can lead to the classification of social strata based on gender awareness, the North Korean regime’s intention and percep tion of make-up can be another factor to analyze the North Korean society. This was the reason why the present study focused on the gap between political “promotion” intended by the regime of North Korea in its political system and “reality” found in North Koreans’ perception and action of it.
이 논문은 유튜브 방송 ‘탈탈탈’ 콘텐츠가 갖는 의미와 출연자 탈북 스토리 분석을 통해 콘텐츠로 보는 북한 현실과 탈북 유형, 실재적 탈북에서 미디어 콘텐츠로 정착한 탈북, 불특정다수의 대중에게 옮겨온 탈북이 갖는 영향력을 모색하는 데 있다. ‘탈탈탈’ 유튜브 방송 시작일, ‘탈탈탈’이 갖는 의미, 방송 진행 방식을 검토하여 현실에서 가상으로 옮겨진 탈북이 대중에게 미치는 상호작용성을 살펴 보고자 했다. 특히 ‘탈탈탈’에 초대된 300회 출연자 탈북 스토리를 중심으로 성별, 북한에서 출신 지역, 탈북 동기, 탈북 목적지 등을 도표화하여 객관적인 탈북 유형을 예시로 제공하려 했다. ‘탈탈탈’ 콘텐츠 분석은 불특정다수와 긍정적인 상호작용성, 사회문화적 기반 콘텐츠로 확대 재생산될 스토리 발굴 가능성, 탈북 유형에 따른 북한 사회 현실 파악, 탈북과 탈북자에 대한 인식 개선 등 다방면으로 미칠 영향력이 클 것으로 기대한다. 특히 ‘탈탈탈’에 드러난 탈북 스토리는 시청자와 상호작용하면서 간접적인 경험을 제시할 것이다. 이 간접적 경험은 탈북자 개인의 문제를 넘어서 시공간을 초월한 ‘탈경계화된 미디어 콘텐츠’로 우리 사회에 긍정적인 느낌표를 제시할 것으로 본다. This is a study to examine the meaning ‘TalTalTal’, a broadcasting content on YouTube, the reality of North Korea and their defecting types as viewed as content through the analysis of North Korean cast members’ defecting stories, North Korean defecting stories that have been established as media content from actual events, and the influence of defection from North Korea that has been transferred to the public of unspecified individuals. This study intended to examine the interactivity of defection from North Korea that has been transferred to virtual from reality taking effect on the public by reviewing the YouTube broadcasting start date of ‘TalTalTal’, the meaning of ‘TalTalTal’, and the method of its broadcasting progress. In particular, this study tried to provide an example of an objective North Korean defecting type by representing the diagrams of gender, the region of origin in North Korea, the motive of defection, the destination after defection from North Korea, etc. focusing on the story of a North Korean defector who was invited to the 300th episode. It is expected that this analysis of ‘TalTalTal’ content will have a great influence in various ways, including a positive interaction with unspecified individuals, the possibility of discovering stories to be ex panded and reproduced into socio-cultural-based content, understanding the reality of North Korean society depending on North Korean defecting types, and improved awareness of defection from North Korea and North Korean defectors. In particular, the North Korean defecting story revealed in ‘TalTalTal’ will present an indirect experience while interacting with the viewers. This indirect experience is expected to present a positive wow point to our society as ‘borderless media content’ that transcends time and space beyond the individual problems of North Korean defectors.
As popular culture is rapidly changing in the postmodern era, it is necessary to formulate a right communication system between popular culture and religion. Christian discourse is a religious conviction and a system of thought that deserves attention during deep discussions on the relation between popular culture and religion. Although popular culture in the postmodern era respects diversity, the cultural relativism makes people agonize over the ethical validity. Moreover the good and adverse effects of discourse on popular culture lead to the discussion that each function of Christian discourse should be connected or separated. The study is expected to organize a sustainable relationship between discourses on religion and popular culture.
The purpose of this study is to advance the active research on North Korean television drama (hereinafter “TV drama”) in the future by conducting a general research study on North Korean TV dramas that was rather lacking to a certain degree in comparison to other genre of North Korean arts and culture by reviewing preceding research studies. Culture genres such as movies or theater plays where the performance is given in a fixed place are subject to restrictions in time and space, but television shows are not subject to such limitations. Unless someone turns off a television, the contents viewed on the TV are indiscriminately conveyed to the viewer. In other words, from the point of view of a culture recipient, the TV is a much more accessible medium than movies or theater plays and through TVs, TV dramas are the most easily accessible genre to recipients. Today, literary fares called “literary art” are provided to their citizens in North Korea. Hui-Yeol Ahn’s “Study on Juche Theory of Literature and Art: Types and Forms of Literary Arts” classifies the type of literary arts into literature, movies, theater plays, operas, music, dance, art and acrobatics. These types of literary arts have been subdivided and categorized in accordance with the characteristics of their forms. When examining the position in which TV dramas are placed among the genre of North Korean literary arts pursuant to Hui-Yeol Ahn’s categorization, “Television Plays” are sub-categorized under theater plays, “Television Movies” are subcategorized under movies. In light of such findings, it can be said that North Korean “Television Plays” simultaneously take on the form of a play which is characteristic of dramatic arts and the form of a movie which is displayed in the form of visual arts. That is to say that “Television plays are a new form of literary art that has been adapted to its own unique figurative nature by succeeding the means and methods of a movie-like format and the dramatic form of theater arts.” The Korean Central News Agency, North Korea’s representative broadcasting network and system wholly governmentcontrolled and managed system, broadcasts the “news report” at 5 P.M., Kim Jung-Il propaganda related programs from 6 P.M. until 8 P.M., the “news report” at 8 P.M. and then airs TV dramas after the “news report” starting at 8:30 or 8:50 P.M. for about 50 minutes. The TV drama programming by the Korean Central News Agency mostly airs one episode a day. However, two consecutive episodes have been occasionally aired and there were times where reruns of previous episodes have been aired again a few months later. This study will first review studies on North Korean TV dramas that have been undertaken in South Korea and then propose a systematic and expansive research project on North Korean TV dramas to be carried out in the future.