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Hydrous oxide layers were formed on pure aluminum substrate in water at 100℃, and then the layers were anodized in a 2.32M boric acid at 300V. Transformation behaviors of the oxide layers according to the hydration and heat treatments were studied using TEM, RBS etc. Hydrous oxide showed growth rate of approximately 24.5nm/min. Formation of anodic aluminum oxide on hydrous oxide layers was more effective for the transition of amorphous anodic oxides to the crystalline T-Al₂O₃, comparing with the case for anodizing on the aluminum substrate without hydration treatment. And additional heat treatments were also helpful for the acceleration of the transformation of the hydrous oxide to ‘Τ-Al₂O₃. During the heat treatment the interface between Τ-Al₂O₃ and the hydrous oxide layers migrated to the outer side of hydrous layer.
End milling is one of the most widely used machining operations. It is associated with productivity and production quality progress. In metal cutting with up and down milling, moment is one of the important factors to diagnose the cutting characteristics because the amount of tool wear is directly influenced by the cutting forces in relation to moment. In this study, the effects of number of milling cutting edges on the cutting performance, especially on the moment, are investigated. The results acquired through the cutting test measuring moment show that up milling is superior to down milling.
This work analyzes the behaviors of aerated lubricant in the gap between con-rod bearing and journal. Aerated lubricant influences two major factors on the film formation. One is the density characteristics of the lubricant due to the volume change by the bubbles and the other is the viscosity characteristics of the lubricant due to the surface tension of the bubble. Those two major factors surprisingly increase the load capacity in certain ranges of bubble sizes and densities. Modified Reynolds' equation is developed with the consideration of aerated ratio in the lubricant and journal locus is computed with Mobility method with the computation of two dimensional pressure distribution over the bearing area.
The demand for the metal coil coated with reflective film is rapidly increasing with the increasing demand of notebook PC's and LCD monitors. During the coating process, it is very important to regulate tension of the coil metal since fluctuation of the tension can significantly degrade quality of the product. In this study, a tension controller has been developed for winding process of LCD reflective film coating. The controller has been tested on the existing coating facilities, and the results are to be introduced in this paper.
Vehicles must be parked at least temporarily at each end of a vehicular trip before the occupants can partake in their activity. Parking is therefore a fundamental component of urban transportation system. The parking problems however have been got from bad to worse due to high cost of parking improvement. The city governments have formulated the synthetic policies to solve the parking problems without considering the characteristics of night-parking. In this study the direction of the parking policies is presented.
To prevent water pollution in rural area and to check the value of treated effluents as fertilizer to farmland, the amounts of wastewater and nightsoil from rural area were estimated and the treatment efficiencies of selected treatment processes were investigated. Two treatment processes that can be used easily in rural household, such as Activated Biofilter process(ABF) and Biofilter Activated Sludge process (BF/AS) were selected and operation data of eight facilities of these processes were recorded and investigated over a 8-month period. Operation results showed that treatment efficiencies and effluents qualities were similar to those of traditional secondary treatment process, and that effluents could be used as fertilizers.
A tracked vehicle dynamic model with high efficiency and effectiveness is introduced that has been implemented on a training driving simulator. The multi-body vehicle model is based on recursive formulation and has been automatically generated from a symbolic computation package developed by the authors. The model includes a complete set of subsystems such as chassis, road wheels, suspension, powertrain, and track. An amphibious capability of an actual tracked vehicle is also simulated realistically enough to maximize training effectiveness of the simulator. The efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle dynamic model is demonstrated through simulation.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model, SWMM, was run continuously for a test catchment in Tallahassee, Florida in order to identify design storms from the historical record bases on a frequency analysis of peak flows and runoff volumes. The aim of this paper is to forecast the flood discharge in urban drainage system by analyzing and comparing the ILLUDAS model and the SWMM model to the drainage district when we simulate the inundation of express bus terminal station, subway line No. 7, caused the concentrated heavy rain in Seoul on July the 14th, through the 15th, 2001.
In this paper, a reliability based design optimization system using internet web is developed for vehicle structure design. Interface modules are developed to communicate data between the internet web and the existing analysis codes such as section analysis, FE analysis, reliability analysis, and software integration programs. Structural characteristics are expressed in terms of the thickness, typical section shape of the thin walled beams, and tolerance probability. The approximate functions are used for the reliability based optimal design of the vehicle. Reliability based optimal design of a passenger car body structure is presented to demonstrate the proposed technique.
An automobile recycling is necessary to cope with the recycling regulations of EU and strengthen the competitiveness of an automobile industry. It is important that we perform the 'Design for Recycling' in an early design stage for an effective recycling. In this study, the objective tree is introduced and the ease of a product recycling as the most important target is proposed. The objective "the ease of product recycling" is classified into the ease of washing, test, disassembly, maintenance, and reassembly. Again the five sub-objectives are classified into various objectives. For those the weighting factoes are allocated respectively. With this criteria the engineering products are relatively estimated with respected to the product recycling.