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A new species of Aloe from the Indian Desert, India, is described and illustrated as Aloe trinervis sp. nov. The new species shows similarity with Aloe vera in having succulent, rosette leaves, persistent bracts, freetepals, and six stamens but differs in the recurved teeth instead of deltoid teeth on the leaf margins, 3-nerved bracts, branched and taller inflorescences (90e95 cm long), longer flowers of 31e34 mm inlength, flowers with a pale green color being brownish at middle, and longer stamens (29e33 mm). Adetailed description with data on its distribution and relevant taxonomic notes, comparative morphological,and color photo plate are provided for easy identification of the proposed new species, A. trinervisin relation to A. vera.
This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius), Junonia orithya (Linnaeus), Junonia almana (Linnaeus), Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus), Junonia atlites (Linnaeus), Junonia iphita (Cramer), Yoma sabina (Cramer), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus), and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus).
The present report provides knowledge about the diversity of Saurian fauna in the Buldhana district of the Indian state of Maharashtra as a model geographic area to promote conservation management. The presented study is based on the field work carried out in the study sites during February 2014 to January 2015. The study revealed the presence of 14 Saurian species belonging to 5 families dominated by Gekkonidae (43.05%), Scincidae (29.15%), Agamidae (21.35%), Varanidae (6.1%), and Chamaeleonidae (0.35%). The relative dominance of species varied with differentmonths, apparently indicating that the Buldhana district has a healthy environmental and demographic setup that accommodates rich Saurian diversity.
Community-based conservation approaches that keep people on landscapes increasingly complement preservationist models of reserves without people. Evaluations of community conservation have shown that economic incentives and socioeconomics primarily drive people’s attitudes and perceptions. Work at Mongolia’s Ikh Nart Nature Reserve demonstrates how to achieve successful conservation by integrating local people into the overall program. Using a short questionnaire, we interviewed pastoralist families across two soums (similar to a U.S. county) in Ikh Nart. We examined (1) pastoralists’ perceived threats to argali sheep (Ovis ammon), (2) socioeconomic differences among pastoralists, and (3) differences between pastoralists from different soums. We found that 15 years of conservation activities—education, research, and modest ecotourism—that occurred in the northern soum led to influences on people’s perceptions toward argali conservation. Compared with pastoralists from southern Ikh Nart, pastoralists from the northern part of the reserve more likely knew that argali are protected and understood primary threats to the species. Socioeconomic factors, such as age, sex, and wealth, did not significantly influence responses. The negligible economic incentives in Ikh Nart did not lead to response differences. Our results demonstrate that conservation can influence people across socioeconomic classes without providing large economic incentives.
Wildlife utilization in the tropics is massive, with nearly 5 million tons of bushmeat consumed by local communities. In India, a megadiversity nation, hunting—although illegal—is widespread among indigenous communities. However, the extent, frequency, and rationale for hunting, and factors influencing wildlife utilization are poorly known. Our study, based on 19 different indigenous communities in the Western Ghats region, revealed the utilization of 54 wild species/taxa. Although freshwater fish, herpetofauna, and small mammals were most frequently utilized, enforcement by the Forest Department was largely focused on large mammals. Gender, land ownership, number of domestic meats consumed, distance to markets, time spent hunting, and distance to hunting areas were major factors that affected wild meat utilization in the region. Although conservation needs to be focused on the most utilized groups, increasing access to domestic meats at remote settlements and integrating utilization of common, culturally prominent species can improve conservation of threatened fauna.
A survey of wild macrofungi associated with temperate evergreen forests of the Bharsar region of the Pauri Garhwal district, Uttarakhand, India, yielded specimens of 12 different species representing 10 genera. During the field work, we also collected several fruiting bodies unique to their respective genera. These included (1) a fruiting body with a small cap and long slender stipe belonging to the group of species within the genus Lactarius (subgenus Russularia) characterized by a rusty red cap and white latex; (2) a tall species of Hebeloma with a veil and thin crowded gills, and (3) a species of Hygrocybe that stains black. Owing to their special characteristic features, the specimens of Lactarius and Hebeloma are likely to be species new to science, but this requires further investigation. In addition, nine other taxa are briefly described herein, with their major macroscopic features noted. This is the first report of the macrofungal wealth from this diverse forest of the Bharsar region in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India.
Komiljon Sh. Tojibaev,Furkat O. Khassanov,Natalya Yu. Beshko,Dilarom M. Tajetdinova,Orzimat T. Turginov,Alexander N. Sennikov,Kae Sun Chang,오승환,장창기 국립중앙과학관 2020 Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Vol.13 No.1
This article presents a new checklist of Scrophularia in Uzbekistan. The synopsis includes 21 species; oneof them is national endemic, and seven species were newly recorded for Uzbekistan as a result of fieldcollecting missions, studies, and examination of Tashkent (TASH), St.-Petersburg (LE), Almaty (AA), andMoscow (MW) herbarium collections. The geographical distribution of Scrophularia in Uzbekistan wasmapped and analyzed. The identification key, a table of comparative diagnostic characters, nomenclaturaltypes, and ecological data are provided.
Suseela Sreelekshmi,Chakkalakkal Mani Preethy,Rani Varghese,Philomina Joseph,Chalil Veedu Asha,Sivasankaran Bijoy Nandan,Cherupillil Kumaran Radhakrishnan 국립중앙과학관 2018 Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Vol.11 No.4
This article contributes to the diversity and stand structure of the mangroves in Kerala, India, using multivariate methods. Floristic diversity of mangroves comprised 18 species of true mangroves, of which Sonneratia alba, Avicennia alba, and Ceriops tagal were found to be rare, whereas Bruguiera parviflora was extinct in the state. Structural analyses revealed the importance of Avicennia officinalis and the domination of Acanthus ilicifolius. The mean stem density ranged from 10 to 13846 no/ha, whereas the mean basal area ranged from 0.02 to 20.19 m2/ha. Multivariate analysis of true mangroves could be classified into five floristic groups based on stem density. Group 1 comprised Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal, Kandelia candel, Sonneratia alba, and S. caseolaris, which were seen in the fringing zone. A combination of Group 2 and Group 3 comprised Avicennia marina, A. alba, Lumnitzera racemosa, Acrostichum aureum, Excoecaria agallocha, E. indica, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Aegiceras corniculatum, found in the intermediate zone, whereas Bruguiera sexangula and B. cylindrica occurred in the landward regions which constituted Group 4. Acanthus ilicifolius, having a widespread distribution, was found in all the three zones represented by Group 5. Tidal elevation was found to be important in shaping the observed zonation.
The species composition and distribution of oribatid mites in altitudinal zones of Himachal Pradesh were studied. The present study reports 23 species of oribatid mites belonging to 18 genera and 16 families. Altogether, 43 species of oribatid mites belonging to 30 genera and 25 families have been recorded from Himachal Pradesh; of which, 13 species under 9 genera are the first records from the state. The maximal population density (59.3%) was recorded in the family Scheloribatidae. The maximum values of oribatid diversity and evenness were recorded from the temperate and alpine zones, respectively. In the alpine zone, a single dominant species was recorded. An analysis of relationships of oribatid mites in the studied altitudinal zones demonstrated that the diversity decreases with the increase of altitude. The similarity of the species composition has been found in a higher degree between the temperate zone and tropical zone of the studied regions. The alpine zone was found to have a very distinct faunal assemblage compared with the other three zones.
Plant biodiversity patterns were analyzed in seven temperate forest types [Populus deltoides (PD), Juglans regia, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, mixed coniferous, Abies pindrow (AP) and Betula utilis (BU)] of Kashmir Himalaya. A total of 177 plant species (158 genera, 66 families) were recorded. Most of the species are herbs (82.5%), while shrubs account for 9.6% and trees represent 7.9%. Species richness ranged from 24 (PD) to 96 (AP). Shannon, Simpson, and Fisher α indices varied: 0.17–1.06, 0.46–1.22, and 2.01–2.82 for trees; 0.36–0.94, 0.43–0.75, and 0.08–0.35 for shrubs; and 0.35–1.41, 0.27–0.95, and 5.61–39.98 for herbs, respectively. A total of five species were endemic. The total stems and basal area of trees were 35,794 stems (stand mean 330 stems/ha) and 481.1 m2 (stand mean 40.2 m2/ha), respectively. The mean density and basal area ranged from 103 stems/ha (BU) to 1,201 stems/ha (PD), and from 19.4 m2/ha (BU) to 51.9 m2/ha (AP), respectively. Tree density decreased with increase in diameter class. A positive relationship was obtained between elevation and species richness and between elevation and evenness (R2 = 0.37 and 0.19, respectively). Tree and shrub communities were homogenous in nature across the seven forest types, while herbs showed heterogeneous distribution pattern.