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자유 경쟁 체제에 ‘대학’도 예외일 수 없다. ‘대학’도 광고를 해야 하는 때가 온 것이다. 고신대학 교도 신문, 잡지, 라디오, TV( 협찬) 뿐만 아니라 옥외광고까지 집행하는 현실에 이르렀다. 부산역에 집행한 고신대학교 옥외광고물을 중심으로, 광고 제작의 기본이 되는 필수 요소들을 분 석하고 그 대안을 마련해 보고자 한다. 통일 된 이미지를 제시하고 있는지, 명확한 메시지를 전달하 고 있는지, 전략적 접근은 제대로 되었는지에 대해 알아보았다. 분석 후 문제점을 지적하고, 매체적 특성을 고려하여 부산역 옥외광고의 효과를 높이기 위한 비주얼 엄팩트 위주의 광고시안 몇 가지를 마련하였다. 결론적으로, 광고 제작은 마구잡이식이 아닌 정상적인 과정을 거쳐야 한다는 점과 전문성이 배재 되어서는 안 된다는 점, 그리고 보다 효율적인 광고 집행을 위한 시스템이 학내에 구축되어야 한다 는 점 등을 제시하였다.
Background : In western countries, colorectal cancers are one of the most common malignant tumors. In Korea, colorectal cancers are the fourth common malignancy following gastric cancer, hapatoma, and lung cancer. It's incidence and importance has been rising over the past 10 years. We reviewed colorectal cancer patients to study the changing pattern in the last decade. Methods : We reviewed 1453 patients with primary colorectal cancers who were operated at Gospel Hospital, School of Medicine, Kosin University between 1991 and 2000, retrospectively. The colorectal patients were divided into two groups. First group was the patients who were operated in the first half of the decade, between 1991 to 1995. The second group was the patients who were operated in the second half of the decade, between 1996 to 2000. We compared the two groups according to sex, age, location, tumor size, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and stages of the patients. Results : We operated the 1453 colorectal cancer patients in the last decade. Males were accounted for 734 of the cases, and females were accounted for 719 of the cases (sex ratio was 1:1). The Peak age incidence was 7th decade (30.4%). Of the tumor location, colon cancer cases totalled 598 (48.7%), rectal cancer cases totalled 630 (51.3%). Of the rectal cancer operation, the number of the low anterior resection were 337 (67.0%), the abdominoperineal resection were 166 (33.0%). The incidence of stage 1,2,3 and 4 were 10.9%, 35.4%, 36.2% and 16.3%, respectively. In comparison of the 2 group, the number of the patients who were operated in the first half of the decade were 519, in the second half of the decade were 934 (1:1.8). The sex ratio was 1:1 and peak age incidence was 6th decade in the first half of the decade. In the second half of the decade, sex ration was 1:1 and peak age incidence was 7th decade. The number of colon cancers were 194 (49.7%), rectal cancers were 196 (50.3%) in the first half of the decade. In the second half of the decade, the number of the colon cancer were 404 (48.2%), rectal cancers were 434 (51.8%). Of the rectal cancer operation comparing low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection, the incidence of the lower anterior resection was 56.8% (83/146) in the first half of the decade, 71.1% (254/357) in the second half of the decade. In the preoperative serum CEA level, 177 cases (37.2%) were more than 5ng/ml in the first half of the decade, 254 cases (43.5%) in the second half of the decade. The incidence of stage 1,2,3 and 4 were 8.8%, 34.2%, 36.2% and 19.8% in the first half of the decade, 12.3%, 36.1%, 36.1% and 14.2% in the second half of the decade. Conclusion : During the second half of the decade, there was a significant increase of the incidence of the total number, the older patients, the higher CEA level in colorectal cancers. And the incidence of low anterior resection was increased in rectal cancer operations. The incidence of stage 1,2 was slightly increased in the second half of the decade, but not significant. There was no difference of the distributions according to age, sex, tumor location, size.
Comtemplation on the ideal and real Christian university model comes from both the Christian philosophical(theological) reflection on the aim and function of the university and the historical contextual reflection of the Christian community. These reflections get into shape a theory in keeping accord with a specific Christian worldview. The typical Christian worldviews are (1) gratia contra neturam, (2) gratia supra naturam, (3) gratia juxta naturam, (4) gratia instar naturae, (5) gratia in anturam. A specific worldview gives birth to a type of Christian universities. Christian university models in the humanistic Western context, except the last, have progressed in the same order of the models in history, and the order has been true in Korean society, which has followed the process of the Westernization, that is, modernization and democracy. Noweadays Korean Christian universities suffer from crucial identity crisis because of student application decline, financial problem as well as worldview conflict. The model of the Christian university in consonance with the Reformed worldview is "gratia in naturam". However, the successful administration of the Christian university depends on the extent of the church support in student supply, financial fund as well as prayer. Therefore Christian universities should take the university size and the church support limitation into consideration. 기독교대학교의 유형탐색은 기독교교육철학(신학)적 반성 못지않게 특정 역사적 상황에 대한 기독교공동체의 반성에서 나왔다. 기독교철학(신학)적 반성과 상황적 반성은 역사 안에서 다양한 유형의 기독교세계관을 반영하였다. 기독교세계관의 주된 유형은 (1) "자연에 대립하는 은총", (2) "자연 위에 있는 은총", (3) "자연과 병행하는 은총", (4) "자연과 유사한 은총", (5) "자연을 관통하는 은총" 유형이다. 한 공동체의 내면에 작동하는 기독교세계관은 현실적 상황에서 그 유형을 따른 기독교대학교를 낳았다. 마지막 유형을 제외하고 이 모든 유형들은 상황이었던 서양역사의 발전과정에서 거의 순서대로 진행되었고, 그 유형의 진행순서는 서양의 영향으로 근대화와 민주화를 이루어온 우리나라에도 그대로 적용되고 있다. 인본주의와 경제중심주의가 더 강력하게 작동하는 21세기 상황에서 기독교 공동체가 취해야 할 기독교대학교 유형은 성경적 세계관에 일치하는 "자연을 관통하는 은총" 유형이어야 한다. 기독교공동체가 그 유형에 따라 기독교대학교를 구현하고 발전시켜가야 할 적극적인 소명과 과제를 갖지만 성공할 수 있는 기독교대학경영은 기독교공동체의 지원정도를 고려하면서, 또 그 지원정도를 확대하면서, 그 정도에 맞게 대학교의 규모를 조정하는 일이다. 그리고 그 기독교공동체는 교회여야 한다.
Purpose : To investigate the effects of the community elderly exercise program. Methods : Physical effect measurement was done to the freely recruited 70 elderly who wanted to participate. Measurement item was body size, body composition, physical strength (grip strength, closed eye foot balance, trunk flexion), pulmonary function test, elderly composition item body weight, skin fold thickness, body fat rate was significantly decreased. Among physical strength item flexibility and grip strenght was increased but insignificant. Pulmonary function was increased but insignificant. Among elderly fitness item showed significant improvements. Conclusion : By the 12 week community elderly exercise program body composition and physical fitness was significantly in increased.
Background : Both rapamycin and paclitaxel are currently being used in drug-eluting stent to block the proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has also known to be anti-proliferative against vascular cells. In this study, it focused on the role of HO-1 in cytoprotection and antiproliferation of paclitaxel. Methods : Proliferation of cells and metabolic activity of HO-1 were evaluated with the tetrazolium-based assay. HO-1 protein expression was shown by western blot analysis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), or endothelial cells (ECs), using anti-HO-1 polyclonal antibody from untreated cells and cells exposed to rapamycin and paclitaxel. To determine whether the inhibition of paclitaxel on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-dependent proliferation may be mediated by its induction of HO-1 we exposed cells to paclitaxel, PDGF and ZnPP, an inhibitor of HO activity. Survival rate was checked to find the anti-apoptotic effect of paclitaxel against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a-mediated apoptosis, in the presence or abscence of ZnPP. Result : Rapamycin induces HO-1 protein in rat VSMCs and human ECs. Exposure of VSMCs to paclitaxel for 12h resulted in a dose-dependent increase in HO-1 ativity. Ten nM of paclitaxel led to a maimal expression of HO-1 protein at 12h after exposure. The addition of ZnPP abrogated the suppression effect of paclitaxel on PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation, and blocked paclitaxel-mediated suppression of TNF-a-mediated apoptosis. Hemoglobin, a scavenger of CO, abrogated the paclitaxel induced cytoprotection. Conclusion : Paclitaxel induced the expression of HO-1 gene in rat VSMCs and human ECs, in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, like rapamycin.
Backgrounds : The present investigation tested the hypothesis that cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels and thus could be associated with the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning. Methods : PKG-induced KATP channel activation and its cardioprotective effects were studied in rabbit ventricular myocytes using patch-clamp techniques and in heart slice model for simulated ischemia and preconditioning. Results : NO donors and PKG activators facilitated KATP channel activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and their effects were suppressed by PKG inhibitors. Exogenous PKG increased KATP channel activity by a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. Heart slices preconditioned with a single 5-min anoxia followed by 15-min reoxygenation were protected against subsequent 30-min anoxia and 60-min reoxygenation. The beneficial effects of anoxia were almost completely prevented by glibenclamide and PKG inhibitor. Pretreatment with NO donor or PKG activator mimicked anoxic preconditioning. In heart slices pretreated with NO donor or PKG activator, the cardioprotection was blocked by the concomitant presence of glibenclamide or PKG inhibitor. Conclusion : Taken together with the above results showing that the KATP channel acts downstream of the PKG-pathway in the mediating the protective effect, these data indicate that this mechanism, at least in part, contributes to a signaling pathway that induces ischemic preconditioning.
Background : The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is dependent on the multiple regulatory mechanisms of which are largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of IFN-r in IL1 b-mediated expression of the VSMCs iNOS gene. Materials and Methods : VSMCs were isolated from rat thoracic aorta by enzymatic dissociation. Phosphorothioate-modified ODNs were designed to block initiation of target mRNA translation. Nitrite concentrations were measured by mixing 100uL of culture medium with 100uL of Griess reagent. The biological activity of IFN-r was demonstrated by testing the effect of supernatants collected from the IL-1 b-treated VSMCs on the production of NO in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Supernatant levels of IFN-r were measured by Endogen Rat Interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Total RNA was prepared from cultured VSMCs using RNA zol (Tel-Test) 12 hours after IL1 b treatment. RNA (1ug) from each sample was reverse-transcribed with Oligo-dT as the first-strand cDNA primer and Maloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were performed. Results : In a system of rat VSMCs in primary culture, we found that IL-1b induced the productions of both NO and IFN-r. IFN-r protein and mRNA were expressed in the IL-1b-stimulated VSMCs. Anti-IFN-r antibody or antisense synthesis in the IL 1b-stimulated cells. Furthermore, antisense IFN-r ODN abolished the IL 1b-induced activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) without affecting NF-kB activity as determined by electrophretic mobility shift assay. The repletion of IFN-r to the system restored NO production and IRF-1 activity. Conclusion : These results suggest that the expression of iNOS gene in the IL1 b-stimulated VSMCs is dependent on the endogenous IFN-r synthesis and regulated through the activations of both IRF-1 and NF-kB.
Headache is common disease we meet in pain clinic and has a various causes. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is rare cause of headache and develop without any history of dural puncture, surgery, or penetrating trauma. SIH may develop without any trauma history, so we can mistake in diagnosis and treatment as migrane or tension type headache. Most SIH patients present with a mild headache, which spontaneously resolved within a few days. However, some patients may have severe symptoms, including progressive postural headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, cranial nerve palsy, subdural hematoma and hygroma. It is necessary to make a correct diagnosis and proper treatment. We experienced two cases of SIH treated with epidural blood patch who failed to treatment with conservative and medication.
Background : N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) has excellent solvent properties and is used intensively in the production of synthetic leather and resins. It has known to induce hepatotoxicity in human and animal. Biological monitoring of DMF has been evaluated by the excretion rate of urinary N-methylformamide (NMF). This study was conducted to examine the excretion of NMF from the workers exposed to DMF in a synthetic leather factory and to evaluate the prevalence of abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to DMF. Methods : The subjects were 35 workers exposed to DMF in a synthetic leather factory. Their urinary samples were collected and measured NMF concentrations. Also, DMF concentrations in air were measured by personal air sampler during their work. Liver function tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), r-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody and anti-HCV assays were conducted. Results : The urinary NMF concentration was peak in 4 hours after workshift and it was not reduced to zero in the workers who engaged in coating department. The ratio of NMF (mg/L)/DMF was 3.7. The prevalence rate of abnormal liver function was 57.1%. And although the mean urinary excretion rate of NMF in the workers who were abnormal in liver function was higher than normal, it was not statistically significant to abnormal liver function in multiple logistic regression. Conclusion : It is necessary to seal the work processes and to examine the local exhaust systems periodically to reduce the level of DMF in work environment. Health educations for the workers and managers of the company should also be conducted, including the wear of personal protective equipment during works and routine regular medical examinations under special health check-up regulations.
Objectives: Body protective compound-157 (BPC-157) is a stable gastric pentadecapeptide that has been effective in trials aiming to increase wound healing capabilities and decrease inflammatory cell influx, including studies on the healing of muscles and tendons. There are no studies about the effect of BPC-157 on pain transmission via nociception. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of BPC-157 using formalin tests and immunohistochemistry. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into the control, morphine and BPC-157 groups. Pain behavior was quantified periodically at 5- and 35- min intervals (representative values of phases 1 and 2) by counting the number of flinches exhibited by the injected paw after injection. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords (SC) were collected, and then, the number of cytokine-positive cells was determined via immunostaining. Results: BPC-157 dose-dependently decreased the number of flinches during phase 1 but did not decrease the number of flinches during phase 2. During phase 1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the DRG tissue was significantly different in the morphine, 10 μg/kg BPC-157, and 20 μg/kg BPC-157 groups. During phase 2, statistical significance was achieved in the DRG tissue in the morphine, 20 μg/kg BPC-157, and 40 μg/kg BPC-157 groups. During phase 1, interleukin-6 was significantly different in the DRG tissue in the morphine group and the SC tissue in the 10 μg/kg BPC-157 group. During phase 2, statistical significance was achieved in the morphine group and the BPC-157 20 μg/kg group in both the DRG and SC tissues. There were no significant differences in tumor necrosis factor-α between the DRG and SC tissues. Conclusions: BPC-157 was effective during phase 1 but not during phase 2, as determined by the formalin test. BPC-157 decreased the expression of IL-1β in the DRG tissue in phases 1 and 2.