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      • 韓國 特殊敎育 敎師養成制度 및 養成課程의 模型硏究

        金炳廈,姜永祐 韓社大學特殊敎育硏究所 1980 特殊敎育硏究 Vol.8 No.-

        With the effectivation of the Special Education Promotion Law, the opportunity of the public education for the handicapped in Korea has been markedly increased since 1979. This policy paper is designed to recommend a model of system and curriculum for teachers preparation of the handicapped children in Korea. In the pre-service teacher education, four years cources in college and university are a typical pattern for the preparation of special education teachers. But specialists and administrators of special education should be prepared at the level of graduate course and the para-professional personnel should be prepared at the level of junior college. The in-service training programs for the experienced teachers in the regular school should be enforced, providing the intentive professional courses in special education. The certificate of special education teachers should be honored to be a higher certification than that of regular school teachers, and the salaries of special education teachers between primary school and secondary school should be equal in the same level. For the reconstruction of special education teachers training programs, the programs should be forward to a competency/performance based teacher education(C/PBTE) to establish the accountability in teaching activities of special education teachers. In this study, to develop a competency based teacher education program needed for all teachers in common area of special education, six competency areas with 25 competencies lists have been identified by the opinions of professional teacher-educators in special education, and the field testing have been conducted by the judgement of practicing teachers from special schools and special classes. The identified competency areas are as following : the philosophical and historical aspect of special education, assessment and identification of the handicapped children, curriculum developing and instructional strategies, evaluation of educational programs and teaching results, cooperation with the interdisciplinary team, and research activities.

      • E. SEGUIN의 白痴敎育思想 硏究

        李相春 韓社大學特殊敎育硏究所 1981 特殊敎育硏究 Vol.9 No.-

        The main purpose of this study is to investigate the background of ?? educational thought: his view of 'idiots', the nature and contents of his physiological education, the principle of the moral treatment, the modernized meaning of the educational thought of 'idiots', and other points. The results were revealed through analyzing and investigating ?? education of 'idiots' by means of using books and other materials. First, ?? educational thought were chiefly shaped during the changing period of the Industrial Revolution, when the movement for the emancipation of human beings was at its peak. It was based upon Rousseau, who was influenced by Locke's empirical philosophy, Pestalozzi's modern educational thoughts, Saint-Simon school's Trinity-body, intelligence, and morality, a pattern of sensory training found in ?? deaf education and upon Itard's education of the wild boy of Aveyron,modern psychiatrists such as Pinel and Esquirol, and Lecat and Rochoux's physiology. It is Saint-Simon's thought on social reform that have put all these elements into one and ?? thought on 'the Right to Universal Education' which seem to have been influenced by Saint-Simon and his followers. Secondly, ?? acknowledged that 'idiots' could be taught, and he defined and classified 'idiots' in order to meet a teaching plan. ?? thought that a principle of human development had been internalized in 'idiots', unlike the view of Pinel and Esquirol who thought 'idiots' could not be taught. He defined 'idiots' by using primarily such things as the impairments of the nervous system and accordingly separation from the moral world.He classified 'idiots'according to their symptoms and then made teaching plans. ?? regarded the human personality as a harmonized person unified organization of activity, intelligence and will looked upon as an 'idiot'as one was lacking in the necessary integration of these three elements. His education of 'idiots'is dependent upon this view of 'idiots'. Thirdly, ?? education of 'idiots' is an educatonal system which is composed of physiological methods and moral education developed to discipline the students' morality. ?? physiological method of education is based upon an over-all, harmonized development of sensory training. Educational processes were divided into five stages according to man's developmental stages. In these processes it was emphasized that the relationships among human beings and groups are important.Also he gave his opinion on individualization and actualization.?? presented a physiological method as a way of educating 'idiots'.And the theory of this method is based upon the following principles: (1) The principle that 'idiots' can be educated.This principle is based upon the Rousseau's naturalistic education and Saint-Simon's trinity.According to this principle, ?? made it his basic principle that educational activity precedes the education of intelligence and the latter precedes the education of the will. (2) The principle that semsory education becomes a basic process of intellectual education, ?? education of the deaf, and Itard's education of the wild boy. The teaching contents of this physiological method ard classifide roughly into move-ment education, sensory education, intellectual education, and moral education. The contents are adapted to the education order according to developmental stages: the educational activity includes movement education and sensory education, as its most important task. The basic teaching processes ard classified as follows: the first stage invoves muscular movement; the second, the training of sensory organs of the nerbous system; the third, the development of basic concepts; the fourth, the dis-cipline of abstract thinking; the fifth, morality training. Fourth, ?? moral education is applied to 'idiots' under link with the physiolo-gical method, the main purpose of which is to foster its sociality. The principle came from a method of therapy used in modern psychiatry and respect for man's rights and dignity. The method is based upon affection, the teacher and the materials. It was this method and principle that may have allowed 'idiots' to have spontaneity. These serial processes ard divided into four categories which are immediate command, mediate command, passive command, and spontaneity. Especially, it was a method of individualized education. Object-lessons were emphasized in this system of education. Social contact relationships such as eating, playing, working, and so forth are also used effectively as teaching scenes. ?? thought of the moral human as self images which can be contrasted with a society based upon morality. The morality among 'idiots' was planned under the basic purpose of eventual resocialization and human moral education. The self image which is a basic requirement in the whole man is dependent upon activity, intelligence and the will. Saint-simon's Man's Right to Education, which discusses human moral improvement as the basic dieal, because the basic thought behind ?? theory on the education of 'idiots' were systematized in a physiological method of education. Fifth, a lot of experts greatly appreciated the performance of this educational method and his method greatly influenced special education and normal education. His achievements are also had an effect on modern special education. The scientific approach achieved by ?? and his view of education based upon humanism, were highly apperciated by his contemporary psychiatrists such as Esquirol, Guersant, Voisin, the Committee of Investigation of ?? achevements in Paris, the French Royal Academy of Science, and so forth. Since then, his achievements were highly acclaimed by such progressive scholars as Montessori, Decroly, Heller, and Bourneville. His thought have been developed more and more. ?? influenced the early movement to found schools for the mentally retarded in the United States. Howe, wilber and some others also played important roles. After that Montessori's method of early childhood education, Decroly's method of social education, Heller's and Bourneville's therapy education were also influenced by ?? His method had a great effect on modern education, especially on special education. The progressive view on 'idiots' as seen in ?? work, the ideal image of the educator which combines ?? humane and scientific spirit with actual practice, the hope of raising the social status of 'idiots' through education, the idea of guaranteeing education to 'idiots' the emphasis of vocational education and socialization, the method of education which emphasizes real experiences, individualization and so on, gives a lot of suggestions to modern special education.

      • 韓國 特殊敎育改善을 위한 綜合實能 調査

        李相春,李圭植,金正權,呂光應,金東淵,權要漢,權英花 韓社大學特殊敎育硏究所 1980 特殊敎育硏究 Vol.8 No.-

        A Study was done in order to collect suggestion for the improvement of special education in Korea. Through a questionaire given to the teachers and administrators in special schools and special classes, opinions and suggestions were collected concerning establishment and management of special education facilities. The subjects of this study were 351 teachers and principals with special classes and 809 teachers in 53 special schools, the number of which is the complete enumeration of them all over the country. The information was complied from October 15, 1979 to December 20,1979. According to the analysis of the data collected in this study, the following suggestions were made for the improvement of the special education in Korea. 1. The existing state of the special schools. 1) At present, the number of children receiving special education is 14,159 persons(special schools;8,052 persons, special classes: 6,107 persons), bur it only represents 4.59 percent of the total number of children requiring special education in Korea. 2) The number of subjects that are presently being taught in special education schools, who have obtained special education teaching certificates, were shown to be 72% of the male teachers and 79% of the women teachers. 3) It was shown that home environment and parents' school career for children in the special schools were at the low level. 2. The teaching viewpoint of the teachers at the special schools 1) The special teachers' general point of view on the special schools was comparatively reached to the positive level. 2) There was generally such a tendency as they gave much more consideration to the life centered education than to recovering the academic achievement on the exceptional children. 3) The level of the general teachers' attitude to the special schools and the degree of the understanding was generally about at the middle. 4) In this research, it was shown that the teachers' motive to take the special schools was comporatively to be willing. 5) It was shown that the evaluation and treatment for the special teachers was at the low level of the satisfaction, and their works were too much. 6) The urgent problems in the education of the special schools was shown with the next order in the significant level; to strengthen the synthetic administrative supports, to develop and to supply the learning materials, to develop the curriculum for the special classes, and so forth. 3. The existing state of the special classes 1) At present, the number of children receiving special education in special classes is 6,107 persons. 2) The major problems with which the existing special classes are confronted, such as correct identification, reducing the number of pupils per special classes, putting in good order of the basic facilities at the special class etc. should be solved. 3) It is an urgent problem that a long-term comprehensive plan for the establishment of special classes should be set up, because their continuity and connection with each other fields have not been considered on the establishment of them. 4. The teaching viewpoint of the teacher at the special classes 1) The special teachers' general point of view on the special classes was comparatively reached to the positive level. 2) There was generally such a tendency as they gave equal consideration to receiveing the academic achivement, to the life-centered education and to the occupational education. 3) The present special classes were shown not to have the cooperative relationship with the regular classes. Also, the level of the general teachers' attitude to the special classes and the degree of the understanding was about at the middle, but it was shown that the regular children regarded the special classes as strange. 4) The teachers' motive to take the special classes was shown comparatively to be more willing than to be reluctant. 5) It was shown that the evaluation and treatment for the special teachers was at the middle level of the satisfaction, and their works were too much. 6) The urgent problems in the education of the special classes was shown with the next order in the significant level; to strengthen the synthetic administrative supports, to develop and to supply the learning materials, and so forth. 5. The teaching viewpoint of the principals at the special classes. 1) The major problem with which the existing special classes are confronted, such as correct identification, reducing the number of pupils per special classes, putting in good order of the basic facilities at the special classroom and developing a lot of special education materials etc. should be solved without delay. 2) A great consideration should be given to select a dutiful special teacher with teaching method techniques. 3) The teaching practice for the special education should be planned to convert the school subject centered program to the life and vocational education program.

      • 聽覺障碍兒 敎師의 專門能力 硏究

        金炳廈 韓社大學特殊敎育硏究所 1981 特殊敎育硏究 Vol.9 No.-

        In this study, I have assumed that teacher education for the hearing impaired in Korea should be reformed to performance/competency-based teacher education. The main purposes of this study are to identify competencies needed by teachers of the hearing impaired and also to examine the perceived importance and selfproficiency of the competencies by Korean teachers of deaf schools. A systematic approach to determine the competencies needed by teachers of the hearing handicapped was implemented to experts which included teacher educators, administrators, and experienced teachers for the hearing impaired, The competencies developed by the 1974 CED(Council on the Education of the Deaf) Standards of Certification and the competencies lists needed by teachers of hearing impaired infants and their parents developed by Northcott(1971), and the competencies list described by 50 Korean teachers for the deaf were used to identify the competencies in the present study. Sixty-five competencies were identified by the experts in a systematic approach and then classified into eight categories: (1) Educational Foundation, (2) Psychological Aspects, (3) Speech science and Audiology, (4) Curriculum and Instruction, (5) Counselingand Guidance, (6) Language and Communication Skills, (7) Media and Technology, and (8) Administrative Responsibilities. The field testing was conducted on 150 Korean teachers from 18 deaf schools to verify the competencies identified by the experts. The findings of the evaluation are summarized as follows: 1. The perceived importance of the competencies was revealed to be very high(total M=4.018, SD=.877), but the self-proficiency of the competencies was perceived slightly low(total M=3.058, SD=.957), i.e., Korean teachers affiramatively perceived importance of the identified competencies in this study. The categories of media, instruction, and communication skills were perceived to be more important than those of audiology and psychological aspects. Among the 65 individual competency lists, knowledge of preschool education for hearing impaired infants, language acquisition of infants, ablity of teaching auditory skills, oral teaching, and individual instruction were highly emphasized as the competencies needed by teachers of the hearing impaired. 2. The perceived importance between the elementary and secondary teachers did not reveal a statistically significant difference in all categories of competencies. Three individual competencies(item 3.3, 6.9, 8.1) were revealed to be significantly different: ① Elementary teachers placed more emphasis on two statements of the physical characteristics of sound(3.3) and methods, procedures, and materials used in teaching auditory skills(6.9); ② Secondary teachers put more emphasis on the relationships with interdisciplinary teams(8.1). 3. Among four groups with different backgrounds of teacher education, three statements(1.7, 2.4, 6.14) were significantly different: the major organizations serving the deaf in Korea and in other countries(1.7); social adaptation and emotional problems(2.4); and research and other literature on communication skills(6.14). 4. Among the four groups with different amounts of teaching experience, no significant difference was shown in the 65 competencies list. However, two of them which are with teaching experience of less than one year and with 11 years or more years revealed significant difference in eight competencies lists in which the latter put more emphasis on the importance of the competencies than the former. The results shown above suggest that the following conclusions may be appropriate. 1. The Judgement of the experts on the basis of the existing competencies lists can be used as a effective procedure to identify competencies needed by teachers of the hearing impaired in Korea. 2. Korean teachers in their perception of the importance of competencies needed by teachers of the hearing impaired reveal very affirmative responses and they place particular emphasis on competencies related to instruction, media, and communication skills. 3. Teaching levels between elmentary and secondary courses, backgrounds of teacher education, and the length of teaching experience do not affect teachers'perception of the importance of competencies needed by teachers for the hearing handicapped. But teachers with 11 years or more in teaching experience put more emphasis on the perceived importance of competencies than those with under one year of experience. Korean teachers viewed the identified competencies in this study as highly important. This fact suggests that the Korean teacher education programs should be reformed from the traditional course-based model to a competency-based training model.

      • 身體障碍兒童의 自己槪念에 대한 父母知覺의 一硏究

        權奇德 韓社大學特殊敎育硏究所 1981 特殊敎育硏究 Vol.9 No.-

        Physically handicapped children always have a certain degree of inferiority on their physical abnormality and defect, and it raises various problems in social maladjustment as well as on their characters, and surely affects their self-concept. Parents of the physically handicapped children are a major part of the world experiencing the handicapped children. Having lived with physically handicapped children, their parents' perception that how the handicapped children fell about themselves is significant, and also that parents' perception of the self-concept of their physically handicapped children is of paramount importance with respect to intro-family communication, child management, and development of children's self-concept. This study was designed to investigate the effects of parents' perception on the self-concept of physically handicapped children; 1) The characteristic aspects of self-concept of visually handicapped, hearing handicapped, and crippled children. 2) The characteristic aspects of parents' perception of visually handicapped, hearing handicapped, and crippled children's self-concept. 3) The congruity between the children's self-concept and their parents' perception. The subjects of this study were a total of 322 visually handicapped, hearing handicapped, and crippled children, and 514 of their parents. Q-sort statement was used to investigate the self-concept of handicapped children and parents' perception of it, and based on the results of Q-sort statement the children's self-concept and parents' perception were scored with equal weigh and differential weigh scoring. The scores obtained were fed into FACOM M-160 through SPSS (Nie, N.H. et al. 1974) package program and analyzed by Pearson product moment correlation, point biserial correlation, analysis of variance and multiple correlation analysis. The important findings, thus obtained, were summarized as follows: 1) The most negative self-concept appeared among the visually handicapped. 2) Physically handicapped boys have more positive self-concept than girls. 3) Parents of the hearing handicapped were less pessimistic than those of the other groups of the handicapped, and such the tendency can bring some problems in the guidance of the hearing handicapped. 4) In parents' perception of the self-concept of their children, fathers showed no significant difference in their perception, regardless kind of their child's handicaps and sex, whereas mothers' attitude toward their sons was more positive than toward their daughters. 5) The congruity between self-concept of children and parents' perception was usually higher in the crippled than in other groups of handicapped. 6) In the crippled, their mothers showed a higher degree congurity than fathers with their children in perception and self-concept. The following conclusions were drawn on the base of the findings above mentioned. First: Among the physically handicapped children, the hearing handicapped showed the most significant difference in the self-concept of physically handicapped children and parents' perception, while the crippled showed the least difference. It showed that the parents of the hearing handicapped didn't have accurate perception on their children, but those of the crippled were more intimate relationship with them. Second: As for the effects of parents' perception of their children's sel-concept, among all groups of the handicapped, the parents of the crippled, especially mothers, accurately saw the self-concept of their children, thus enabling them to help the children positively in developing a positive self-concept. Third: The mothers of handicapped children had positively perceived to their sons, but negatively perceived of their daughters, and this tendency may result in many problems during the process of their adjustment.

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