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The dramatic change of environment in modern society demands the organization of library not only to have flexibility but also to seek a method to increase th efficiency in management through the innovation of organization and structure. Moreover, if we look into the functions of university library from the view of achieving educational goals of university efficiently, the library can be evaluated as a major indicator for the improvement of university education. Therefore, the organization and structure of the library became the subject to be more moderately card. If the prerequistie of informationized society is that all users should be able to access the information they want, university library should come out of past system and change to new one that is appropriate for informationized society. Uncertainty and dramatic change surrounding the library such as change in scale of library, automatization, progress in the technology of information, diversification of user's demand, and environment of organization more deadly required strategies for existence. In this period of changing , the most important factor for the existence of organization is to establish the flexibility organization. This is the time to search for the system that can create the ability to handle new works in a new way. The contents of the research reports derived from this purpose and necessity are summarized as follows. Firstly, it is necessary to establish an Academic Information Center which integrates all sectors related to the academic information within the university in order to increase the efficiency of the operation of organization and to systematize and unify the management of information. Academic Information Center should be established based on the total diagnoses of business management so as to improve relationships and managerial harmony among related sectors, by unifying similar works and strengthening independent ones through the analysis of characteristics and specialization of sectors. Secondly, functions of present library should be changed preparing for informationized society as academic information building, which is information oriented library. Environmental changes around library such as the change of information type, development in the technology of information, diversification of user's demand, and specialization of knowledge system became uncertain and diverse, so it is incapable for the existing library system to accept and service this. Therefore, present library should come out of the existing systems and change into new academic information building, which is information oriented library, in order to accept changes of information environment and to provide highly qualified services. Thirdly, horizontal expert teams which came out of existing vertical structure should be introduced ot achieve objectives of library efficiently and to consider organizational system as strategy for promoting the useful development of information services and resource, and for confronting changes of information environment. For library to play a leading part in supporting academic information, and to provide services according to increasing amount of information and subdivision of studies, it should train efficient professionals based on integrated human action system. For this team organization, which can devise systematization of information, is ideal. Team organization should classify one room library's subject service team and special management team, which can search for specialization by subject, to establish specialization of business and make a base for institutionalizing librarian faculty. Subject specialized human resources which composed of professors and graduate students should be utilized as assistance or consultant to assist and support librarian's subject specialization in each team. Fourth, Vice-Director should be institutionalized to appoint expert librarian, so that vice-director would assist director by taking charge of substantial academic information building business and modulating overall matters of coordinating committee. Fifthly, to actively cope with the changes of library and society in informationized society, a specialized system should be established which is able to sep up the range of librarian's specialization and expertise. Before establishment of librarian's specialied character, systematic plan should be decided through laying a foundation for settlement of Independent job class, Regulation of job, and institutionalization of faculty librarians, and business program according to the subject should be arranged making business possible to gain thorough knowledge and flexible operation of business. Moreover, domestic and oversea educational training program should be supported in order to experience the current library system, the change of society, the form of information service, to improve substantial linguistic ability, and to understand and apply current and actual situation of foreign library.
This article is intended to explain the relations between the belief in the scientific progress and the modern utopianism. Utopia is, as Anatole France says, the principle of all progress, and the essay into a better future. To be sure, to believe in utopia, men must believe in progress, and must believe that through the exercise of human reason, they can control and alter their social environment. Such a belief in unlimited progress has sustained the hopes and faith of the most utopians from Francis Bacon to H.G. Wells for them, the achievement of wealth and comfort for all was supposed to result in unrestricted happiness for all and a new Earthly city of Progress was anticipated to replace the City of God. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, however, the belief in progress has been lost and the dream of utopia has been proved to be nightmare or dystopia. For many people are becoming aware that unrestricted satisfaction of all desires is not conductive to well-being, nor is it way to happiness. Zamyatin's We, Huxley's Brave New World, and Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four are the most representative works which descirbe impressively the picture of dystopia. The three dystopias differ from each other in detail and emphasis. But they have a common feature: modern civilization has chosen happiness in the choice between freedom without happiness and happiness without freedom. Therefore, they claim that modern man ought to try to dream of methods of avoiding utopia and of returning to a society that is nonutopian, that is, less perfect and more free. Utopia is a bad word today not because we despair of being able to achieve it but because we fear it. We will never again be able to create imaginative utopias with th easy confidence of the nineteenth century. At the sametime we cannot allow the fear of utopia to inhibit completely the utopia visions. Without utopian visions, we may lose hope and flounder.
This article is intended to present an intellectual biography of the :great cultural historian Jacob Burckhardt-the intellectual biography in a sense that his personality development should be observed in c1ose relation to the growth of his historical thought and his view of history. In this article, there should be included not only the cosmopolitan milieu of Basel, his Berlin teachers, his writings, and his friendship with Nietgsche, but his view of the Renaissance cultural hisiory and philosophy of history. Basel, the birth place of Burckhardt where he sticked to his profession, was a unique city, which has been a hide-out for rebellious intellectuals and social reformers for centuries. It was a very appropriate site for calm, detached archimedean contemplation over the whole European affairs. It was Basel that nourished Burckhardt's insight and historical judgments. From 1839 to 1843 Burckhardt studied history at Berlin . where he met an array of distinguished historians like Boeckh, Droysen, and above all Leopold von Ranke. But it was Franz Kugler, the art historian, who impressed a life-long influence on the formation of .Burckhardt's history. After a short period of the editorship at the .Basel Zeitung, Burck-hardt set forth to devote himself in writing as well as teaching at the University of Basel. HiS writings of history were not so prolific as his enthusiasm in history teaching, which were produced mostly in his forties; the rest of his writings were edited posthumously by his friends. His writings include Cicerone (1855) , Die Zeit Konstantins des Grossen (1853) , and Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860) . Die Kultur has been by far the most remarkable piece of cultural history, which presents both originality and uniqueness in. the study of the Renaissance. Although he retracted against the Hegelian philosophy of history, he nonetheless shaped his own philosophical view of history in his leotures, which were posthumously pub1ished as Weltgeschichtliche Betrachtungen and Historische Fragmente. His concept of histery is based on the belief that the historians should seek the Wiederholende, Konstante, Typisch in historical panorama. In this way, the historian should investigate cross-sections of society, and ultimately describe-the whole historical texture of the past like the painter, not anaIyze the causal connections like the scientist. Jacob Burckhardt may be dubbed as the Faustian historian (H.R. Tremor-Roper), or as a Cassandra of history (Friedrich Meinecke) ; and it is aery true that his influence has become stronger in twentieth century historiography, and is believed that it will never fade away in the years to come.
, 《紅樓夢》版本的歷史可分爲初期, 後期和現代的三個階段. 本論文所稱的現代版本是對民國以來所出現的(大陸和臺灣都包括在內)附有標點符號的鉛印本而言. 現代版本也可以分別程刻本系統和脂評本系統的兩大類. 民國10年(1921) 上海亞東圖書館所刊行的《亞東初排本》可以說是現代版本的嚆矢. 但因爲這是《程甲本》系統的, 所以胡適極力推薦自己所發現的《程乙本》 雖然當時他認爲《程乙本》比《程甲本》優秀, 而建議發行比本, 但事實上《程乙本》是從曹雪芹原本更有距離的修改本. 無論如何亞東圖書館竟然接受胡適的意見, 民國16年(1927) 出版了《亞東初排本》, 開闢了50年以上的《程乙本》時代. 如《世界本》《三民本》等都屬於這個系統. 1957年所刊行的《人民文學本》也是以《程乙本》爲底本的校注本, 流行得흔廣. 영外一方面, 紅學家對脂評本的重視早就成熟, 爲完成脂評系統的新校本而繼續努力. 1958年由兪平伯做出的《紅樓夢八十回校本》是最早的成果, 以《戚序本》爲底本的校本. 後來直到 1982年才出現了《新校注本》(書名只題《紅樓夢》), 是由中國藝術硏究院紅樓夢硏究所用《庚辰本》做校勘的版本. 除此以外, 中國文化大學紅樓夢硏究小組又出版了《校定本紅樓夢》, 這是以《紅樓夢稿本》爲主, 朱墨套色印刷的新版本. 在這些脂評本當中, 尤其是《新校注本》値得注意. 因爲타的底本時代較早(就在曹雪芹生前己經成書), 現存的分量也是78回之多, 可以說最接近曹雪芹作品的原貌. 再者《新校注本》的校勘做得相當嚴密, 也有詳細的主釋, 所以這個版本不但可以提供學者硏究索, 而且對一般讀者也是흔方便.
1860年代로부터 1890年代까지 約40年間 福澤諭吉(1835-1901)는 日本에서 가장 影響力있는 人物中의 한 사람이었다. 啓蒙思想家, 卓越한 敎育者, 그리고 著述家로서, 그는 明治(Meiji) (1868-1911) 日本에 西洋文化를 紹介하는데 크게 功獻하였다. 오늘 周知되고 있는바와 같이 이와같은 西洋文化의 借用은 일본을 놀랍도록 變形시킨 源泉이 되었음이 立證되었다. 本論文은 啓蒙思想家로서의 福澤의 思想形成과 "文明·開化基"(Period of Civilization and Enlightenment)인 1870年代에 있어서의 그의 活動에 關한 考察을 試圖한 것이다. 福澤가 평생을 封建體制打倒에 노력하였던바, 그것은 그의 家庭環境이 적지 않게 그에게 影響을 미쳤기 때문이었던 듯하다. 德川時代(1600-1867)에 있어서 軍事力을 가졌던, 地方自治單位를 藩(han)이라 하였는데, Fukuzawa 家는 오늘날의 九州(Kyushu) 大分(Oita) 縣을 支配하던 中津藩(Nakatsu han)主인 奧平(Okudaira)家의 下級 samurai로서 支配階級에 屬해 있었다. 그러나 福澤의 父母는 封建因襲에 얽매이지 않고 신분이 낮은 사람들을 同等하게 대하곤 하였다. 이와같은 그의 父母의 態度는 감수성이 强한 어린아들 諭吉에게 큰 영향을 미쳤던 것이다. 福澤가 貧富貴賤, 學問의 有無를 가리지 않고 各界各層의 사람과 사귀고 모든 사람을 同等하게 對하려고 했던 노력이 이點을 例證한다고 할수있겠다. 諭吉는 事物을 理性에 따라 判斷하는 分別있는 사람이었는데, 그것은 主로 그의 西洋學文修學때문이었다고 할 수 있다. 그는 長崎(Nagasaki)와 大阪(Osaka)에서 當時 大部分의 사람들이 멸시하고 멀리하던 所謂 蘭學(和蘭語, 砲術, 物理, 化學, 醫學)을 工夫하였다. 그후 그는, 軍事的 理由에서 西洋式 敎育의 必要를 느낀 中津藩의 命令으로 現 東京(Tokyo)인 江戶(Edo)에 ??應義塾(Keiogijuku)를 세워 自己가 아는 和蘭語보다 더 널리 使用되고 있는 重要한 國際語인 것을 알고 그것에 精通코져 心血을 기울였다. 마침내 그는 이 두 西洋言語 知識 때문에 奧平家의 陪臣이면서도 幕府(bakufu)에 登用되고 外交使節로서 美國에 2回 Europe 諸國에 1回 여행할 수 있었다. 그가 全國을 휩쓸던 鎖國主義 風潮를 反對하며 暗殺의 위험에도 불구하고 幕府의 開國定策을 支持하였던바, 그것은 偶然한 缺課가 아니었고 이와같은 그의 敎育背景과 外國旅行으로 日本의 世界上의 地位를 알수있게 된데서 由來하는 것이라고 풀이되고 있다. 아울러 그가 日本人을 西洋人과 比較해 볼수 있었고 드디어는 자기나라 사람들이 物質文明에 있어서 數字와 理致개념, 精神文化에 있어서 獨立自尊의 精神이 缺如되어있다는 結論을 얻을수 있었는데 그것을 위에서 말한 것과 같은 原因에 돌려야 한다는 데는 異議가 있을 수 없다 하겠다. 그리하여 그는 阿片戰爭後의 中國처럼 西洋 半植民地 初期段階에 있던 日本을 西洋流의 文明富强國으로 만들기 爲하여, 日本人이 缺如하고 있는 것을 얻을수 있도록 敎育하는데 心血을 기울였다. 幕府末 明治初期에 걸쳐 그가 한일중 日本의 二大 私立大學의 하나로 발전한 ??應義塾의 설립이나, 「西洋事情」(Seiyo Jijo)를 비롯한 多數 著書로 一般大衆은 勿論이요 知識人과 정부관리의 啓蒙에 功獻한 것이 모두 自己同胞들을 敎育하기 爲함이었다. 特히 그는 말하기를 하늘은 사람위에 있을 사람이나 사람밑에 있을 사람을 創造하지 않았고 萬人은 나면서부터 同等한 인간으로 태어났다, 그런데 官吏가 橫暴하고 政府가 학정(tyranny)을 하거나 民衆을 抑壓하는 것은 그런 것을 忍從하고 받아주는 百姓自身에게 더 責任이 있는것이라 하였다. 그래서 福澤는 一身獨立 있은 연후에 一國의 獨立도 可能한 것이니 日本人은 西洋人이 가진 獨立自尊精神을 배워야한다고 主張하였다. 이와같은 日本과 日本人에 대한 그의 관찰과 方法提示는 實로 正鵠을 찌른 洞察이었다 할수있을 것이다. 福澤가 近代國家를 建設할 强力한 基礎로서의 國民이 될수있도록 日本人의 精神을 改??할 必要가 있다고 깨달은 것은 다름아닌 그의 西洋理解 때문이었다 할 수 있다. 그의 敎育, 言論, 著述등 모든 계몽활동은 다름아닌 日本의 獨立을 유지하기 爲해 企圖된 것이었다. 이와같은 그의 여러 가지 獻身的 功勞로 因해 Fukuzawa가 民間人으로서는 明治日本에서 아마도 가장 영향력있는 사람이었다고 評을 받고 있는데 그것은 지나친 말만은 아니라고 할수있을 것이다.
There are two main trends in educational theory. One is the assertion that education must become more humanizing, including values, attitudes, and appreciations in teaching. The other is the belief that educational procedures must become more objective and instructional goals must be constructed in scientific way, using behavioral objectives. At the first glance, these two trends seem contradict each other. But the fact is that they talk about two different aspects of education. The former suggests the extent of which education must include in its curriculum and the latter discusses the method of teaching. Teaching values and attitudes have been left out in school curriculum throughout the educational history. The reason is that teachers have thought such a personal matter could not be taught in schools. Therefore, they have left them to each individual, hoping that if they teach knowledge and skills, the forming of values and attitudes would be followed automatically. But beha-viorists object to such an opinion and insist on teaching values and attitudes in schools. And they suggest using behavioral objectives in teaching these concepts. And music educators have adopted the behavioristic views in music teaching. The opinion among music educators on the subject of behavioral objectives is devided in two groups. One group apposes to the use of behavioral objectives on the bases that the affective aspects of music can not be taught by the behavioral objectives, and the two are contrasting concepts. While the other group thinks that our covert behaviors, such as appreciation of music can be changed into overt behaviors by behavioral objectives. Therefore, the affective aspects of music can be taught in schools. The main problem of using behavioral objectives in music education lies on how to objectify such subjective matters as values and attitudes. And the problem also lies on evaluation of instructional results in affective domain. But when we modify the strict behavioristic position and utilize them in music education, the behavioral objectives can be a very useful educational tool. The purpose of this study is to introduce the theory of behaviorism in music education and to show its application by using behavioral objectives in lesson plans. By doing this, this writer hopes to show the benefits of utilizing the theory, as well as its limitations. And this is the starting point from which we can develop our own method of music teaching that is suitable in our situation.
흑인의 예술과 미학이 정립되어있지 않는 상태에서 1920년 미국에서 최초로 흑인작가, 예술가, 지식인들이 문예 창조 운동을 일으킨 것이 Harlem Renaissance 운동이다. 많은 흑인 예술인들이 Harlem 을 중심으로 모여들었으며 그중 유명한 작가로서 J.W.Johnson, A.Locke, L.Hughes, C.McKay 등을 들 수 있다. 이 운동은 당시의 흑인문학과 예술에 새 출발점을 제시했으며 미국흑인이라는 이중의 identity 가 미국문학에 크게 기여할 수 있다는 흑인민족의 긍지를 보여 주었고 그 정신적 기반을 Afro-American 과 Africa 의 민속예술에 둔다. 이 작가들은 소재로써 흑인예술인, 지식인, 종교 등을 다루었고 Langston Hughes 같은 유명한 시인은 rhythm 으로 jazz 와 blues 를 사용해서 "Mont age of a Dream Deferred" 를 썼다. 그래서 그들은 흑인문학이 음악과 민속예술과 밀접한 관계를 가지고 있음을 보여준다. 이같은 민속예술을 창조함으로 그들은 미국사회의 전통적 문화 가치관을 혁명화하고 blues, jazz, 영가, 시를 통해서 불안한 세상과 부조리한 미국사회가 주는 비극을 긍정적으로 초월하려고 했다.
There has been no scholarly approach to Lee Jang-back Jun (A Story of Lee Jang-back 李長白傳) a story written in Chinese character, which is collected by the Library of Denri University(天理大學) in Japan. The plot of this work is briefly as follows: In the late seventeerth century,a Korean, Lee Jang-back(李長白) made a journey to China and dropped in a harlot (kisaeng) house. He came to know the miserable circumstances of a prostitute and felt sorry for her. Out of pity and chivalrous spirit, he helped her with a large sum of money with no reward. After years, she was raised up as the queen of a Chinese emperor and she could never forget Lee Jang-back's favor. In brief, this story ends with an episode in which, in recompense for his thankful help for the wretched state of her early years,she devotedly tried to assist korean affairs (the Yi dynasty's affairs) , let alone Lee Jang-back's personal affairs. However, this work does not seem to belong to the genre of the fictitious. This story is based upon a true story of the century in which Hong Soon-un(洪純彦) visited China as an official interpreter and he kept on doing good deeds there similar to Lee Jang-back's in this work. Out of these materials, the writer produced succsessfully a marvellous story with real fictitious plot and characters, blending it with a variety of historical events between the two countries. The themes of the story are humanistic virtue and righteousness derived from the teaching of Confucius. In andition, this work is a sort of edifying story in which a Korean who had visited China did something good to a Chinese lady and also the lady showed her gratitude the man with various rewards, and the personal good deeds of the two increased friendly relations between their countries.
本稿提及左聯前後的左翼文學主張演變的大槪, 目的在了解初期無産階級文學主張成長的過程. 本文構成大略, 左聯成立以前, 左聯時期, 兩個口號論爭及結成文協, 結語, 共五章. 一九二○年代上半期受各種中外情勢的影響, 無産階級意識漸漸流行起來. 下半期由郭沫若提出 '革命文學' 口號以來, 無産階級爲主的文學主張正式成立, 一九三○年以前後期創造社和太陽社的成員, 一面爲左翼文壇上的主導權而對立, 一面攻擊魯迅和茅盾. 但是後來魯迅·茅盾的思想有所改變, 反過來發表不少對左翼文藝有益的文章. 結果一九三○年左翼作家聯盟成立而魯迅爲主席, 形成左翼文壇的統一局面而俱有在全中國文藝界上的甚大力量. 國民黨就以民族主義文學對抗左翼文壇而失敗, 新月派文人以梁實秋所提倡的 人性論來攻擊左翼階級鬪爭論, 而又沒有好結果. 甚至於主張文藝自由化的 '自由人'·'第三種人'出現, 後來근左翼文壇有所妥協. 國民當就無計奈何, 仍然注重軍事上的壓迫和政治上的統制, 不能建立文藝上有效的政策. 左聯進行無産階級的革命文學運動的過程中, 爲無知的勞農大衆着眼文藝大衆化, 不但在理論上提高水準且在創作上也創出不少新形式·新內容的作品. 日本帝國主義者侵略中國極緊, 一般國民抗日意識高潮, 一九三五年左聯就政治上的目的之下解體. 經過國防文學派和無産階級的j大衆文學派的論爭, 一九三七年第二次國共合作時結成和右派聯合的中華全國文藝界抗敵協會, 完成形式上的文藝界抗日統一戰線. 大致上說, 二十年代中半所萌芽的無産階級文學主張, 經過內部論爭及對新月派·民族主義派·自由人和第三種人的論爭, 把理論定立且提高, 獲得全國文藝界上的主要地位. 當然幕後共産黨引道的部分莫大. 國民黨就忍視文藝理論上創作上的努力, 而只重對共産黨的軍事上圍剿, 以强硬的手段爲好策, 不能得到文壇上的勝利. 結果把文藝看做宣傳政治的道具的主張, 階級鬪爭爲根基的文藝主張等無産階級文藝主張風靡中國. 因比文學革命以後純粹文藝發展的好機消失, 可說是非常可惜的事.