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An important topic in current mathematics education research is to relate mathematics to communication. Communication in mathematics has been highlighted as an important goal for all children. And because writing is a way of clarifying and refining one's own thoughts, written communication is important. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of mathematical writing activities on the achievement of elementary children in mathematics and on affective domain. That is, this study focuses on investigating the effects of mathematical writing activities on ability in and on attitudes towards mathematics. This study was designed to use nonequivalent control group pretest -posttest design. Two 6th grade classes were selected from an elementary school in Chinhae for this study, one for an experimental group and the other for a control group. One class was taught mathematics by using methods of writing activities and the other was taught by traditional methods. Students of experimental group were given worksheets for cultivating mathematics learning abilities in every session. These worksheets include completion, lead sentences, warm-ups, rewording, word banks and debriefing. And they were given worksheets for improving in mathematical attitudes one or two times in a week. They were asked to express feelings about mathematical story, to solve a mathematical puzzle, to draw a figure and to write about a given subject. This study was lasted from May 29, 2000 to July 15, 2000 for 7 weeks. The results obtained from the data analysis were as follows : 1.There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in mathematics learning ability at the significant level of .01. 2.There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in mathematical attitudes at the significant level of .05. That is, this research shows that writing activities in mathematics affect positively on mathematical attitudes such as learning attitudes of mathematics, the appreciation of usefulness about mathematics and the degree of interest in mathematics. The mean score of confidence on mathematics in an experimental group increased, but it is not significant. The results are like theses. An experimental group which has clone mathematical writing activities showed better mathematics teaming abilities and mathematical attitudes in affection domain than a control group which has not. The fact, tells us that mathematical writing activities make children to enhance the mathematical power and are effective to build up children's attitudes towards mathematics.
This study aims to proposes the mathematical activities related to the real life experiences as the alternatives of the traditional teaching methods for students having lasting interest in mathematics and knowing usefulness of mathematics. For these purposes, the following research questions were set up ; (1) to develop the mathematical activity program (2) to apply the program and analyze the result with respect to the change of students' mathematical attitude. In order to achieve these, this thesis reflects Dewey's philosophy, Freudenthal's realistic mathematic education, Lave's situated learning, and recent tendency as theoretical background. And then it suggests directions for developing mathematical activity program. According to these directions the program was developed and implemented to sixth graders at D Primary School. The results of the study are as follows; Firstly, students understand the usefulness and value of mathematics and have active attitudes in finding and applying more mathematics in their real life. Secondly, students have pleasure and self-esteem by making and solving their own mathematical questions and applying mathematics to their real life. Thirdly, students have better cooperative spirit by solving long term project with small group cooperative learning. Fourthly, students improve their problem solving ability and moreover mathematical power.
The purpose of this study was to develop the program of concrete operational activity for the formation of quantitative-sense of length and to use it to teaching and learning activity, to create the environment for students' measuring length through concrete operatioanl activity and to investigate the effects of concrete operational activity on the formation of quantitative-sense of length. The subjects were 80(40 in an experimental group, 40 in a control group) students attending the 2nd grade of an elementary school in Chinju city. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the results of the test in the domain of a unit, comparison, measuring, estimation, sum and difference of length showed that the two groups had a significant difference (p <0.05) only in the domain of estimation. Second, creating the environment for the students' measurement was helpful to develop estimation skill. Third, students formed quantitative-sense of length in the process of their own learning-plan and estimation activities. Fourth, students' ability of gathering and using useful materials for the estimation was improved by their own learning and co-operated learning. Fifth, homework for the estimation was also helpful to their attaining to the goals of learning. Sixth, the ability using mathematical knowledge in everyday life was improved naturally through developing estimation skills.
The effect of ethanol on the germination of pollen tubes in Tradescantia reflexa was investigated by microscope and image analysis system. The effects of various concentration of sucrose and treatment temperature were also investigated. The germination rate of pollen tube was mostly higher in the 8-10% sucrose concentration. but seriously inhibited by 20% sucrose concentration. The most adaptable temperature of pollen tube germination was 20℃, but at the 35℃ was seriously inhibited. Pollen tube germination was increased by the concentration of ethanol from 0.1 to 0.4%, but over 0.4% ethanol was negatively affected. Especially, pollen tube was not germinated at the concentration over 1.0% ethanol.
The purpose of this study is to consider pre-service and in-service elementary school teachers' perceptions about STS (Science-Technology-Society) STS interactions by gender and career. To consider their perceptions and develop the proper teaming methods/materials to it, the next matters were established ; 1. What difference is there between their perceptions about the nature of science and technology and those about STS interactions by genders? 2. What difference is there between their perceptions about the nature of science and technology and those about STS interactions by careers? 222 of the seniors in Jinju National University of Education, namely pre-service elementary school teachers, and 185 of the active teachers in Kyung- Nam Province were selected as the objects for researching these matters. The results were analyzed with a percentage as an examining tool of TBA-STS (Teachers' Beliefs about Science-Technology-Society). The results were as follows ; First, the difference of opinions by genders was not clear in contents. In some of the questions which asked the interactions among science, technology, and society, actual and simple views were a little bit different. Second, in active teachers' recognition of STS interactions by careers, there was a meaningful difference. In other words, most teachers thought of the influence of science on technology as 'technology is an application of science', but the teachers wish 6 to 15 years careers told mostly consider the influence of technology on society as actual opinions. It showed that the teachers with more than 25 years careers had simple thoughts that technology makes our lives more convenient. Moreover, on the STS interactions, those with more than 25 years careers recognized with simplicity that one thing has influence on only another thing. From these above results, the following suggestions are made for the succeeding studies. First, the basic principles of STS should be introduced in the curriculums for pre -service teachers, and also the instruction of it to in-service teachers should be intensified in order that they can have firm views of it. Second, studies should be made to investigate what factors have influence on teachers' recognition of STS. I hope that the succeeding studies on it will be made actively and they will be helpful to settle the education of STS in elementary science education.
본 연구의 목적은 다음과 같은 초기조건을 갖는 비선형 지연 적분미분 발전방정식에 대한 해의 존재성(Existence)과 유일성(Uniqueness)을 밝히는데 있다. □ 여기서 0 <t1<…<tp≤T(p∈N)이고, 유계 선형 연산자 A는 Banach 공간위의 C0-반군의 생성 원이다. 비선형 함수 f: [0, T]×C([-h,0]:X)×X→X k: [0, T]×[0, T]×C([-h,0]:X)→X와 g: [C([-h,0]:X)]p→C([-h,0]:X)는 Lipschitz 조건을 만족한다. 또한, C([-h,0]:X)는 상한에 의해 정의된 노름을 갖는 [-h,0]에서 X로 가는 모든 연속함수의 Banach공간이며, Φ는 초기함수이다. In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of solution for the nonlinear delay integro-differential evolution equations with nonlocal initial condition.
1914년 Hallsdorff는 poset과 군을 결합하여 새로운 대수 구조인 순서군(ordered group)을 만들었다. Meng은 1992년 Hausdorff의 아이디어를 poset과 BCK-대수에 응용하여 difference 대수로 명명하고 difference 대수는 순서군, BCK-대수 그리고 BCI-대수의 일반화이고 가환군과 동치가될 필요충분조건을 증명하였다. 그러나 그동안 difference 대수는 수학자들의 주목을 받지 못하였다. 그 이유 중 하나는 difference 대수의 공리가 서로 독립적이라는 예를 찾을 수 없었기 때문이었다. 최근 Roh등은 difference 대수의 공리가 서로 독립적이라는 것를 보이고([RJKS1])이 분야에 대해 활발한 연구를 하고 있다. 한편, 1965년 Zadeh교수는 퍼지집합을 소개하였고 퍼지집합은 공학, 의학, 화학, 수학 등에 적용되어 왔으며, 근래에는 생활과 직접적인 연관을 갖는 형태로 그 응용력을 보여주고 있다. 본 연구에서는 difference대수에 퍼지 개념을 접목시켜 다음의 결과를 얻었다. 첫째, 퍼지 아이디얼을 이용하여 상(quotient) difference 대수를 만들었다. 둘째, 퍼지 준동형 기본 정리를 증명하고 이 결과를 이용하여 준동형 기본 정리와 제 1 동형 정리를 얻었다. We introduce the concept of a fuzzy ideal in a difference algebra X. Next, we give a construction of a quotient difference algebra X/μ by a fuzzy ideal μ in X and the fuzzy homomorphism fundamental theorem.
This study is designed to find out the understanding of school teachers in relation to the 7th mathematics curriculum revised in accordance with the changes and needs of the day and the problems coming from its application in classes with the help of a questionnaire research, and to come up with the solutions. We worked with first-grade and second-grade teachers in such districts as Chinju, Hadong, Kimhae and Yangsan with the aid of questionnaires, using 285 copies as a means of analysis materials. According to the research, the subjects trunk of the purports or contents of the 7th mathematics curriculum as proper in principle, feeling that it is too ideal a curriculum that doesn't take the given actual condition intro consideration. The subjects hold that the fact that what was originally intended from the 7th mathematics curriculum at the outset fail to be realized in the fields of education is ascribable to such factors as lack of loaming materials, an excessive number of students, too much leaning per period, and lack of their understanding of the curriculum and teaching methods and so forth. We would like to make the following suggestions with a view to working out the problems coming from the application of the 7th mathematics curriculum. First, the number of students per class should be reduced to less than 30. Because it is hard to form mathematic concepts through specific operational activities, playful learning, and intention-exchanging activities due to the present number of students, and it is extremely difficult to carry out level-based classes. Second, standardized learning materials should be provided. Though a large number of learning materials are needed in view of the math text, the actual condition of the schools leaves much to be desired on account of lack of teaming materials, which inhibits classes from going smoothly. Therefore, at least such basic materials as numerical models, cards, and building blocks should be distributed. Third, it is necessary to make policy-related efforts to develop a variety of training programs for the teachers and to expand training opportunities. I would like to suggest that teacher-training programs should be worked out in relation to top-notch thinking or various kinds of theories on math and the reorganization of the curriculum with a view to involve more teachers. With this in mind, such institutions as EBS and Teachers' Training Center, etc. should hopefully work out and implement high-quality teachers' training programs. Fourth, it is necessary for teachers to change their minds. The subjects find it hard to teach their students because there are too many to teach and lean by period and the contents of learning have been upgraded. This is attributable to the teachers' views on the textbook: They regard it as absolute. So it is absolutely necessary for the teachers to apply the curriculum to each class situation based on changes in their minds and to look upon the textbook as one of materials to attain the purpose of education and to be possessed of insight as experts well- versed in the curriculum in a more broad perspective. With this in mind, the teachers should make continuous efforts and at the same time the higher educational institutions also make policy-related efforts to encourage more teachers to make a real study and to make sincere efforts.
The aim of this study is to search an effective method for implementing the 7th mathematics curriculum. From this year the 7th mathematics curriculum is being implenented responding to the national demand. It aims to enlarge 'mathematical power'. Also it focuses on a stagewise differentiated curriculum and balancing of mathematics teaming contents. But, reviewing the 7th mathematics curriculum and the mathematics textbook, it does not show the effective implementation method for the stagewise-differentiated curriculum. Thus in this thesis, it aims to develop the supplemental and enriched learning materials for implementing the stagewise-differentiated curriculum effectively. Achieving the purpose, this thesis reviews the 7th mathematics curriculum and suggest constructivism and realistic mathematics education as fundamental theories for developing the supplemental and enriched learning materials. And it shows a process of developing the supplemental and enriched mathematics teaming materials for the 2nd graders in primary school. Therefore it suggests a mathematics learning model for differentiated individual learning based on problem based learning and conflict teaching-learning and shows performed experimental lessons. According to the result, it concludes that attitude of students toward the lesson was voluntary, that presentations of them were active and that they accepted the lesson interesting. But the lack of a proper learing time is problematic. Nonetheless teachers could perform differentiated mathematics lesson using the supplemental and enriched learning materials, with their will and effort.
Three well preserved trackways and one other trackway are found at Dooho-ri, in Goseong County. At the site A, a quadrupedal Sauropod's trackway shows that a trackway, about 20ms long changed its direction from 170˚ to 220˚ in azimuth. It seems that the trackmaker walked along the curved lake-shore line at that time. And at the site B, three bipedal tracks are observed. Trackmaker Dino-1 and -2 walked toward 250˚ in azimuth(approximately WSW) and Dino-3 crossed their trackway from Southwest to Northeast. The study of the variation of Dino-1's pace and direction leads to the conclusion that Dino-3 may have interfered with Dino-1's itinerary.