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          • 朱子學에 있어서 心統性情 問題

            孔泳立 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1978 東洋文化硏究 Vol.5 No.-

            Chu Hsi defines Li (the principle) as an ultimate creative principle in the universe, with the succession to traditional confucian thought. Man is often expresed as the Li as well as other things and yet, Li is intrinsic in man. Both the Li as an ultimate principle and the hsing (nature) as intrinsic in man are paralleled in quality. At this point, we have realized that hsing (nature) is equal to the Li (principle), The hsing (nature) is a principle of comprehensive basis and its expression is described as the ch'ing (passion). For example, it is a common principle to all men that the flowers are appreciated to be beautifu1 in blossom. However, no matter whe has such a seeing taste, he can not feel it with no looking at the flowers. So, the former is apparently different from the latter. Since the ch'ing (passion) is originated through the Chi (material force) of human body, it is not expressed as an inborn principle of the hsing (nature), whether in pure or foul personal character. In a literal sense, somebody in the extempore amusement will pick up the flowers; others are appreciating the flowers itself without touching. As stated the above, not only human being can get the feeling according to the principle, but he can have the dynamic activity for the positive thinking. Such the thinking hsin (mind) has remembered the ch'ing (feeling or passion) reflected on one's conduct. On the one side, this hsin (mind) recalls how the phenomena about the feelings which were in the past had an effect on society and the individual. And on the other side, all men come to have thought that there must be the general principle behind them in order to have the same feelings, namely, that is the function of exploiting the hsing (nature) and we call it a hsin (mind) controls hsing (nature) and ch'ing (passion). It seems to us that this mind may be considered as the human subjectivity. However, on further examination, it will be discovered to be no adequate definition; the intervention of the Chi (material force) originated from in the flesh results in wrong expression of hsing (nature). In a word, a fallacy of the thinking has been derived from false consiousness and dogmatism. In this way; although the mind is important to us as the way of looking after the hsing (nature) i.e the truth, it can not be the human subjutivity as a criteria of deciding right or wrong and good or evil. Chu Hsi points out that this phenomena can be defined as the human alienation, in which individual or the society is controlled by the false consciousness or dogmatism. Even under the circumstances, it is just the human restoration that hsin (mind) is followed by the given order of the hsing (nature). It can be said that what the human restoration is exists in the state in which the hsing (nature) and hsin (mind) are combined and harmonized. This is what confucius said, "In seventy, I follow after the hsin (mind), but I did not expel from the truth (hsing)."

          • 韓國思想과 傳統文化 : 東洋倫理와 西洋倫理와의 比較

            李文浩 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1978 東洋文化硏究 Vol.5 No.-

            In this paper we try to compare the ethics in the Far East and the West. The problem is so large that we have to limit first of all, we will define the notion of the East and the West, then, among the innumerable eastern and western ethical thoughts, we will compare two main ideas. The paper will show that as a representative ethical thought in Orient is the confucianism and as the representative in West is the Christianity. We have examined that those two ideas are fundamentally analogous. However, there are some differences which we should not miss. That is to say, the christian ethic is founded on a theological bases, on the other hand, the ethic of confucianism provided a norm for humall behaviour. But as we see confucians proclaim that man should act rightly, but they don't clarify why man should act rightly. For this reason, confucian ethics do not conflict with christian ethics, but rather analogous to the ethics of Aristotle. We can concluded that we should study the differences in eastern and western ethics at least, in the domain of universal ethical notions. That is to say, that eastern and western ethics are concerned with human behaviour which is principally the same.

          • The Relevance of Korean Christian Higher Education

            Park, Bong-mok 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1974 東洋文化硏究 Vol.1 No.-

            解放前까지 韓國의 基督敎 高等敎育(大學)이 韓國社會와 敎會를 위해서 貢獻한 사실에 대해서 별로 의심할바가 없다. 그러나 최근 그의 영향력은 차츰 상실되어가고 있다. 따라서 이들의 存在性格에 대해서 그 妥當性與否문제가 야기되고 있다. 이 論文이 밝히고져 하는 바는 첫째 解放以前에 이들 기독교 고등교육기관의 存在意味는 무엇이었으며, 둘째로 오늘날 왜 이들 기관의 存在性格의 妥當性문제가 論議되게 되는지 分析하고, 셋째로 한국의 現時代性에 비추어 이들 기관의 敎育프로그램은 어떤 性格을 가져야 할 것이며, 넷째로 변화하는 現代社會안에서 이들 기관들이 意味있는 것이 되기 위해서는 어떤 교육정책을 발전시킬 필요성이 있는지에 대해서 논의코져 한다. 한국 기독교 고등교욱(大學)의 過去의 공헌은 두가지 면에서 볼 수 있다. 하나는 기독교정신 그 自體의 擴張事業이고 다른 하나는 한국사회 발전을 위한 프로그램이다. 前者의 경우는 한국교회를 위한 지도자 양성이며, 주로 교회학교 교사양성과 傳道者양성을 위한 교육의 강조이다. 후자의 경우란 世俗的인 韓國社會의 발전을 위해서 필요한 要員의 양성이다. 원두우氏는 1915年 延禧專門學校를 창설할 때 "한국사회발전을 위해 고등교육의 필요성을 절감한다"고 했다. 세브란스 의전이나 그 부설간호학과나 연희전문의 工科나 商科나 梨花여전의 가정하과등의 창설은 다 이같은 目的에서 였다. 이들 교육기관의 成功은 이들 기관의 운영자가 당시 支配 階級인 日本人 아래서 다같이 고통받는 선교사로서 韓國人과의 一體感을 이룩했고, 日本人에 대한 민족저항정신에 입각한 애국적인 교육분위기가 기독교 고등교육기관에 대한 한국민중의 信賴를 가져왔고, 또한 서구적인 새로운 학문의 도입은 그당시 學的인 優秀性을 유지했으며, 새로운 思考方式과 生活양식의 강조는 한국의 개화운동에 기수노릇을 하게 된 것이다. 그런데 오늘날 이들 기관들의 영향력은 점차로 줄어가고 었다. 그 원인으로서는 첫째는 해방이후 日帝가 물러감으로 과거 기독교 고등교육기관이 가졌던 민족저항정신에 토대한 표적이 사라졌고, 둘째로 세속고등교육기관의 量的 그리고 質的인 急激한 成長은 相對的으로 고등교육기관으로서의 基督敎大學이 과거 가졌던 地位를 떨어지게 하는 결과가 되었다. 셋째로 기독교대학의 운영면에서 오는 世俗大學의 모방과 그 獨自性의 상실은 基督敎大學의 無性格化를 초래하고 따라서 기독교 대학의 存在意味를 희미하게 만들어갔다. 이러한 때 한국기독교대학의 과제는 초기 기독교대학이 옹호했던 哲學을 되살려 信仰的인 가치와 學問的인 優秀性의 갈등을 克服하고 그 調和를 찾는 길이다. 이를 위해서 기독교 대학은 그리스도의 證人이 되는 宗敎的인 保守價値의 유지와 또한 反對로 적은 宗派的인 파벌주의나 종교계 私立大學이라는 二重構造的 간섭이 지니는 강압적인 體制를 克服하는 길이다. 초기의 기독교대학은 시대의 政革者로써 安易한 妥協을 저버렸다. 오늘날 기독교대학은 自身의 철학을 저버리고 無性格化하면서 商業主義的인 妥協主義者가 되고 特異性을 잃어가므로 과거의 改革者로서의 身分을 포기하고 있다. 한국기독교대학의 不適切性의 除去는 그 特異性에 立脚한 기독교적 性格의 再確認과 産業 및 技術社會에 奉仕하기 爲한 大學 프로그램의 優越性을 창조하는 郎 基督敎的 保守的 性格과 새가치창조에 대한 進步的 性格의 均衡을 찾는데 있다. 이둘은 반드시 갈등하는 것만이 아닌것은 과거의 經驗이 證明하고 있다. 現在의 기독교대학은 後者的인 世俗化에 熱中한 나머지 이 均衡을 깨트리고 있다. 기독교대학의 최고행정가는 일반私立같은 特定人재단의 고용된 學長이나 총장보다는 더 自由롭고 따라서 이들 행정가가 재단의 제1人者를 대신할 때 敎援들은 直接간섭 때문에 덜 自由롭기 마련이다. 초기 기독교대학이 이룩한 왕성한 인재양성과 우리 사회에 활약하는 많은 기독교인 지도자를 감안할 때 기독교대학에 대한 유능한 기독교인 교수들의 부임회피태도나 그 확보난은 한국의 全人口數에 比한 기독교인의 數的인 弱勢에 그 원인이 있는 것이 아니고 오히려 기독교대학의 學問的인 분위기에 더 큰 책임의 소재가 있다. 따라서 기독교대학 교육정책에 있어서 자유의 증대와 민주적인 개방성의 문제는 信仰的 告白에 土臺한 그 특성화와 동시에 필요하다는 사실을 알게 된다. In the process of the modernization of Korea, Christian higher education(from the late 19th century to 1945) was regarded as a vanguard of her history. Its contributions have been well known among the Korean people. Many Christians were proud of its achievements and services rendered for the Korean people and society. Nowadays, however, many people observe that the influence of Christian higher education is diminishing. McGarrah has pointed out such a trend. For the generations prior to 1945, Christian colleges had granted increasing shares of contributions and services. Nolv there are signs that their meaningfulness is not likely to continue. Prospects for development are not bright. Ironically, the Christian college and university's role and mission are being challenged at a time when their capabilities and society's demand for more rational humanitarian approaches to problems of industrial civilization are perhaps greater than ever. Thus many people are raising some questions concerning the validity of Christian higher education. (1) Were there any apparent reasons which justify the existance of Christian higher education in the past? (2) Why are people, then, raising questions about the validity of Christian higher education today? (3) What are the objectives of Christian higher education in the Korean context? (4) How can we develop a relevant educational policy to meet a changing society?

          • 美國에서의 東洋史學의 硏究動向 : 中國을 中心하여

            金燁 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1983 東洋文化硏究 Vol.10 No.-

            Never before have the countries of the world been so eager to study China than today, and America has reached the highest level of Chinese studies among them. The author fo this article recently had an opportunity to visit America and survey its studies in Chinese history. This article first discusses a three-stage development of Chinese historiography in twentieth-century America―from its incipient stage at the beginning of the century, through its rapid growth in the 1940s and 1950s, to its full blossoming in the 1960s and 1970s. In its second stage, Chinese historiography in America outgrew the European methods of Sinology; in its third stage, it tends to focus on revolutions, peasant movements and communist movements. The second part of this article is devoted to a survey of institutions related to Chinese studies: (1) thirty or so institutes and associations for Chinese studies as well as their journals, (2) twenty-two libraries which respectively have a collection of Chinese books over fifty thousand volumes, and (3) fourteen public and private funds that confer grants for Chinese studies. The last section of this article analyzes the curriculum of Chinese history offered by the Department of East Asian language and Civilization at Harvard University, as an example.

          • 中共政治文化의 兩面性 : 革命 對 逆革命 急進 對 穩健 Revolution to Counterrevolution, and Radicalism to Moderatism

            洪亮杓 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1978 東洋文化硏究 Vol.5 No.-

            Political culture of People's Republic of China (PRC) can be explained as struggle or conflict between two elements: revolution (Cultural Revolution) and counterrevolution (Counter C.R.), and radicalism and moderatism. The Cultural Revolution occured with the background and reason of ideological reorganization of people, precedence of politics to business, the critics of Sun Nipang, May-7-Directives by Mao, and the consolidation of Mao's power. Above all Cultural Revolutionalists challenged Chinese and even World's traditions. They opposed all the old values of culture, and the China was in danger of breaking with the past. The process of Revolution was an expression of insanity. After the savage turmoil, Chinese politics has turned to Counter-Revolution such as precedence of industrialization, material incentives, "distribution according to work", income gap, and etc. The struggle between Revolutionalists and Counterrevolutionalists was turned out to be that of radicalism and moderatism. The former's polctical ideology is literal Maoism, continuity of revolution, voluntarism, non-compromising with reality, antiauthority, precedence of class-struggle, economic egalitarianism, and etc, and the latter's one is classical Marxism, historical determination, emphasizing objective conditions, precedence of modernization to ideology, elitism, preference of social stability (comparing with the radicalists' social disorder for the Revolution), economic efficiency, economic inequality to a certain extent and etc. The triumph of the moderatism over the radicalism with the fall of Gang of Four is any how more desirable than the latter's win. For the moderates' means and politics are relatively nonviolent and friendly to foreign country and Capitalism.

          • 男女大學生의 結婚觀(I) : 그들의 意識과 行動을 中心으로

            柳時中,韓有常 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1984 東洋文化硏究 Vol.11 No.-

            In human society, family is an institution and a universal group, and generally based upon marriage and bloodrelation. The existence of family in society presupposed the marriage, through which a family is established. It is known that the marriage institution have been changed by the ideological and cutural variable as well as social and economic ones through human history. Through the process of modernization, Korea has undergone various change in every social aspect. Especially in institutional and actual aspects, the family and the marriage have been changed a great deal by the rapid urbanization and industrialization for about 40 years, and these changes have been investigated scientifically. In scientific researches on the social phenomena, testifying hypothesis based on certain sociological facts and its theoretical construction are freat importance, and so is the acculuation of the fact-findings in which variousfacts about specific social phenomena are concretely described. Marriage is, as said above, an institutional combination of both sexes, especially of young men and women. In the given conditions of Korean society, adolescents who reach their marriageable age are, for the most part, young workers and college students, though. They show a tendency to select their spouses and marry homogamously, and this tendency is true of both the college undergraduates and the graduates. For example, they trand to select their spouses of the same age and on the same level of education. But these homogamous tendencies are not always the same in their details and categories. They have changed according to the times and societies, instead. Because of the differences of gender, the man and woman college students, although they have grown up in the same social, economic and cutural surroundings, don't have the same views of marriage and can't keep the pace with each other in their practical behaviors. After analyzing the man and woman college students of the graduating class in Taegu regions who have been influenced by the radical social changes, this paper is written, in accordance with the procedures of sociological research, 1) to study their general consciousness and behavior connected with marriage, 2) to show the differeces in consciousness and behavio between the man and woman college students, and 3) to compare the college students' tendencies in marriage in Korea with those in Europe and America, espacially with those in Japan which has been under the influences of Confucianism and modernized prior to us. The topics dealt with in this study covers 1) how the acquaintance of the other sexes is made before marriage 2) how and by whom the selection of a spouse is determined 3) what the criteria on his selection are. Findings on the sex problems and life plannings after marriage will be presented in other journals.

          • 最近 美國의 英語學 硏究 動向 및 在美韓國人의 韓國語 敎育 現況

            金漢昌,李基白 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1982 東洋文化硏究 Vol.9 No.-

            Both writers traveled the U.S.A. for twenty days (July 25, 1981∼August 14, 1981), visiting State University of New York at Buffalo, State University of Pennsylvania, University of Hawaii, etc. Their purpose was to make a brief survey of the recent trends of American linguistics and Korean studies in America. The following is the summary of the research. (1) Many linguists believe that there is no clear-cut distinction between syntax and semantics. (2) Great importance is being placed on the discourse analysis which was not a concern of structural and transformational grammars. (3) Competence model grammar is being displaced by the communicative grammar. (4) Pragmatic features such as presupposition, illocutionary force and nonverbal action are being extensively investigated in the study of language. (5) Theory-centered linguistics makes room for data-centered linguistics. (6) The establishment of Korean Studies at State University of New York at Buffalo is urgently demanded among Koreans living in New York and its vicinal areas.

          • 朝鮮前期의 手稻作法考

            李鎬澈 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1984 東洋文化硏究 Vol.11 No.-

            In this study we attempted to analyze a paddy-rice planting technologies of early Yi-Dynasty in the light of two old agricultural literatures(農事直說, 矜陽雜錄). First of all, ther water-cultivating(水耕) of early-growing varieties(早稻) were encouraged in irrigated area and at the second the water-cultivating of late-growing varieties(晩稻). The dry-cultivating(乾耕) was performed only in an rain-paddy area. In water-cultivating, the seeding method was practised row-seeding method(條播法) called "equall scatter(均撤)" and in the case of tranplanting of rice, there are practised broadcast-seeding method(散播法). In the dry-cultivating, there are practised spot-seeding method(點播法) called "foot-seeding(足種)". In the fertilization, It was used human manure, cattle excrement, vegetation manure and silkworm dropings, and the weeding works consist of the hand-weeding and the tool-weeding. Farm labor of this period consists of the first plowing, the second plowing, soil preparation, seed soaking in water, seeding, seed-covering, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. In this works, man power and animal power is organically combined. A paddy-field reclamation of a low swampy place was used by special farming tools, that is, Yoonmok(輪木), Simok(柴木) and Dabi(地寶) etc. In the cultivatied paddy direct-planting was used for late-growing varieties(晩稻). The technology of rice transplanting was not dominated to even two province of kyungsang and kangwon because of the limited well-irrigated paddy. But it was carried out under the solving of weed-problem or special soil conditions by large-farmers. In this case, the productivity didn't exceed that of water-cultivating(水耕) of early growing variety.

          • 最近環境問題 硏究動向

            李英祚,羅炳旭 慶北大學校 東洋文化硏究所 1982 東洋文化硏究 Vol.9 No.-

            1. Environmental detorioration has demonstrable harful effects on Human health, Fauna, Flora, Natural resources, Materials, Climate and Weather. We were conviced that virtually all forms of environmental damage were increasing in absence of powerful contermeasures and then environmental quality detorioration would continue to accelerate more or less. 2. Environmental policy is distinguished by several important characteristics in comparison with other public policy. 1) Most of Environmental policy includes coercive powers. 2) It stresses two aspeets of inputs into the policy process: technical and political inputs. 3) The role of scientific information and its exchange will pay a greater part in the formulation of environmental policy. 3. Present studies in the environmental problems focus on following. 1) Researches in the past neglected the relation between the socioeconomic system and its natural environment with the simplistic view of the course of environmental contamination, and most of the researches had been technically oriented. But these efforts, which are of course necessary, cannot be successful in approaching the aim that diminish the environmental pollution. The underlying problem can by no means be solved by an integration of applicable scientific methods. These problems can be solved by interdisciplinary research and communication between the groups. 2) In the present study the focus is on the receptor and how damage to it can be related to environmental changes, and ultimately to the source of these changes. Accordingly, damage is classified here into six broad receptor catagories. Within each catagory, two general types of damage are considered, financial losses and losses of amenity. To date, studies have used other terms to denote this dichotomy as "direct and indirect costs", "economic and social costs", "tangible and intangible costs" and "physical and psychic costs". 3) The policy instruments that can be used for the preservation of environmental quality were classified into four broad categories: moral suasion, direct controls, price incentives and direct governmental expenditure. The three, moral suasion, direct controls, and price incentives, are techniques to influence polluters' behavior. The forth approach involves direct governmental expenditure, largely for the construction and operation of projects that improve the environment. These all instruments must be satisfied with criteria such as dependability, permanance, adptability to economic growth, equity, economy, incentives for maximum effort, and political attractiveness for evaluating environmental policy. But each instrument has its strength and its limitations in achieving particular environmental objectives.

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