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      • 精神薄弱兒의 選擇的 注意集中過程에 新奇性-親密性次元의 效果

        趙寅洙 又石大學校 特殊敎育硏究所 1988 特殊敎育學硏究 Vol.1 No.-

        This study has shown that novelty-familiarity is a potent dimension in the discriminative performance of retardates, as has previously been found for normal children and adults. Novelty-Familiarity has also been shown to facilitate attention of discrimination learning with color form stimuli, probably though a continguity mechanism. The facilitative effects of familization are related to intelligence. Subjects of lower MA benefit less because of conflicting tendencies to approach novel stimuli. Some possible implications for retardation; Novelty has been shown to be a highly salient dimension which fedes spontaneously. Much effect has gone into devising special training techniques for the retarded utilising learning "Crutches", redundant relevant cues added and then gradually faded over the course of learning. Novelty is a highly efficient crutch in that if fades by itself. No special engineering or material arrangements are necessary to use novelty-familiarity as a learning crutch, making possible wide and easy application of the device. The effects of intelligence on the novelty-familiarity crutch" can be eliminated easily by making novel cues the correct ones. This leads to an interesting prediction, that in a study such as the present one, if novel cues, rather-than familiar cues, were correct, the performance of Low MA subjects could be equal to, or higher than that of High MA subjects.

      • 聲學校 敎育課程 構成을 위한 社會 要求調査

        石東一 又石大學校 特殊敎育硏究所 1988 特殊敎育學硏究 Vol.1 No.-

        With a view to provide suggestions on amendent of curriculum in deaf school, I surveyed the needs of parents, teachers and specialists. The results are as follows : 1. As society is being change by the rapidly changing judgement of value, thoughts, pattern of behaviors, judgement of value and knowledge are very changing. So bold improvements are neceressary in the whole deaf education. 2. In the basic nature and direction of deaf school curriculum, focus of education should be put on self-realization. For the reasion, the humanstic education should be emphasis from the education in accordance with hearing children education and so, 1) A education plan should be training the men who are conquest the handicap with positive and active. 2) We must amend the level and volume of contents in deaf children. 3) We should be integrate and segrate the subjects with level of learners. 4) We should be introduction nongrade conception and program learning so that we may be able to individual education. 3. Communication method of deaf students have to get out of oral only and sign only. Teaching method of language should be considerated each student's unique needs and ability or should be make practical application of computer. 4. One of the education goal for the deaf student cultivate of ability in theirs occupation. We should be contents, curriculum, institute of vocational education and training professional. 5. We should be reflected idea of career education in order to cope with rapidly changing world. Particularly guarantee a chance of the higher education. 6. Curriculum should be limit a difference scholastic ability between deaf student and normal student.

      • 觸知覺 論攷

        金東淵 又石大學校 特殊敎育硏究所 1988 特殊敎育學硏究 Vol.1 No.-

        In this study, I have been trying to describe the state of knowledge and general approaches in the basic study of tactual and haptic perception. Where possible, this basic information was made relevant to problems faced by the visually impaired. As the conclusion the main findings were as follows: It is important for the mobility specialist to understand these aspects of haptic perception since haptic perception is one of the most important modes of information input available to blind persons. Haptic perception is implicated directly in the mobility of blind persons when they are reading braille maps or identifying objects in order to orient themselves in spaces such as rooms. In relating stimulus variation to perception, two slightly different approaches have been taken. One involves analysis of complex patterns or objects which are changed in systematic ways. The second involves varying pure physical dimensions and seeing how perception changes. This is essentially the approach of traditional psychophysics. The traditional psychophysical approach is to determine how perception changes with variation in “pure” stimulus dimensions by Weber's Law, the amount of change required for such detection depends on the initial size. Thus small objects require small changes and large objects require larger changes. Stevens has demonstrated that for many dimensions perceived magnitude is proportional to physical magnitude raised to some power that is, small physical changes produce large perceptual changes. In the use of haptic information, It may be tentatively concluded that haptic added to visual information does not play a facilitory role, whereas visual added to haptic information does. Generally, this evidence shows that younger children tend to attend to texture information when it is available together with shape information, whereas older children are more likely to attend to shape. Exploration strategy is an important issue. It is necessary to separate haptic sensory abilities from the strategies used to direct haptic activity, because it may be in the strategy area that the younger child's weakness lies, rather than in haptic sensitivity to itself strategies may indeed be susceptible to training, whereas it seems unlikely that sensitivity itself can be substantially improved. There is some evidence on the possibility of training strategies that are not spontaneously used. Davidson (1972), working with adults, found congenitally blind subjects to be better at judging curvature than sighted subjects performing blind folded. From a variety of observational and experimental evidlly during the early childhood years. Another type of constant error which occurs in haptic perception is the geometric illusion. It turns out that at least two of the classical visual geomatric illusions have haptic counterparts: The Muller-lyer illusion and the horizontal-vertical illusion. Specially, congenitally blind subjects were also found susceptible to both these illusions. A final illusion to be mentioned is the size-weight illusion. This illusion to be mentioned is the size-weight illusion. This illusion was also first discovered when the procedure was carried out with vision. However, it is possible to measure the magnitude of this illusion by increasing the weight of the larger object until it is judged as heavy as the smaller object. It was found with one set of objects that the weight of the larger object had to be increased by as much as 40 to 50 percent to reach this point of equilibrium, paradoxically, illusions where perception is not as good as one would like seem to be closely related to the so-called constancies where perception appears to be better than it ought to be with haptic perception the phenomenom of constancy also exists but it is not as obvious as with visual perception. Blind infants are generally slow to develop such object constancy. In the research discussed, the stimuli typically varied in only one dimension. The simplest kind of processing to which to pay attention. Any real object or pattern is very complex. When we feel it do we pay attention to all its aspects - its size, shape, texture, hardness, temperature, etc? Certainly, these characteristics we pay attention to depend to some extent on our prupose. However, given a relatively neutral task such as telling a set of objects apart, is it possible to make generalizations about the aspects of the objects to which people attend? Gliner, Pick, Pick, and Hales (1969) carried out just such an experiment with kindergarteners and third grade children. It was found that the younger children on the whole were selectively attending to texture and the older children to shape. Although it is now known how general these results might be varieties of shape as well as general situations, the message is one of caution. In a study of discrimination of move complex shapes than the ellipses just considered, Pick (1965) asked the question whether children taught to discriminate between pairs of shapes would learn what the individual shapes themselves were like or whether they would just learn how the shapes differed from one another. Again we do not know how far these results may be generalized but the suggestion is that in haptic perception simultaneous and successive exploration of objects may have somewhat different effects. If the detection of differences or distinctive features is of primary importance, simultaneous presentation of objects would be efficient. If perception of the nature of the objects themselves is important, it may be facilitated by successive presentation. Directly relevant to the question of encoding of information is the unit in which information is perceived. In considering the encoding of information we must confront the question of meaning of patterns of stimulation with stimuli like braille the meaning of each character is arbitrary, but there are representational patterns of stimulation which naturally reflect the meaning of the thing they are supposed to represent. Again there is not much knowledge of how to naturally represent things, but consideration of such issues is major importance when designing representational tactile stimuli. What happens to tactual and haptic information after it is encoded? It is often the case in real life that we have to remember information or we have to transform information before it is useful. The problem of short-term memory or storage of information may be particularly important in haptic and tactual perception because of the successive nature of information input. Transformation of perceived information is goin on all the time. In the case of verbal information, we can often not recall the exact words we have been reading but we know the meaning. In addition to the above findings some discussions on the tactual and haptic perception for the visually impaired were made.

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