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It is very important for anyone in any field of occupation to improve his health through sport. Especially, it is needless to say that the teachers in charge of the second generation should have good health. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the following items so as to obtain the materials for helping teachers participate in sport activities. So the concrete tasks are to find the status of teachers' direct and indirect participation in sport, the attitude toward sport and the results of evaluation. For these tasks, the conclusions are as follows in the results of analyzing the materials through using the questionnaires to 200 middle school teachers. (1) By the state of teachers' direct participation in sport, male teachers had more scores in the rate of participation, the frequency of participation, the length of participation time than female teachers. Male and female teachers showed difference in the reason of participation or not, the companion when taking part, the expense of participation, the place of participation, and participation between before and after appointment. It was revealed that the motive of participation and sport items in which to participate were similar. (2) By the state of teachers' indirect participation in sport, both male and female teachers have a little experience of sport viewing, but have much indirect experience. The participation of male teachers was high in the experience of sport viewing, the time of watching sports on TV, the subscription of sport newspaper, the degree of interest in sport topic and indirect participation in sport after appointment. Male and female teachers showed a little difference in the pattern of viewing sport, the reason of not viewing and the viewing items, etc. (3) By the attitude and evaluation toward sport, both male and female teachers were very positive about the view of athletes' occupation have much influence by means of it. The evaluation of the function and value of sport were high recognized. In addition, the view of sport were better after appointment than before appointment. (4) The matters to improve conditions for participation in sport activities are the expansion of sport facilities and space, more opportunity of participation, reconsideration of managers, development and spread of sport programs the placement of leaders.
The purpose of this research is an survey and analysis whether sports news is doing right roles and functions of mass media with TV sports news broadcasting events and content's analysis. In this research, Broadcasting events and contents for 8 months(1999. 3. 9 - 1999. 10. 30) as sports news broadcasted after 9 o'clock news are collected and analyzed. The conclusion that can be conducted from this research runs as follows; First, sports news broadcasting was done with mainly popular ball games and individual events. Second, sports news broadcasting was done with mainly exciting game results, individual and team news. Third, sports news didn't do right roles and functions of mass media. These results means that TV sports news should reinforce social education functions more positively escaping from popularity and exciting-oriented broadcasting form to do right roles and functions of sports mass media.
The purpose of this study is to know and search the realities of high school students leisure activities and method of improvement in Shihung City, Kyonggi-Do. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,104 students in 3 high schools. The SPSS program was applied and χ²test was used. The results obtained are as follows : 1) The activity in leisure time is effective to emotional life, art activity and hobby, dissolution of stress and tire out. 2) This research shows the youth think the culture of play hasn’t yet fixed in our time, and most of them are interested in the contents and necessity of leisure activities, but they can’t enjoy their leisure activities because the community leisure facilities are not enough. 3) By the research, students leisure time on weekdays in about 1~2hours, and 4~7 days in a week, and also it’s very passive and nagative. Students play computer game or watch TV or listen to the radio at home and usually meet friends outside their home. 4) Almost all the student think sports activities are very important. 5) Their leisure expenses average 20,000~30,000 Won a month and their pocket moneies 30,000~50,000 Won. 6) Most students wanted to enjoy their leisure time in theaters, cultural areas/arts centurs. However, It turned out that lack of them and narrow places for liesure activities must be quickly improved. Therefore I am to draw conclustions as follow : 1) For making up the sound students leisure activities, the society has to make an effort with the youth, families, schools and communities all together, having the upright outlook of leisure. 2) The expansion of the facilities for the students culture around a community should be promoted. 3) The active and creative opportnity for activity in leisure time must be given, and parents interest and guide is requested. 4) Through activity of leisure time, students must set efficient time plan and make it a rule to spend money according to the plan and develop their self-control.
This study was conducted to examine the sports educational model's influences on high school students' righteous region after selecting basketball unit that is one of the physical education course's game parts in high school and teaching with sports educational model. And this study aimed at understanding the sports educational model, complementing and improving physical education class. The object of study was 60 boy students from two classes of first grader at Y-high school located in the South Chung Cheong Province. I separated them into an experimental and comparative group. The central educational council's handbook of measuring instruments for righteous feature (Ahn, Chang Nam, 1984) was a primary examining instrument. And I also used the righteous region's examining instrument revised and complemented based on the examining instrument which Park, Mi Young and Kim, Do Soo used. Preliminary examination had been conducted before the experiment was done. Sports educational model was applied to the experiment group and general educational model was done to the comparative group for 6 weeks with 12 times of experiments. And using SPSS for Windows after post examination processed the data, We came to get following results after processing and analyzing the data collected through preliminary and post examination. According to the results, they prove that sports educational model influences on high school students' righteous region in a positive way. 1) In basic attitude out of righteous region, the experimental group showed higher scores than the comparative group. It showed statistically significant differences according to t-verification.In case we observe subordinate parts of basic attitude, the following are listed with the importance order of which showed significant differences except the prospect of the physical education course. A degree of active participation in the class, interest in physical education class, students-focused class, preference for physical education class, validity of life, aids obtained from the course of physical education, a degree of fulfillment for the course of physical education, the importance of the course of physical education. 2) In psychiatric feature out of righteous region, the experimental group showed higher scores than the comparative group. It showed statistically significant difference according to t-verification.In case we observe subordinate parts of psychiatric feature, satisfaction, confidence and spontaneity except a sense of alienation and a feeling of uneasiness showed significant differences. 3) In social feature out of righteous region, the experimental group showed higher scores than the comparative group. It showed statistically significant differences according to t-verification. In case we observe subordinate parts of social feature, an inclination of cooperation, altruism and responsibility except a law-abiding spirit, an inclination of offense, a propensity of rivalry showed significant differences.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of mass communication and personal communication on sports involvement of students, as there has been a growing need for sports. The hypotheses were posed as below: First, mass communication would exert a big influence on student awareness of sports. Second, sports broadcasting frequency on television would have a direct impact on the rate of serving as a sports information source between mass communication and personal communication. Third, personal communication would give lots of impact on students who have a deeper understanding of sports. Fourth, personal communication would exercise a great influence on student interest in sports. Fifth, personal communication would greatly affect students who have an intention to practice a sport. Sixth, mass-communication information would have less influence on students engaged in sports, and the influence of personal communication would be greater, instead. Seventh, student involved in sports would contact more sports information. To test the hypotheses, 414 students in elementary and middle schools in Taejon were surveyed. The collected data were coded and analyzed with SPSS/PC^+ 8.0. x^2 test also was conducted, and the level of significance was set at a=0.05. The findings of this study were as follows: 1. As a sports information source for the students investigated, mass communication played a role by 60.39%, and personal communication accounted for 39.61%. Accordingly, communication played a crucial role for the students as a sports information source. Specifically, mass communication gave lots of influence on their sports involvement. 2. Regarding sports events frequently broadcasted by television, mass communication played a role by 60.87% in baseball, 63.04% in volleyball, and 56.52% in tennis. On the other hand, that acounted just for 24.88% in badminton on the air less. This showed that the frequency of television sports broadcasting gave a direct impact on the rate of mass and personal communication as a sports information source. 3. As a means of information source to let them recognize the existence of a certain sports event(just hear of its name), mass communication played a big role by 78.57% in baseball, 74.39% in volleyball, 66.67% in tennis and 60.28% in badminton. However, a deeper understanding of that sports event resulted in lowering the role of mass communication: baseball with 53.46%l, volleyball with 36%, tennis with 41.47% and badminton with 58.53%. Therefore, mass communication served as a crucial information source of sports awareness. 4. The more understanding of sports had a tendency to increase the role of personal communication, as personal communication worked as an information source of baseball by 46.79%, volleyball by 64%, tennis by 58.53% and badminton by 87.10%. But mass communication accounted just for 53.21% in baseball, 36% in volleyball, 41.47% in tennis, and 12.90% in badminton. 5. Concerning the effect of personal communication on sports involve- ment frequency, 70.93% practiced a sport always, and 65.79% went in for a sport often. 45% did it from time to time, and 51.81% never practiced it. This implied the sports involvement frequency depended on personal communication. 6. Personal communication will have a great effect on helping students decide on doing sports. 7. The students who continued to be involved in sports stayed in touch with more sports information than those who didn't. In conclusion, the growing need for sports indicated that there was a need to utilize communication more largely to draw interest from students, further their understanding of sports, and encourage their aggressive sports involvement.
As in the above statements, the modern Kumdo that is based on the oriental philosophy, 'Do(道)' and a concept of physical training has been conducted as an important division of life-time sports, accordingly, it has been regarded as an important cultural activities as well as physical education in both oriental and western worlds. So a clear trend is that people gradually give their attention to this sports. Though this sports' origin was fighting skills used for the purpose of winning in actual fights, this sports genre is being dealt with as an important teaching material, which fact represents that its practical significance has a great effect on human character-formation. The Kumdo's practical significance lies in, in a modern sense, the physical training processes. The Kumdo-learning process, introduction stage, learning(instruction) stage, technical stage, and the last stage of 'Do(道)' can be said to be a conscious striving-process of continual practices. And these stages to acquire Kumdo lead to the ideas of Buddhism's ascetic practices or Confucianism's natural harmony, in other words, Kumdo training signifies a spiritual training to attain 'Do(道)'. The Kumdo training not only cultivates trainees' perfect morals through repeated physical action and training but also expresses human life-force by pursuing the utmost technical skills. The attained attitude through Kumdo training is 'good manners' that makes other persons high and respect their personality, which helps trainees themselves cultivate good characters. Conclusively, the final aim of Kumdo, character formation can be achieved by practicing all the above processes.
Through the interviews with the persons who are in charge of the administration of the sports centers, the following results were analyed about their present administration conditions such as facilities, profits, wages, utilities, the present condit management, and cost. 1) The profits of sports centers are strongly influenced by locations. Especially, the ones with more convenient, nearby residential areas, and shoppin places in the same building attract more people. 2) Most of the sports centers in Taejon have been experiencing some loss in management for last three years. For instance, M Sports Center has experienced 16.6% decrease in profit in the similar way with others, such as 37.2% decrease at S Sports Center, and 12.8% decrease in C Sports Center. This is not usual if one considers the fact the consumer prices index has been increasing about 5.6% each year. The major reason for this situation is that a lot of sports centers, including ones within new department stores have opened, which increased the competition among the sports centers, resulting lowering prices in order to attract more members. 3) The wages take fairly large portion of over all income in sports center. For example, in case of M Sports Center, wages are 49.1% of total income. Others are not much different, S Sports Center 50.7%, C Sports Center 38.4%. Thus, most sports centers are employing more and more of part time trainers rather than full times. 4) In utility fees(gas, electricity, water supply, etc), the public gyms are offered 45% lower prices than other sports centers; Utility fees in M Sports Center is 37.7% of total incoms, S Sports Center 43.2%, and Sports Center 33.2%. If government subsidies are offered for sports centers, it will greatly ease the pain that most sports centers are having in management. 5) The physical promotion fees that each commercial sports centers have paid each year up to 1999, which are supposed to their total income, have been supporting only the public sports centers that are built by the government. This has worsened the commercial sports centers that already have enough problems in maintaining the facilities. Therefore, government should offer subsidies not only to the public sports centers, but also to the commercial sports centers as well for the benefit of the general public who want to use the facilities. 6) For some of the programs of the sports centers, it is found that the administrations are trying to just maintain the programs rather that trying to provide better ones for the members due to the short of budget. 7) As far as the qualifications of trainers are concerned, 51.7% of them are part time employees, who are not experts. For a closer look M Sports Center has 13 part time employees and of 25 trainers, and among them 18 trainers have finished undergraduate curriculum, and the rest of them have graduated from high school. For S Sports Center, 10 out of 21 trainers are working as part time trainers, and among them, 10 of them finished undergraduate curriculum, and the rest of them have finished high school. C Sports Center is not much different. Half of their trainers are part time workers and 5 out of 12 trainers have finished undergraduate curriculum, and the rest of them have graduated from high school. 8) For administration, only M Sports Center's supervisor is a physical education expert. The other two supervisors who are not experts in physical education have expressed their concerns and limits in managing the trainers and research and development. * A thesis submitted to the committee of Graduate School, Kong Ju National University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Conferred in February 2001.
본 연구는 1990년부터 2000년 7월까지 11회 동안의 세심 정신문화 연구원주최의 생활 체육 대학 검도 동아리인을 대상으로 한 2박3일간의 총인원 968명이 참여한 세심 검도 연수 프로그램의 교육적 의미로서의 가치를 다음과 분석하였다. 한 회의 참여자 평균은 남자가 88±9.27명, 여자가 71±6.55명, 이었다. 전체 참여자의 평균 나이는 20.9±0.55 이었다. 프로그램의 내용을 수면시간, 식사시간, 이동, 준비, 대기 시간 등을 제외하고 주제별로 분류하여 분석한 한 회의 평균 연수시간은 1288분으로 약 22시간이다. 검도 관련 시간의 비율이 29.26%, 산악 훈련을 통한 극기 훈련의 비율이 21.26%, 분임 토의, 신념화 교육 등의 정신 계발 훈련이 21.11%, 탈춤, 사물놀이 등 문화 체험이 10.94%, 어떻게 살 것인가? 등 교양 강좌가 10.15%, 캠프 화이어, 친교의 시간 등의 레크레이션이 7.28%로 구성되었다. 전국 각지에서 다양한 검도 수련 방법과 내용으로 배워온 것을 연수 교육에 참여하여 통일된 수련 방법과 내용을 배워보는 것은 평소 검도 수련에 많은 도움이 될 것이다. 특히 본국검법이나 조선세법 등의 수련은 세심 검도 연수 프로그램에서 배울 수 있는 중요한 기회가 되고 있다. 검법의 수련은 특히 정확성과 검리에 맞는 수련이라야 한다. 따라서 세심 검도 연수 프로그램에서는 검도의 본질적인 교육적 가치인 검도 수련의 목적에 부합되는 프로그램으로 구성되어 있다. 세심 검도 연수 프로그램은 우리의 전통 문화인 판소리, 탈춤, 타령, 가야금병창, 사물놀이 등을 전문가로부터 직접 배우며 체험 할 수 있는 기회를 갖는다. 이는 검도가 우리의 전통 문화이며 신체 활동으로 교육적 가치를 창출하는 것과 탈춤, 타령, 사물놀이 등 또한 몸으로 익히고 표출한다는 것은 검도 수행과 같은 맥락을 이루고 있다. 검도 수행이 무형의 문화이면서 생활 체육으로서의 역할을 하는 것은 신체의 움직임에 의한 인간 형성의 도이기 때문이다. 이는 체육의 본질적인 가치와 일치하는 것이다. 세심 검도 연수 프로그램에서 탈춤, 타령, 판소리, 가야금 병창, 사물놀이 등을 배울 수 있는 기회를 제공하는 것은 전통 문화의 계승과 발전적인 차원에서 검도 수행과 같은 맥락으로서 매우 중요한 가치가 있는 것이다. This study analyzed the results from the short-term study &raining programs executed by the Life-Time Sports Kumdo Club, which is sponsored by SaiSim Spiritual-Culture Society, focused on its educational significance or value. The study subjects were the 968 members of the Life-Time Sports Kumdo Club, and research period was from 1999 to July, 2000. the meetings were hold eleven times, and each meeting lasted for 2 nights and 3 days. The analysis results are as follows; The average number of male participants in each meeting was 88±9.27, while that of female was 71±6.55. The average age of the whole participants was 20.9±0.55. The contents of the programs were classified according to their main topics, except for sleeping hours, dining hours, moving hours, and waiting hours; the average hour of each study-raining meeting was 1288 minutes, about 22 hours; the percentage that Kumdo-related hours occupy was 29.26%, the percentage of self-conquest training hour like mountain-climbing was 21.26%, the ratio allotted to spiritual and mental training such as discussion and faith-education was 21.11%, the ratio allotted to cultural experiences such as Korean masked dance or four traditional instrumental music of Korean peasants was 10.94%, and the percentage allotted to cultural courses under general titles like 'What do we live for?' was 10.15%, the recreation hours' percentage, such as camp-fire or good fellowship's time was 7.28%. It may be very helpful for actual Kumdo training to participate in the study &raining programs that are conducted in the whole country by national and private institutions, learn various Kumdo skills and educational contents, and experience diverse training methods. The martial arts of Korea(本國劍法) and ChoSun(朝鮮稅法) are the special opportunities that are provided in this Kumdo study &raining program conducted by SaiSim Spiritual-Culture Society. The Kumdo training should be correctly practiced according to correct Kumdo regulations. Therefore, the Kumdo study &raining programs conducted by SaiSim Spiritual-Culture Society consist of those proper for the most basic educational values and relevant to main purposes of Kumdo. These Kumdo study &raining programs conducted by SaiSim Spiritual-Culture Society provide the opportunities of learning and experiencing Korean traditional events such as Pansori(theatrical song), masked dance, kind of tune(ballad), Kayakeum Chorus, and four traditional instrumental music event of Korean peasants, in the lessons given by professional instructors. Kumdo is one of Korean traditional cultures, and Kumdo practice is one of physical activities and physical expressions like masked dance, kind of tune(ballad), and four traditional instrumental music event of Korean peasants, which can create educational values. Kumdo is an intangible cultural assets and play an important role as life-time sports, because it not only represents Zen idea manifested by human physical movements but also helps people build correct characters, all of which corresponds to the fundamental values of physical education. In conclusion, it is a very valuable thing that the Kumdo study &raining programs conducted by SaiSim Spiritual-Culture Society provide the opportunities of learning and experiencing Korean traditional events such as Pansori(theatrical song), masked dance, kind of tune(ballad), Kayakeum Chorus, and four traditional instrumental music event of Korean peasants, in the lessons given by professional instructors, in the dimension of succeeding to as well as developing the traditional culture. And its merit is important as much as Kumdo training's.
This study analyzed 7items of general pecularities on Adults Activity of city Area. 1) In the 6iterms of leisure admission degree, there were showed statically singnificant on the annual income(p<0.05) and the occupation (p<0.01). 2) On the weekday leisure time, there Occupation among the attributes was admitted stakistically significant(p<0.01). 3) On the holiday leisure time, there were showed statistically significant in the sex(p<0.05) and the occapation(p<0.05) among the 6items of the general pecularities, especially it is shwed higher level in the age(p<0.05). 4) On the rising and decreasing of leisure time, there were showed statistically signifidant in the occupation(p<0.01) and the region(p<0.05) among the general pecularities of 6items. 5) On the 6items of general pecularities for the faithfulness in the leisure time(life), it was showed statistically significant in the occupation(p<0.05), and on the money matters, it was showed a sin quanon precondition(p<0.05). 6) On the 「good」 of 「dislike」of sports and exercese, there were showed statistically signficant the age(p<0.05), the occupation(p<0.01) and the region(p<0.01) among the general pecularities. 7) On the motivation of sports activity among the general pecularities, there were showed statistically signifiant in the scholqarship(p<0.05) and the region(p<0.01).
Trend of act is indispensable part to mordem man because man is originally living and active being. Sports developed with human being and now practices anywhere in the world. It divides into Mass Sports to promote health and Championship Sports to centered player which is bring up superior player. The exercise purpose of player is to improve game ability, skill capacity, special strength and differs that of the general public to promote their basic health. Elite Sports is required the quantity and intensity of physical action by the principle of Overweight Load on the mordrn-type superior method. So it induces sports injury that different from sports spirit itself and becomes the source of disease. The danger of injury is less than others as swimming is sports in the water. but it suffers an injury in all physical motion because swimming makes use of shoulder, waist and knee. To study on the Sports Injury of Swimmer, the subject of investigation was 323 man and woman high school swimmer participated in the 78th National Althetics Meetings. The items of swimming were a Free style, Butterfly, Backstroke, Breast and Individual combined stroke and their average career was 8 years and 10 month. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The regional Injury Arm injury was 22.10 times (46.2%), 42.90 times (46.4%), 57.51 times (46.7) and 946.40) times (41.2%) for Free style, Butterfly, Backstroke and Individual combined stroke respectively. 2. The Kind of Injury It was 45.4% Musle and Tendon, 21.3% Musle Integrity which is the high, 18% Bruise. 29.3% Skin injury. 3. The Cause of Injury The major cause showed in his indulgence on training an the rate was 1.74 times (38.2%). 4. The Remedy of Injury They have treated 102 times (27.3%) by a herb clinic an 61 times (16.3%) by an otolaryngologist. 5. Others The uncomfortable physical part after remedy was 24 times (25.5%), 12 times (12.3%) and 11 times (11.2%) for Shoulder, Waist and Ankle respectively. With the above results, the most injuried region of swimmer was Shoulder, Waist and Knee. It is essential to warming-up and Stretching enough before training. Also, it is good to do finishing and remedial exercises or give a massage after practice. Therfore it seems to be consider concretely counterplan such as accident insurance to solve injury occurrence, a burden of remedy cost an sequelae.