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          • KCI등재

            Clinical Relationship of Degenerative Changes between the Cervical and Lumbar Spine

            Yuichiro Morishita,Zorica Buser,Anthony D’Oro,Keiichiro Shiba,Jeffrey C. Wang 대한척추외과학회 2018 Asian Spine Journal Vol.12 No.2

            Study Design: Retrospective, observational, case series. Purpose: To elucidate the prevalence of degenerative changes in the cervical and lumbar spine and estimate the degenerative changes in the cervical spine based on the degeneration of lumbar disc through a retrospective review of magnetic resonance (MR) images. Overview of Literature: Over 50% of middle-aged adults show evidence of spinal degeneration. However, the relationship between degenerative changes in the cervical and lumbar spine has yet to be elucidated. Methods: A retrospective review of positional MR images of 152 patients with symptoms related to cervical and lumbar spondylosis with or without a neurogenic component was conducted. The degree of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) was assessed on a grade of 1–5 for each segment of the cervical and lumbar spine using MR T2-weighted sagittal images. The grades across all segments were summed to produce the degenerative disc score (DDS) for the cervical and lumbar spine. The patients were divided into two groups based on the IDD grade for each lumbar segment: normal (grades 1 and 2) and degenerative (grades 3–5). Results: DDSs for the cervical and lumbar spine were positively correlated. Significant differences in cervical DDSs between the groups were observed in all lumbar segments. Although there were no significant differences in cervical DDSs among the degenerative lumbar segment, cervical DDSs at the L1–2 and L2–3 segments tended to be higher than those at the L3–4, L4–5, and L5–S degenerative segments. Conclusions: Our study shows that participants with degenerative changes in the upper lumbar segments are more likely to have a certain amount of cervical spondylosis. This information could be used to lower the incidence of a missed diagnosis of cervical spine disorders in patients presenting with lumbar spine symptomology.

          • KCI등재

            Trends and Costs of External Electrical Bone Stimulators and Grafting Materials in Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

            Anthony D’Oro,Zorica Buser,Darrel Scott Brodke,박종범,Sangwook Tim Yoon,Jim Aimen Youssef,Hans-Joerg Meisel,Kristen Emmanuel Radcliff,Patrick Hsieh,Jeffrey Chun Wang 대한척추외과학회 2018 Asian Spine Journal Vol.12 No.6

            Study Design: Retrospective review. Purpose: To identify the trends in stimulator use, pair those trends with various grafting materials, and determine the influence of stimulators on the risk of revision surgery. Overview of Literature: A large number of studies has reported beneficial effects of electromagnetic energy in healing long bone fractures. However, there are few clinical studies regarding the use of electrical stimulators in spinal fusion. Methods: We used insurance billing codes to identify patients with lumbar disc degeneration who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). Comparisons between patients who did and did not receive electrical stimulators following surgery were performed using logistic regression analysis, chi-square test, and odds ratio (OR) analysis. Results: Approximately 19% of the patients (495/2,613) received external stimulators following ALIF surgery. There was a slight increase in stimulator use from 2008 to 2014 (multi-level R 2=0.08, single-level R 2=0.05). Patients who underwent multi-level procedures were more likely to receive stimulators than patients who underwent single-level procedures (p <0.05; OR, 3.72; 95% confidence interval, 3.02–4.57). Grafting options associated with most frequent stimulator use were bone marrow aspirates (BMA) plus autograft or allograft for single-level and allograft alone for multi-level procedures. In both cohorts, patients treated with bone morphogenetic proteins were least likely to receive electrical stimulators (p <0.05). Patients who received stimulation generally had higher reimbursements. Concurrent posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) (ALIF+PLF) increased the likelihood of receiving stimulators (p <0.05). Patients who received electrical stimulators had similar revision rates as those who did not receive stimulation (p >0.05), except those in the multilevel ALIF+PLF cohort, wherein the patients who underwent stimulation had higher rates of revision surgery. Conclusions: Concurrent PLF or multi-level procedures increased patients’ likelihood of receiving stimulators, however, the presence of comorbidities did not. Patients who received BMA plus autograft or allograft were more likely to receive stimulation. Patients with and without bone stimulators had similar rates of revision surgery.

          • KCI등재

            Are Lumbar Fusion Guidelines Followed? A Survey of North American Spine Surgeons

            Thiago S. Montenegro,Christopher Elia,Kevin Hines,Zorica Buser,Jefferson Wilson,Zoher Ghogawala,Shekar N. Kurpad,Daniel M. Sciubba,James S. Harrop 대한척추신경외과학회 2021 대한척추신경외과학회지 Vol.18 No.2

            Objective: To evaluate the use of guidelines for lumbar spine fusions among spine surgeons in North America. Methods: An anonymous survey was electronically sent to all AO Spine North America members. Survey respondents were asked to indicate their opinion surrounding the suitability of instrumented fusion in a variety of clinical scenarios. Fusion indications in accordance with North America Spine Society (NASS) guidelines for lumbar fusion were considered NASS-concordant answers. Respondents were considered to have a NASS-concordant approach if ≥70% (13 of 18) of their answers were NASS-concordant answers. Comparisons were performed using bivariable statistics. Results: A total of 105 responses were entered with complete data available on 70. Sixty percent of the respondents (n=42) were considered compliant with NASS guidelines. NASS-discordant responses did not differ between surgeons who stated that they include the NASS guidelines in their decision-making algorithm (5.10±1.96) and those that did not (4.68± 2.09) (p=0.395). The greatest number of NASS-discordant answers in the United States. was in the South (5.75±2.09), with the lowest number in the Northeast (3.84±1.70) (p< 0.01). For 5 survey items, rates of NASS-discordant answers were ≥40%, with the greatest number of NASS-discordant responses observed in relation to indications for fusion in spinal deformity (80%). Spine surgeons utilizing a NASS-concordant approach had a significant lower number of NASS-discordant answers for synovial cysts (p=0.03), axial low back pain (p<0.01), adjacent level disease (p<0.01), recurrent stenosis (p<0.01), recurrent disc herniation (p=0.01), and foraminal stenosis (p<0.01). Conclusion: This study serves an important role in clarifying the rates of uptake of clinical practice guidelines in spine surgery as well as to identify barriers to their implementation.

          • KCI등재

            Cervical Disc Replacement: Trends, Costs, and Complications

            Jain Nickul Saral,Nguyen Ailene,Formanek Blake,Alluri Ram,Buser Zorica,Hah Ray,Wang Jeffrey Chun 대한척추외과학회 2020 Asian Spine Journal Vol.14 No.5

            Study Design: Retrospective review of insurance database.Purpose: To investigate national trends, complications, and costs after cervical disc replacement (CDR) using an administrative insurance database representative of the United States population.Overview of Literature: As CDR continues to be used to treat patients with cervical stenosis, it is important to gain a better understanding of its use on a national level, potential complications, and cost. This information will allow for optimal patient counseling, risk stratification, and healthcare cost assessments. Several prior studies have investigated complications associated with CDR, but they have been limited by small sample size, single institution experiences, limited follow-up, and potential conflicts of interest.Methods: Patients who underwent single or multilevel CDR between 2007 and 2015 were identified using an insurance database. We collected data on annual trends, reimbursement costs, patient demographic information, hospital information, and information on complications from the time of operation to 1 year postoperative.Results: Total of 293 patients underwent either single or multilevel CDR. The number of procedures increased nonlinearly over time at an average of 17% per year, with a greater increase seen in the outpatient setting. Less than 3.7% of patients had new onset pain within 1 year after CDR. Within 1 year, 12.3% of patients reported a mechanical and/or bone-related complication. There were no patients who indicated a new nerve injury within 6 months of follow-up. Less than 3.7% of patients presented with dysphagia or dysphonia within 6 months, infection within 3 months, or a revision or reoperation within 1 year. Average reimbursement for single-level inpatient versus outpatient CDR was $33,696.28 and $34,675.12, respectively (p =0.29).Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the use of CDR continued to increase. The most common complication was mechanical and/or bone-related, and cost analysis demonstrated no significant difference between inpatient and outpatient CDR.

          • KCI등재

            The Clinical Correlations between Diabetes, Cigarette Smoking and Obesity on Intervertebral Degenerative Disc Disease of the Lumbar Spine

            Ande M. Jakoi,Gurpal Pannu,Anthony D’Oro,Zorica Buser,Martin H. Pham,Neil N. Patel,Patrick C. Hsieh,John C. Liu,Frank L. Acosta,Raymond Hah,Jeffrey C. Wang 대한척추외과학회 2017 Asian Spine Journal Vol.11 No.3

            Study Design: Retrospective analysis of a nationwide private insurance database. Chi-square analysis and linear regression models were utilized for outcome measures. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship between lumbar degenerative disc disease, diabetes, obesity and smoking tobacco. Overview of Literature: Diabetes, obesity, and smoking tobacco are comorbid conditions known to individually have effect on degenerative disc disease. Most studies have only been on a small populous scale. No study has yet to investigate the combination of these conditions within a large patient cohort nor have they reviewed the combination of these conditions on degenerative disc disease. Methods: A retrospective analysis of insurance billing codes within the nationwide Humana insurance database was performed, using PearlDiver software (PearlDiver, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN, USA), to identify trends among patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease with and without the associated comorbidities of obesity, diabetes, and/or smoking tobacco. Patients billed for a comorbidity diagnosis on the same patient record as the lumbar disc degenerative disease diagnosis were compared over time to patients billed for lumbar disc degenerative disease without a comorbidity. There were no sources of funding for this manuscript and no conflicts of interest. Results: The total number and prevalence of patients (per 10,000) within the database diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease increased by 241.4% and 130.3%, respectively. The subsets of patients within this population who were concurrently diagnosed with either obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, or a combination thereof, was significantly higher than patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease alone (p <0.05 for all). The number of patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease and smoking rose significantly more than patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease and either diabetes or obesity (p <0.05). The number of patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease, smoking and obesity rose significantly more than the number of patients diagnosed with lumbar disc degenerative disease and any other comorbidity alone or combination of comorbidities (p <0.05). Conclusions: Diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking each are significantly associated with an increased diagnosis of lumbar degenerative disc disease. The combination of smoking and obesity had a synergistic effect on increased rates of lumbar degenerative disc disease. Patient education and preventative care is a vital goal in prevention of degenerative disc disease within the general population.

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