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      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        A NOVEL FUNCTIONAL MATERIAL OF Ag-S$i_3N_4$ NANOSTRUCTURED COMPOSITE

        Zhu,,Zhu,,Yi-Hun,Zhu,,Zhu,,Hong-Jie,Han,,Han,,Jin-Yi,Hu,,Li-Ming 한국재료학회 1995 Fabrication and Characterization of Advanced Mater Vol.1 No.1

        $Ag-Si_3N_4$ nanostrutured composite has been investigated. The results show that it exhibits some novel properties such as strong piezpelectricity and high dielectricity. It can be constituted a battery using graphite and aluminum as the positive and the negative electrodes, respectively. The origins of these properties have been discussed.

      • KCI등재후보

        Interpretation of 'Necessity Test' under GATT Article XX and Regulation Autonomy after Brazil‐Tyres Case

        Zhu,,Zhu;Lee,,Eun,Sup 법무부 2010 通商法律 Vol.- No.96

        WTO Members are entitled to enjoy regulatory autonomy to pursue specific and innovative solutions to their domestic problems, while their regulatory autonomy is required to be regulated properly in the context of the international legal and multilateral trading system. Thus, in terms of 'necessity test' , in disputed cases, panels should carefully examine the establishment of the facts that closely related to policy aims, the level of protection, characteristics of the measure at issue and reasonably available alternatives, and actively weight of the persuasiveness of the quality and quantity of evidence, rather than drawing conclusions in lights of theories. Positive conclusions towards 'necessity test' might be welcomed, particularly, by the environmental groups within the WTO. However, careless assessment attempted by WTO adjudicating bodies in juridical examination process could undermine the basis of the WTO system, as well as the legal stability and predictability of its judicial determinations. Besides, being easy to pass the 'necessity test' does not necessarily imply that the WTO adjudicating body provides Members with more regulatory autonomy because restrict requirements has been transferred to scrutiny conducted under the chapeau of Article XX, which has been evidenced in the disputes including Brazil‐Tyres case. WTO 체제하에서 회원국들에게 그들의 국내 환경 또는 건강문제를 해결할 수 있도록 자치권을 부여해야 하겠지만 WTO의 사법적 시스템의 측면에서 보면 다자적 통제없이, 회원국들에게 이런 자치권을 자유방임적으로 보장하면 WTO 통상체제의 유지가 불가능해질 것이다. 통상분쟁의 절차과정에서, '필요성 테스트' 를 함에 있어서, WTO패널은 제소된 회원국의 조치와 조치의 목표, 희망하는 보호수준, 문제된 조치의 특성, 그리고 대체 가능한 다른 조치와 관련한 사실 또는 분쟁당사국들이 제출한 증거에 대한 합리적이고 객관적인 검토를 하여야 한다. Brazil-Tyres사건에서와 같이, 구체적인 증거에 대한 검토 없이, 이론적인 가능성에 근거하여 '필요성 테스트' 를 하게 되면 WTO분쟁해결기구의 판결에 대한 신뢰와 예측 가능성을 훼손할 수 있다. '필요성 테스트' 에 관한 긍정적인 판결은 일견 환경론자들의 요구에 어느 정도 부응할 수 있는 긍정적인 면도 있다. 그러나 '필요성 테스트' 와 관련한 WTO분쟁해결기구의 신중하지 아니한 검토는 종국적으로는 WTO시스템의 기반을 약화시킬 수 있다. 더욱이 '필요성 테스트' 의 느슨한 검토절차는Brazil-Tyres 사건에서 보는바와 같이, 더 엄격한 심사기준을 GATT 20조 chapeau에 의한 심사로 이전시킬 수 있기 때문에 '필요성 테스트' 를 쉽게 통과시킨다고 하더라도 WTO분쟁해결기구가 WTO회원국에게 더 많은 규제 자치권을 부여하는 것을 의미하지는 않는다.

      • KCI등재후보

        Interpretation of “Necessity Test” under GATT Article XX and Regulation Autonomy after Brazil-Tyres Case

        Zhu Zhu(주주), Lee Eun-Sup(이은섭) 법무부 국제법무과 2010 通商法律 Vol.- No.96

        WTO 체제하에서 회원국들에게 그들의 국내 환경 또는 건강문제를 해결할 수 있도록 자치권을 부여해야 하겠지만 WTO의 사법적 시스템의 측면에서 보면 다자적 통제 없이, 회원국들에게 이런 자치권을 자유방임적으로 보장하면 WTO 통상체제의 유지가 불가능해질 것이다. 통상분쟁의 절차과정에서, “필요성 테스트”를 함에 있어서, WTO패널은 제소된 회원국의 조치와 조치의 목표, 희망하는 보호수준, 문제된 조치의 특성, 그리고 대체 가능한 다른 조치와 관련한 사실 또는 분쟁당사국들이 제출한 증거에 대한 합리적이고 객관적인 검토를 하여야 한다. Brazil-Tyres사건에서와 같이, 구체적인 증거에 대한 검토 없이, 이론적인 가능성에 근거하여 “필요성 테스트”를 하게 되면 WTO분쟁해결기구의 판결에 대한 신뢰와 예측 가능성을 훼손할 수 있다. “필요성 테스트”에 관한 긍정적인 판결은 일견 환경론자들의 요구에 어느 정도 부응할 수 있는 긍정적인 면도 있다. 그러나 “필요성 테스트”와 관련한 WTO분쟁해결기구의 신중하지 아니한 검토는 종국적으로는 WTO시스템의 기반을 약화시킬 수 있다. 더욱이 “필요성 테스트”의 느슨한 검토절차는Brazil-Tyres 사건에서 보는바와 같이, 더 엄격한 심사기준을 GATT 20조 chapeau에 의한 심사로 이전시킬 수 있기 때문에 “필요성 테스트”를 쉽게 통과시킨다고 하더라도 WTO분쟁해결기구가 WTO회원국에게 더 많은 규제 자치권을 부여하는 것을 의미하지는 않는다. WTO Members are entitled to enjoy regulatory autonomy to pursue specific and innovative solutions to their domestic problems, while their regulatory autonomy is required to be regulated properly in the context of the international legal and multilateral trading system. Thus, in terms of “necessity test”, in disputed cases, panels should carefully examine the establishment of the facts that closely related to policy aims, the level of protection, characteristics of the measure at issue and reasonably available alternatives, and actively weight of the persuasiveness of the quality and quantity of evidence, rather than drawing conclusions in lights of theories. Positive conclusions towards “necessity test” might be welcomed, particularly, by the environmental groups within the WTO. However, careless assessment attempted by WTO adjudicating bodies in juridical examination process could undermine the basis of the WTO system, as well as the legal stability and predictability of its judicial determinations. Besides, being easy to pass the “necessity test” does not necessarily imply that the WTO adjudicating body provides Members with more regulatory autonomy because restrict requirements has been transferred to scrutiny conducted under the chapeau of Article XX, which has been evidenced in the disputes including Brazil-Tyres case.

      • Involvement of Arabidopsis HOS15 in histone deacetylation and cold tolerance.

        Zhu,,Jianhua,Jeong,,Jae,Cheol,Zhu,,Yanmei,Sokolchik,,Irina,Miyazaki,,Saori,Zhu,,Jian-Kang,Hasegawa,,Paul,M,Bohnert,,Hans,J,Shi,,Huazhong,Yun,,Dae-Jin,Bressan,,Ray,A National Academy of Sciences 2008 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF Vol.105 No.12

        <P>Histone modification in chromatin is one of the key control points in gene regulation in eukaryotic cells. Protein complexes composed of histone acetyltransferase or deacetylase, WD40 repeat protein, and many other components have been implicated in this process. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of HOS15, a WD40-repeat protein crucial for repression of genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance through histone deacetylation in Arabidopsis. HOS15 shares high sequence similarity with human transducin-beta like protein (TBL), a component of a repressor protein complex involved in histone deacetylation. Mutation of the HOS15 gene renders mutant plants hypersensitive to freezing temperatures. HOS15 is localized in the nucleus and specifically interacts with histone H4. The level of acetylated histone H4 is higher in the hos15 mutant than in WT plants. Moreover, the stress inducible RD29A promoter is hyperinduced and associated with a substantially higher level of acetylated histone H4 in the hos15 mutant under cold stress conditions. Our results suggest a critical role for gene activation/repression by histone acetylation/deacetylation in plant acclimation and tolerance to cold stress.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        An Enhancer Mutant of Arabidopsis salt overly sensitive 3 Mediates both Ion Homeostasis and the Oxidative Stress Response

        Zhu,,Jianhua,Fu,,Xinmiao,Koo,,Yoon,Duck,Zhu,,Jian-Kang,Jenney,Jr.,,Francis,E.,Adams,,Michael,W.,W.,Zhu,,Yanmei,Shi,,Huazhong,Yun,,Dae-Jin,Hasegawa,,Paul,M.,Bressan,,Ray,A. American Society for Microbiology 2007 Molecular and cellular biology Vol.27 No.14

        <B>ABSTRACT</B><P>The myristoylated calcium sensor SOS3 and its interacting protein kinase, SOS2, play critical regulatory roles in salt tolerance. Mutations in either of these proteins render <I>Arabidopsis thaliana</I> plants hypersensitive to salt stress. We report here the isolation and characterization of a mutant called <I>enh1-1</I> that enhances the salt sensitivity of <I>sos3-1</I> and also causes increased salt sensitivity by itself. <I>ENH1</I> encodes a chloroplast-localized protein with a PDZ domain at the N-terminal region and a rubredoxin domain in the C-terminal part. Rubredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of superoxide in some anaerobic bacteria. The <I>enh1-1</I> mutation causes enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly under salt stress. ROS also accumulate to higher levels in <I>sos2-1</I> but not in <I>sos3-1</I> mutants. The <I>enh1-1</I> mutation does not enhance <I>sos2-1</I> phenotypes. Also, <I>enh1-1</I> and <I>sos2-1</I> mutants, but not <I>sos3-1</I> mutants, show increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results indicate that ENH1 functions in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species resulting from salt stress by participating in a new salt tolerance pathway that may involve SOS2 but not SOS3.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        Interpretation and Application of Sunset Reviews under the WTO

        Lee,,Eun,Sup;Zhu,,Zhu 법무부 2009 通商法律 Vol.- No.86

        There have been growing debates surrounding the application of incomplete sunset review provisions since they were introduced into the WTO mechanism in 1995, under which implementation of sunset reviews could be counted on a dispute settlement body to be clearly interpreted and applied constantly with the drafting intentions of the provisions. Considering the fact that the insufficient and ambiguous provisions of the sunset reviews have historically been applied by the WTO member countries, this paper reviews the dispute settlement body's interpretation and application of sunset review provisions to make assessment of current WTO sunset review mechanism and to look for better and more reasonable interpretations sticking to the sprit and purpose of sunset reviews. In relation with the judicial interpretation and application of sunset review provisions, the decisions of the Appellate Body have primarily been based on the analysis of procedural aspects to arrive at its conclusion, and have not been faithful to the analysis of the substantive aspects under discussion, which are incomplete to establish the definite principles regarding the interpretation and application of the sunset reviews. Moreover, unduly making much of the distinctiveness of sunset reviews, and, therefore, granting too much deference to authorities, the dispute settlement body has accordingly distracted its attention away from the legislating purpose of sunset reviews to weaken the significance of sunset review provisions, and to make it lose the main tools to improve the sunset reviews. For the sunset reviews to be conducted effectively and promote justifiable utilization of antidumping measures, the dispute settlement body is required to establish a set of expressly unified standards as far as possible to regulate the application of sunset review provisions so that the final determination in sunset reviews could be objectively deduced from the proper investigation based on factual evidence. WTO 체제하에 일몰조항이 도입된 이래, 일몰조항의 적용과 관련한 논쟁이 계속해서 야기되고 있다. 본 논문의 목적은 WTO 회원국들이 지금까지 모호하고 불충분한 일몰재심 조항을 적용해왔다는 점을 고려하여, 일몰재심 조항에 관한 WTO 분쟁해결기구의 적용과 해석을 분석해봄으로써WTO의 일몰재심제도를 평가하고 일몰재심제도의 입법 목적을 구현한 일몰재심에 관한 합리적인 해석방안을 모색하는데 있다. 일몰재심 조항을 해석하고 적용하는데 있어 항소기구는 패널이 해석·적용한 절차적인 이슈만을 분석하여 판결한 결과 일몰재심 규정의 실체적인 이슈에 관해서는 명확한 해석기준을 제시하지 못하였다. 또한 일몰재심의 특수성을 지나치게 강조함으로써 회원국의 관련 당국에 대하여 과도한 재량권을 부여하게 되고 일몰재심조항의 입법목적을 경시하는 결과를 초래하였다. WTO 분쟁해결기구는 회원국들이 일몰재심 판정을 하는데 있어 사실적 증거와 객관적인 조사를 근거로 하도록 판례법을 확립하여야 할 것이고, WTO의 회원국들은 일몰재심을 효과적으로 이행하고 합법적인 반덤핑 조치를 장려하기 위한 더욱 명확한 통일화된 규칙을 수립하는데 보다 적극적이어야 할 것이다.

      • KCI등재후보

        Scientific Evidence Rule under the SPS Agreement

        Lee,,Eun,Sup;Zhu,,Zhu 법무부 2010 通商法律 Vol.- No.92

        In determining legitimacy of Members' domestic SPS measures, particularly, in cases where the protection levels chosen by Members are higher than that of international standards, scientific evidence has been employed as an essential yardstick by the dispute settlement body. Generally, sufficient scientific evidences should include conducting of proper risk assessments that evaluate the degree of risks related to SPS measures and the rational or objective relationship between the risk assessment and the measure at issue. The judicial interpretation of the term of "scientific evidence" under the SPS Agreement has generally been attempted to be made liberally. The Appellate Body reviewed that "sufficient scientific evidence" is not a static or determined set of knowledge, but rather an integrated consideration of proportionality between Members' SPS measures and the level of protection they prefer to adopt, as well as those non-scientific factors including economic situations and social values. However, those attempts of the Appellate Body directing to a liberal interpretation ended up with a fairly narrow and strict application in real disputes by adding other stringent requirements that is barely easy to meet. The current interpretation and application of the term "sufficient scientific evidence" has arguably been criticized to be too severe by the free-trade supporters, and at the same time, too obscure by the health-related environmental protectionisms. To make interpretation of the term "sufficient scientific evidence" truly liberal, providing Members with more deference on adopting their SPS measures, the Appellate Body shall clarify a point of equilibrium where it can properly realize the dual objectives of promotion of liberalized trade and the improvement of the public health of its Members at the same time, and then, to establish a set of detailed standards that would be helpful to achieve such objectives. WTO 회원국의 국내 SPS조치의 합법성을 판결함에 있어, 특히, 회원국이 채택한 보호 수준이 국제표준에서 규정하고 있는 수준보다 높은 경우, 과학적 증거는 WTO 분쟁해결기구에 있어 하나의 중요한 판단 기준이 된다. 일반적으로, 충분한 과학적 증거는 SPS조치와 관련된 위험의 정도를 평가하고 위험평가와 당해 조치 사이의 합리적이거나 객관적인 관계를 평가하는 적절한 위험평가를 포함해야 한다. SPS 협정하에서 "과학적 증거" 라는 용어의 사법적 해석은 일반적으로 유연성 있게 해석되어져왔다. 항소기구는 "충분한 과학적 증거"는 고정된 지식이라기 보다, 회원국들의 SPS조치와 회원국들이 원하는 보호수준 그리고 경제적 상황과 사회적 가치를 포함하는 비-과학적 요소들간의 균형을 총체적으로 고려하는 것이라고 주장을 하였다. 그러나 항소기구의 유연한 해석으로의 시도는 분쟁에서 쉽게 충족시킬 수 없는 다른 엄격한 요건을 더함으로써 상당히 좁고 엄격한 적용을 가져왔다. "충분한 과학증거"에 대한 현재의 해석과 적용은 자유무역 지지자들에게는 너무 엄격하다는 비판을, 동시에 건강과 관련된 환경보호주의자에게는 아주 모호하다는 비판을 받고 있다. "충분한 과학적 증거"를 진정한 유연성으로 해석하기 위해, 그리고 SPS 조치를 채택함에 있어 회원국을 더욱 존중하기 위해, 항소기구는 자유무역의 촉진과 회원국이 공중 건강의 개선이라는 두 가지 목적을 적절히 실현하여야 하는 균형점을 명확히 하여야 하고, 그렇게 한 후에 항소기구는 필요한 자세한 표준을 제정하여야 한다.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Filter Parameters on a Supercontinuum-Based All-Optical Tunable Thresholder

        Zhu,,Huatao,Wang,,Rong,Pu,,Tao,Fang,,Tao,Xiang,,Peng,Zhu,,Huihui Optical Society of Korea 2016 Journal of the optical society of Korea Vol.20 No.4

        In this paper, the effects of filter parameters on a supercontinuum-based all-optical thresholder are experimentally investigated. By tuning the filter parameters, the power transfer function and power transmission function are tailored. The experimental results show that a thresholder with short center wavelength has a better power function, and the slope in the middle level of the thresholder increases with increasing bandwidth. Through tuning the filter parameters, the thresholder can achieve a steplike power transfer function for optical thresholding, and a steplike power transmission function for optical self-switching. This makes the supercontinuum-based thresholder more flexible, and allows customization of performance to meet different demands in various applications.

      • KCI등재
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