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윤동주와 그의 시세계를 재구성하는 과정에서 주목되는 것은 그에게 영향을 준 외부적 요인을 살피는 작업이다. 이 작업은 윤동주 작품의 창작 시점과 발표 시점이 시차를 갖기 때문에 당대의 맥락을 필수적으로 살펴야 한다는 점, 과작을 했던 만큼 시인의 시세계 전반을 구성하기 위해서 영향관계에 있던 요인을 빠짐없이 조망할 필요가 있다는 점 등에서 중요하다. 이러한 문제의식에서 출발하여, 본고는 윤동주의 애송가 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉를 새롭게 소개함으로써 시인의 이력을 세밀하게 조직해보고자 했다. 번안곡인 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉는 미 대륙에 끌려온 아프리카 흑인노예가 그의 고통을 위로받을 공간인 유토피아적 고향을 불러내는 노래다. 나아가 노래와 시의 관련성을 토대로 윤동주 시에 나타난 ‘고향’의 의미를 해명하였다. 윤동주 시에서 고향은 부조리한 현실을 뛰어넘어 진정한 자유를 성취할 수 있는 미래에 대한 욕망을 포함한 공간이다. 이 공간은 ‘진정한 고향’ 혹은 ‘본향’으로 구체화된다. 제국 일본과 식민지 조선, 그리고 간도라는 중층의 경계를 의식했던 윤동주에게 ‘진정한 고향’을 형상화하는 것은 현실에 저항하고 시대를 전복하려는 혁명적인 시도였다. The external factors that affected Yun Dong-ju’s poetry and poetics attract much attention when we study his poetry. The most important of such external factors is the contemporary context of Yun’s writing. This is because the time when he composed poetry was different from the time when he published it. Furthermore, the poet’s works are few, thus the external factors must be carefully examined iso that we can construct Yun’s whole poetry. Taking this issue of order of composition as its starting point, this paper discovered Yun’s favorite song 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉, and organized his career in detail. 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉 was a song based on African-American Spiritual 〈Carry me back to old Virginny〉. This song is about black slaves in America wishing to return to their homeland. Based on the relationship between 〈黑人의 望鄕歌〉 and Yun’s poetry, this paper explains the meaning of ‘home’ in Yun Dong-ju‘s poetry. In Yun’s poetry, home is a place that embeds the desire for the future that can achieve true freedom beyond the absurd reality. Yun Dong-ju defines this space as the ‘true home’ or ‘homeland’. It was a revolutionary attempt to overthrow the era’s oppressors and resist their reality, who was conscious of the boundary between the imperial Japan, the colonial Joseon, and Gando.
Isang Yun is one of the great artists from 20th century who combined East Asian art and philosophy to Western music, and produced a music that is performed by Western instruments. In Germany, he got the title of `The Most Important 56 composers in 20th century`, `Living 5th Composer in Europe`, and `The Most Important Composer in 20th century`. Isang Yun`s musics are considerable to European artists. His musics contain unique characteristics in which artists from Europe can not modify. Isang Yun who recognized Western and Eastern culture in a principle of music got spotlight from European musicians. Ideas Isang Yun focused on are Taoism, Buddhism, and `tone` concept from East Asia. He concentrated especially on Taoism. Idea of `Hauptton` which is basis of Isang Yun`s music originated from Eastern sound concept. Therefore, this thesis will be discussed on musical presentation and Taoism that are indulged in Isang Yun`s music through "Interludium A". This piece was created with creativity and unique characteristics of Isang Yun. His life in Korea and Europe, style of music during his life time, what is Taoism and balance of yin and yang, and analysis of hauptton in each parts will be discussed to prove the understanding and hidden meaning of "Interludium A".
최근 원자력 발전소의 안전성을 획기적으로 향상시키기 위한 연구가 활발하게 진행되고 있으며 특히 피동냉각계통의 연구개발이 아주 중요하게 부각되고 있다. 피동냉각계통의 열전달 방식으로는 응축열전달 양식이 주로 채택되고 있다. 이와 같은 맥락에서 부산대학교 Ahn & Yun (Ahn 등, 2014)은 새로운 수평관내부 응축 모델을 제시한바 있다. 본 연구에서는 먼저 Ahn & Yun 이 제시한 수평관 응축 모델을 MARS 코드에 삽입하고 PASCAL 실험데이터를 이용하여 평가하였다. 이 평가결과를 통해 Ahn & Yun 모델의 코드적용에 있어 문제점을 규명하고 새로운 적용방법론을 적용하여 다양한 실험데이터로 다시 평가함으로써 MARS 코드의 향상된 응축 열전달 해석능력을 확인하였다. Extensive researches have been carried out for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants and, especially, the development of passive cooling systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and passive residual heat removal system, is increasingly important, where condensation is a crucial heat transfer mechanism. Recently, Ahn & Yun et al. developed a horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer model as one of the activities for the PCCS development. In this work, we implemented the Ahn & Yun ’s condensation heat transfer model into the MARS code and assessed it using the PASCAL experimental data. Based on the results of the assessment, we identified the limitations of the Ahn & Yun’s model and suggested a modified Ahn & Yun ’s model, and assessed the model using various experimental data.
This study tries to investigate the relation between maintone(sound)-composition of Isang Yun and formative arts. The first two chapter summerize the music historical primise for the integrative-artistic aesthetic and the process of establishment of Isang Yuns identity as a composer in europe. Therby it is characteristic, that Yun is interested in the relation between music and pictures, while the western composers in the 1950s deal with graphical music and accidental music: the compositional situation tends to weaken the traditional note system, to expand the traditional instrumental medium, and to dismantle the traditional genre. The third chapter describes the relation between the formative image of west side in the acient tomb mural 'Sasindo', which is an about 1500 years old Korean traditional heritage. The line image of this mural is similar with the line image, which Yun draws in the dialog with the japanese composer Nishimura Akira about his maintone(sound)-model. An archetype of this line image is implemented in the beginning of the piece <flute-etu¨de>(1974) in the first section, and it is transformed in the beginning of the fifth section of the same work. Specially amorphous form ending of the maintone(sound)-model displays in this part an expanded form. The expansion of the amorphous form at the end of the maintone-model occurs also three times in <Re´ak>(1966). It is deduced, that this amorphous part form shaws alike in <Images> as a connecting part of the sound-surface. The last two chapter deal with the means of change the Korean traditional format image to modern sound. Yun saw always the picture of the mural in his living room and emphasized the line image of this picture in the explanations of his work, and draw this form in the air in the introduction of play. This phenomen is interpreted under two aspects: at one hand side, the image depicts the taoistic thouhgt, which Yun himself wont to identify with his work. On the other hand side, the connection of Yun's music with a Korean traditional image shaws the fusion aspect of composer. The formative essence of maintone(sound) based on spatial form. The formative mean is created through tile fusion of the line and colorful images. This aura of an image is consistently and endless open. As a result, his maintone(sound) -composition can be interpret as a try to form of an Asian image in the real space 'modern'.
The authors have already shown that 6 year old red ginseng extract or its powder has remarkable anticarcinogenic effects. In this study, we further investigated whether fresh ginseng or white ginseng has similar anticarcinogenic effects and also if their anticarcinogenic effects are related to the types and ages of ginseng using Yun's anticarcinogenicity test (9 week medium term bioassay model). Dried fresh ginseng and red ginseng at 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years, and while ginseng at 3, 4, 5 and 6 years were used. The following results were obtained: 1) In the dried fresh ginseng treated groups, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by benzo(a)pyrene was 41.39) and its incidence was reduced to 31.2%, 30.0%, 31.3%, 30.7% and 27.8% after co-treatment with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, respectively. A significant effect was observed only in 6 Year-dried fresh ginseng. 2) In the white ginseng treated groups, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by benzo(a)pyrene was 45.0% and its incidence decreased to 41.3%, 38.0%, 31.6%, and 25.3% after co-treatment with 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-white ginseng, respectively. Five and 6 year-ginsengs showed significant inhibition of lung adenoma. 3) In the red ginseng treated groups, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by benzo(a) pyrene was 48.6% and its incidence diminished to 37.9%, 41.7%, 31.7%, 28.3% and 25.5% after co-treat-melt with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginseng, respectively. In 4, 5 and 6 year-ginsengs, the anticarcinogenic effect was prominent. From the above results, we concluded that a significant anticarcinogenic effect was observed in 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, 5 and 6 year-white ginsengs, and 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginsengs.
Strong compression effects in a stressed vowel due to the addition of syllables have been adopted as evidence for stress-timing. In relation to this, Yun (2002) investigated the compression effects of number of syllables on Korean vowel. The results generally revealed that Korean had neither significant nor consistent anticipatory or backwards compression effects, especially when it came to the sentence level. This led us to claim that Korean would not be a stress0timed language. But the language investiga5ted in the study was only Korean, and further cross-linguistic research was needed to confirm the claim. In this study, Yun's (2002) sentence level data are compared with Fowler's (1981) English data. The comparison reveals that Korean seems to be similar to English inthe backwards compression effect, whereas the two languages are markedly different in the anticipatory compression effect. Thus, if English is a stress-timed language and the strong anticipatory compression effect is evidenct in favour of stress-timing as is claimed, the present cross-linguistic study confirms Yun's (2002) suggestion - Korean is unlikely to be stress-timed. On the other hand, compression effcts are revisited: the differences in vowel compression between English and Korean arediscussed from the syntactic and phonological points of view.
In this study, we investigeated the anticarcinogenicity of various types and ages of ginseng extracts as an extended study using Yun's anticarcinogenicity test. Fresh ginseng at 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years was dried and powdered. And white ginseng was processed in the same way that of fresh ginseng after removal fo the ginseng cortex and fine root. For red ginsneg, fresh ginseng was steamed and dried. Each ginseng powder was extracted and extracts was freeze dried. Newborn N:GP(S) mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg of benzo(a)pyrene(BP). Various types and ages of ginseng extracts at 2.5mg/ml were orally administered. All the mice were sacrificed at the 9th week. The following results were obtained. In the dried fresh ginseng extract treated group, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by BP was 63.9% and its incidence was reduced to 48.3%, 52.5%, 51.8%, 47.5% and 44.1% after co-treatment with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, respectively. The incidence of lung adenoma induced by BP on the white ginseng extract treated group was 41.3% and decreased to 31.0%, 46.0%, 44.0% and 26.5% after co-treatment with 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-white ginseng, respectively. In the red ginseng extract treated group, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by BP was 47.5% and its incidence diminished to 40.7%, 35.0%, 30.1%, 30.0% and 26.3% after co-treatment with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginseng, respectively. From the above results, we concluded that a statistically significant anticarcinogenic effect was observed in extracts of 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, 6 year-white ginseng, and 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginseng and it is suggested that the anticarcinogenicity of ginseng varies according to the types and ages Key words Ginseng extract, types and ages. anticarcinogenic, newborn mice, lung tumor.
Yun`s early art song <Traditional Attire> successfully represents the rhythmic characteristics of Korean traditional music, which is the coexistence of duple and triple meter in musical time. However, it has never been studied in depth. Thus, this paper will discuss how Yun brought out the rhythmic characteristics of Korean traditional music, not depending on any particular changddan (rhythmic patterns of Korean traditional music), and rhythmic features of the Korean text within the musical texture. In the course of the study, "Si-Jo," one of the three genres of traditional Korean classical art song, will be mentioned, and Pyongsijo <Dong-chang-i> will be examined to provide background discussion.
극단값 지수의 추정량으로서 Falk(1994)가 제시한 추정량과 Yun(1997)이 제시한 추정량은 모두 Pickands 추정량의 저효율을 개선시키는 효과가 있다. 본 논문에서는 Falk의 추정량과 Yun이 제시한 추정량이 각기 최적의 방법으로 선택되었을 경우 점근적으로 동일한 효율을 가짐을 보인다. 또한, 유한표본의 경우 시뮬레이션을 통하여 Yun의 추정량이 Falk의 추정량보다 우수함을 보인다.
최제우가 ‘侍天主’의 ‘侍’자를 해설하며 남긴 ‘內有神靈’에서의 ‘心[마음중시]’적 人間觀과 ‘外有氣化’에서의 ‘生[생명존중]’적 自然觀 그리고 ‘各知不移’에서의 ‘侍[만물일체]’적 道德觀이 그가 가진 세계 인식적 특징이라고 보고 이를 토대로 예술성을 살펴보았다. 최제우가 天心이 곧 人心(天心卽人心)이라고 한 것은 인간과 우주는 분리해서 생각할 수 없으며 서로가 그 자체로 상대를 가리키기 때문에 자연과 인간 사이를 서로 우위를 따질 수 없는 동등한 관계로 본 것이다. 이와 같은 원리를 품고 있는 ‘內有神靈’의 인간관을 토대로 박생광은 〈무당12〉에서 하늘과 인간을 연결하는 매개자의 巫적 가치를 인정했고 오윤은 〈낮도깨비〉에서 도깨비를 통해 ‘醜의 미학’을 실현했다. 그리고 같은 맥락의 ‘怪의 미학’을 완성한 작품이 추사의 〈板殿〉이며 최제우 또한 筆法을 이루는 이치가 一心에 있음을 밝혔다. 또한 최제우가 天을 외면화한 ‘外有氣化’의 자연관을 바탕으로 생명의 ‘氣’를 미적 가치로 여기고 존중한 것이 신학철의 〈모내기〉에서 우리를 직접 이룬 밑바탕이 된 땅을 존중하고 이를 형상화하는 것을 통해 드러나고 있다. 또한 강요배는 〈맥잡기〉에서 天地否卦를 통해 농민으로 상징되는 자연(인간)과 물질문명의 괴리로 인한 음과 양의 생명의 원리가 무너진 상황에서 인간이 생명의 脈을 부여잡고 있는 것을 형상화했다. 그리고 오윤은 〈북춤〉에서 칼을 사용한 형상의 단순화를 통한 생동감을 드러냈고 박생광은 〈토함산 해돋이〉에서 우리 고유의 色感적 대비를 통해 생명력을 나타냈다. 마지막으로 인간이 바로 천이라는 것을 모두 알고 이를 실천하는 태도를 가져야 한다고 본 최제우의 ‘各知不移’의 도덕관을 통해 그가 연대를 통한 평화의 추구를 미적가치로 여긴 것을 알 수 있다. 홍성담은 〈대동사상〉과 〈횃불행진〉에서 연대를 통해 모든 종류의 차별과 폭력을 넘어서 하나가 되는 평화의 세계를 향한 꿈을 담았다. 그리고 민주와 인권을 위한 투쟁의 사상적 배경을 담은 것이 오윤의 〈칼노래〉와 박생광의 〈전봉준〉이다. 이들은 최제우가 말한 만물의 존엄성을 인식하고 이를 존중하고자 한 사상을 바탕으로 자신의 정성을 다한 작품을 통해 大同의 메시지를 전하고 민중을 선도하는 역할을 하고자 했다. Choi Je-u presented a few perspectives while explaining the meaning of the character ‘Si(侍)’ of ‘Sicheonju(侍天主, serving the heavenly God)’. The first is a perspective on human beings of mind[心, emphasizing mind] through ‘Naeyusillyeong(內有神靈, having the divine spirit inside)’. The second is a perspective on nature of life[生, respecting for life] through ‘Oeyugihwa(外有氣化, harmonizing with the energy of heaven outside)’. The third is a perspective on morality of service[侍, unifying all things]’ through ‘Gakjiburi(各知不移, recognizing that human is heaven and having an attitude to put it into practice). In this paper, considering these three perspectives as the characteristics of his world perception, I examined artistry based on them. Choi Je-U considered that nature and human as an equal relationship that cannot be superior to each other saying that the Heaven mind is the very Human mind[天心卽人心]. It is because he thought that human and the universe cannot be thought of separately and each other itself refers to the other. Based on the perspective on human being of Naeyusillyeong(內有神靈), Park Saeng-gwang acknowledged the shamanic value of the mediator who connects the heaven and humans in < Mudang 12(Shaman 12) >, and O Yun realized the aesthetics of ugliness(醜) through the dokkaebi in < Natdokkaebi(Daytime Goblin) >. In the same context, in addition, Chusa Kim Jeong-hui’s < Panjeon(板殿) >is the art work that completed the aesthetics of abnormality(怪). Choi Je-U also argued that the principle of completing the law of calligraphy lies in one mind. In addition, Choi Je-u regarded the energy of life as an aesthetic value and respected for it based on the perspective on nature of ‘Oeyugihwa(外有氣化)’, and that was found through the representation of respecting for the earth that was foundation of human beings in Shin Hak-cheol's < Monaegi(Rice Transplantation) >. In addition, Kang Yo-bae, through the pi hexagram(天地否卦), embodied the fact that humans managed to cling on to life in a situation where the principle of life of yin and yang is collapsed due to the gap between the nature(human) symbolized as farmers and the material civilization. In addition, O Yun showed the feeling of movement through the simplification of the shape using a sword in < Bukchum(Drum Dance) >, and Park Saeng-gwang showed life force through the contrast of our original color sense in < Tohamsan Haedoji(Sunrise of Mt. Toham) >. Lastly, Choi Je-u had the perspective of morality of ‘Gakjiburi(各知不移)’ that everyone should recognize that human is heaven and have an attitude to put it into practice. Through his perspective of morality, we can see that he considered the pursuit of peace through solidarity as an aesthetic value. Hong Seong-dam contains a dream for a world of peace in which all people become one transcending all kinds of discrimination and violence through solidarity in < Daedongsasang(Thought of Great Unity > and < Hwaetbulhaengjin(Torch March) >. Moreover, O Yun’s < Kalnorae(Sword Song) > and Park Saeng-gwang’s < Jeon Bongjun > contains the ideological background of the struggle for democracy and human rights. They tried to deliver the message of Great Unity and lead the people into the right path through the works with their devotion based on Choi Je-u’s thought of arguing to recognize the dignity of all things and to respect it.